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Vol. Inf.. 1962. 



JNE HUNDREi 
ILLINOIS VOLU^ 

WAR 
O C O C O 



THE HISTORY 

OF THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH REGIMENT OF 
ILLINOIS VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. 

WAR OF THE 

GREAT REBELLION 

1862-1865 

BY 

WILLIAM WIRT CALKINS 

FIRST LIEUTENANT OF COMPANY E, ONE HUNDRED AND 

FOURTH REGIMENT, AND AIDE DE CAMP STAFF 

OF GENERAL JOHN BEATTY. 



HISTORICAL COMMITTESv 



FRANK M. SAPP, JOHN H. WIDMER, 

MILTON B. BUSHNELL, WILLIAM W. CALKINS. 



(;hica(;o: 

DONOHUE & HENNEBERRY, 

Printers, Enuravkks and Binders, 

1895. 



.V'H 



PREFACE. 

Comrades: — 

Those of yon who have attended the annnal renuions 
<»t' the One llnudred and Fourth are familiar witli the 
measures taken to insure the writing- and i)ul)li(ation 
of the militai-y liistory of the Keoiment in the war of 
the Great Rebellion. Nearly thirty years had rolled 
away and nothino- in the matter accomplished, while 
all felt that the work had been ue.olected too long-. The 
ranks were o-rowin.^- thinner from year to year as one 
and another answered to the ^'roll call" above. The 
survivors had passed, or were passing into the sere and 
yellow leaf of autumn. There was a conviction— in 
which I earnestly shared, that the glorious record of 
the One Hundred and Fourth should be embodied in the 
permanent form of history, in order that it might be 
handed down to our children and those who will soon 
follow us on the stage of human action, to show them 
the sacrifices made, the sufferings and labors endured 
that the Union might be preserved and the blessino-?^ 
of liberty maintained and secured, for them and man- 
kind. At the annual reunion held in Streator, in Sep- 
tember, 1892, all the previous feeble attempts to initiate 
the movement for a history assumed definite shape 
m the "Resolutions" presented upon that occasion, 
ihese were heartily and unanimouslv adopted and 
more than one-half of the monev required for expenses 
subscribed then and there. By a process which seems 
like a fatality, the choice of an Historian to chronicle 
your achievements, fell upon the writer. 1 desire to 
say, that whatever the wisdom that led to this result 
1 did not evade a call that seemed like a dutv. ITnder 
such circumstances the task was undertaken and has 
been carried forward under difficulties and discourao-e- 
ments hard to appreciate, as well as at the sacrifice^'of 
personal interests. It is now completed, and in writino- 



••r 
nn<i 



till- HUf<>r\ my tiiiii Iiiik Imimi to kIiou rl«-:ii-|\ wliai ilic 
• •iii|ilii»li<'4l iiM a piiri of till* <iraiiil Annies 
li,\ ilctailiii;: iiiiinilfly your iiiovt'iiu'iits, 
.>! lialllfN; (•• It'll ihr tniili :iit<l i he Tacts, 
III **riif willioiii iircjihiirc. \\ lirn- I li:nc 
«^. .1 ••■•iiiiuiih it is wiilioiii piMJiMlit I*. An 
iMfii inmlf to jjivi* i-n'tlit wln-ir ii is 
il will Im* mi-ii lliiil, uilli tlir iiu'aiis of iiif'ttr- 

III. iiaiiil, afh-r liiiriy years, il roiilil not always 

Im* <ioii**. My alleiii|>lK to icarli every sui'viviii;; sol- 
«ll«*r, ami to Irani alMUit those who are dead, entailed 
utHiii iiii> a vast aiiioiiiii of extra laltoi-, time and 
••\|wii«»«-, and e\en then were not always successful, 
tiiif oM I he wliide I was eiiconra;:ed Ity the «4i-eat miijor- 
ilic living; iiienihers. A nnmlH'r sent m<' valii- 
.lOK material, siicli as diaiics, iioirs of personal ex- 
|M'rii-iii i-». ei«-. Tln'se have heeii Utilized as far as 
|Mir»»iMi-. Tlif tlir«*e chaptcrK of Kt'iuinisceiices au<l 
Incidents wrilleii l>y nieiidters of iIk* Ke^imeni, will 
Im* f«iiiiid inl«*restiiij:. While I luive been encoura^ied 
l»y all, yet tin* followin;: couirades who hav«' aidt'd 
iiif deM'rve mention: Sherman Lehunl, <;e«»ri;«' .Marsh, 
Marshall |{a;:will, William II. Conard, ('a|ilaiii \\ . 
SiraMii. i'. i' t'onrtri;:ht. r. tl. IMiillijts, taptaiu \\ . 
l*r<N-tor. Major .1. II. \N idmer. Lieutenaui A. riescn, 
.1. t*. I»e«*j.'aii. II. \Ninleischci«lt, S. \\ . Ilniiicss. Lieu- 
leiiant I*. Talliot, Lieutenant S. \ . Ani<dd, .\. .Monilt. 
.Ii»fu'|»li Itiirkart. Captain F. M. Sa|»p. I desire also 
lo fXpri'S). my oldi;:alions t«» .Mrs. I>ou;:las llapeman, 
Mi-H. .la^. M l^'i;;hton and .Mrs. Sarah I*. < 'enter for 
iM-ceHs to valualde papcix; also to I >r. ( 'liarles .M. ( 'laiU, 
the arciiiiiplihhed histi»rian of the 'Phirtyninih Illinois 
liifaiilry, for kindly ad\ice and su;,';:«'stions. My 
lliiitiks for miin\ favors are also extended to Cidoiiel 
Pou^laM lla|N'man. It is due myself to say that 
hi addition to the ;:eneral wrilin;; of the History, 
nil the Hkeiih«>x of companies, e.xcept that of K. 
iiiid all the ldo;:nipliics hut twn or three. \\<rc 
' ^ file from iiiM-i'Kxity, and hcoiiise no one 
'I itr could «lo the wiuK. This lalioi- wis 



Very tedious and ivijiiiicd -real care and patience. 
The rosters after beiiio- written were siibniitted to 
officers and members of the com])anies for correction, 
and when returned, re-written. The utmost care has 
been taken to have the bio.iirai>hies as correct and 
complete as p()ssibh\ Hundreds of letters were writ- 
ten by me on this subject akme, and the most persist- 
ent efforts made to obtain the record of evei-y soldier. 
No one can justly com])lain if his bio;4Tai)hv is mea-er. 
The numerous i»ictures of members will be of interest, 
thou<;h some now ^rizzled veterans will hardly recoo-' 
nize themselves or others, as they looked thirty years 
a^-o. And, now, I will say in closing-, that after lulv- 
ino- o-iven so much of my thought, time and labor, for 
so long a period, to the preparation and writing of the 
History of our gallant Regiment, I, at last, lav down 
the pen with some reluctance, owing to the fact that 
while engaged in the work I lived Over the old war 
times and the past became a present reality. I mingled 
again in the novel and stirring- scenes connected with 
the organization of our R(\giment, its departure for the 
front, and its various fortunes in nearly three yeai-s of 
marches, campaigns and battles. Absorbed On the 
subject, it was hard to realize that all was over and 
buried— except in memory; that 'The mill will not 
grind with the water that is passed," and those of us 
who still survive— fortunately or unfortunately— have 
only recollections left, pleasing or otherwise,' in i)ro- 
portion to the manner in which we performed our 
duty in the days of the Nation's distress. If tin- 
objects for which I set out have been accomplished 
to the satisfaction of my comrades of the One Hun- 
dred and Fourth, I shall feel that my time and labor 
have not been spent in vain. 

Wn.LlAM W. (VVLKTNS. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 



Remarks on the Impending Struggle— rhe Fall of Fort Sumter- 
Call for Troops-Disasters of 1861-2-The Crisis of 1862-Up- 
rismg of the Nation-600,000 Men Enlisted in Two Months...! 

CHAPTER 11. 



What La Salle County Had Done-The Organization of the One 
Hundred and Fourth— Election of Field Officers 7 

CHAPTER III. 



Flag Presentation-March to Camp Wallace-Scenes in the Camp 
-Runnmg the Guard-Marching Orders Received-The Field 
and Staff— Packing Up ^ 

CHAPTER IV. 



-issue of Cot. "'~t"""^ "' ^"'"P Holt-Getting Settled 
^ tv! .?. C othmg and Arms-Drilling-Removal to "Camp 
Bnckbat'^-March Over the Ohio-Buckner's Plantation-Grand 
Review-Exciting News-March to Louisville-Camp Wilder- 
TV ork on the Fortifications-Killing of General Nelson-Presi- 
dent s Proclamation— Under Marching Orders I7 

CHAPTER Y. 



Leavmg Camp Wilder-A Hard March-Arrive at Shelbyvllle- 
Confiscate Wagons-Attempt to Recover Contrabands-March 
to Frankfort-Hasty Retreat of the Rebels-Colonel Limberg's 
Arrest-Company E Raises a Flag-Wild Goose Chase After 
Morgan-March to Bowling Green-Suffering by the Way- 
Arrival at Bowling Green-Review and Speech by Gener- 
al Rosecrans-Thirty-Ninth Brigade Detached-Colonel Scott 
Assumes Command oa 



(•ii.\i*ti:k \ 1. 



U^rrh I -Arrtval «i Tomi.kJnHvllle— Cha«- 

i,j^ ttir IMck«-ti»— Thr.-Mt«»nlnK IX-mon- 

„ Ha«iy KxU liiul NlK>it March— 

^• >,- (Vl.-I)ruie<l— Arrival at 



11^ 



.mmun.1— Th.- Situation 



•Dd Troop*— Purtvnta of l>anK' ' -^^ 

niAi'Ti:i: \ii. 



Tr.f lUllle of Ilarts%in4>. Trnnc»n<f. nntl Capture of the One 
Hundred and Fourth 61 

niAi'TKi: \ III. 



Oo In l*«rol«> Camp at Columbua— Taklnjr French Furloughs— De- 

tii ('an)|i Doujclaa— CJuardlng Hehel Prisoners 

UflM'l l*rl»on»'r8— off fur Nashville — Guarding 

f <••. to Hr««nt«iM«l — Ufturn to Nashville — At Mur- 

ff ill It^atty'a HrlKadi*— Prepare to Advance — Order 

f..r M \<in<-nt I»sue<l 77 

(IIAPTKK IX. 



Th* I OmpalKn— Advance to Hoover's Gap— Wllder's 

«"■ • ■ . w ;it I.llN-rty (Jap — (Occupation of Manchester 

tit to Hlllsboro— Attacked by Cavalry — 

It- . . iKK ll««trfats— Tullah<iniH Occupied— Ileat- 

l> • Atlvancr to KIk Hlver— Seven Miles of FlghtlnK— Stock- 

a\' <\iiiur^l by a I><'lnchment of the One Hundred and 

■ ItfU-ls Fall Hack— Hejolclng over Gettysburg 

' virif — In Camp KS 

< llArTKU X. 



Tr.r Chlrkamauga CamiMilKn and luttle of Chlckamauga 101 

«n\i'Ti:i: xi 

Th* IMrffr ..f Chattaaooca.. 153 

<-ii \i"i!:i: \ II 

■ ...... K..i. ...166 



CHAPTER XIII. 

The Flanking of Dalton-Advance to the Etowah-Battles of Re- 
saca and New Hope Church-Seizure of Allatoona 192 

CHAPTER XIV. • 

The Battles Around Kenesaw Mountain-Johnston's Withdrawal 
Beyond the Chattahoochee— Battle of Peach Tree Creek-Bat- 
tle of Atlanta „, , 

Zl4 

CHAPTER XV. 

The Siege and Fall of Atlanta 229 

CHAPTER XVI. 

Pursuit of Hood and Return to Atlanta 243 

CHAPTER XVII. 

The^March from Atlanta to the Sea-Siege and Fall of Savan- 
255 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

'^'^ Ben?onvili'e'''°"^'' '"'" Carolinas-Battle of Averysboro and 
• ■ ■ • 283 

CHAPTER XIX. 

The Last Campaign-March to Raleigh-President Lincoln's As- 
sassination— Johnston's Surrender— End of the War 311 

CHAPTER XX. 

Off for Washington-Race With the Twentieth Corps to Rich- 
mond-The Grand Review-Muster Out and Return Home.. 318 



rHATTlIK X\l. 



<t Our Flr»t Thr«^ Months" Service. Includ- 
'.f. by 0«pt»ln William Strawn, Company F — 
iir ' the Atlanta Campaign, etc.. by Henry Wln- 

Irr iny H— A M'vable Fort, by Sergeant William 

H .iJt»any • -s Without Horns, by Charles 

R! nv !— N r Peter Dinger. Company G — 

J<a i: C.airr.>e. Company B — Recollections 

of : ri and Other«. etc.. by Robert West, Com- 

p* ..f Lieutenant Arnold of Company A— 

R. .■-!tHw- Mountain and the Siege of Atlanta, 

b> Strawn. Company F— Personal Recol- 

Ir^ Mummer, by Jacob Bane, Company I..32S 

« !i \1'ti:k XX 11. 



K-ntucky Campaign. Hartsville and Elk 
riant A. Prescotl. Company A — My Experl- 
m V at Sir u Is Mill. ..r Fishing Creek. S. C. by John E. 
Merrltt. Company H — Incidents of Chlckamauga. the Atlanta 
Campaign and Raleigh, by Corr>oral D. L. Mitchell. Company 
C — Wh.. Hud !h^ N'Ightmare at Hlllsboro and Chattanooga? 
b> Moffltt. Company I— Milking Cows, by 
O- >• r> — Reminiscence of Tompklnsvllle and 
Ml»s:- li KiJi;*.. L> Edgar L. Stevens. Company C — My 
Eii--rVn'v. at Chlckamauga. by Philip A. Hawk, Company 
G -nee of Glasgow. Ky., by Captain Wlllard Proc- 
tc- V I— The Exp«-rlence of Company I In the Skir- 
ls Atlanta. July r.'d. 1864. by Captain Wlllar3 
*•' Mj.any I— Recollections of Utoy Creek, Ga.. by 
! Procter. Company I— Extracts from Captain 
n* to the Oi>eratlons of the Regiment Around 
• Cr\'«-k and New Hope Church — Recol- 
"f <'hattanooga and the Battle of Look- 
wul M«ui*Uin. by Captain William Strawn 347 

« iiArriiK xxiii. 



TW FI»I4 aod StAff— Noa-CommlMloned Staff— Roster and Bi- 
ocrmphix 366 

rilAI'TKi: \XI\ . 



O PiPMy A— How and Wh#r« Organised— Roster and Blogra* 
phi — Bf ttotlf» 376 



CHAPTEK XX\'. 

Companr B— How anf W>^-^- '-'-eariz^--_P-^ ,. =„^ t>- 

phies-Statisti« ^..:.. T^ . ^*'^; 

CHAPTER XXVL 



CompaDv C— How and Wherv C-rg^niz^i— t>--^- =--- - - 
phJe« — Statistic-s '' 

CHAPTER XXVIL 



Company I>-How and Where Cn-aniz-i-R-^-- and K— a 
phies — Statistics ... "''" 

415 

CHAPTER XXVIIL 

Com^ny E-How and Where Cn^nizM-E c^.er and Kogra- 
phies— Statistics ^^^ 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

""'TSls^lSSr. ^^ ^^^^^^i^^^^^anixed-Roster and Bio^- 
447 



CHAPTER XXX 

phies — Statistics 



Company G-How ar i Where Or^aiuz^i_Rc«er and Biogra- 



45S 

CHAPTER XXXL 



Company H— How and W^^-i-^ .-.t^t-^-t^ -d--. ^ -^ 

phies-Siatistics ";:...: .'.';!r^"r*'^ Biogra- 

CHAPTER XXXII. 

company I-How and Where Or^anixed-Roster and Biosra- 

phies— Statistics . ^^ ^Jtugra 

-15^ 

CHAPTER XXXIIL 



Company K-How and Where Orgaruz^l-Rc^er and Biogra- 
phies—Statistics ^^ «t«ra 



CHArTKU xx.\i\ 



Kamllv* of th« Iinprt«..nm*nl of ll.peman and Wldmer. by col- 
onel iv.u<l«. lUprmnn -Hrinln!»o.-nc* of Utoy Cret-k. by Ma- 
jor John H Wiamrr-WUIUm M. Wllaon of Company K. In 
Uccvtl lo Colonel H.p-man at Peaeh Tree Creek-RemlnlB- 
crooc of IVi.h Tree Cr«-k, by Corporal John Shapland. Com- 
Miiy I>-How • UclM-l Ij»dy cJul Kxen with the Major, by Cor- 
poral John Kh-j.lan.l. r-mimny D-CuncludlnK Hemark«. by 

. 507 

ihr Hlaturlan.. 

rilAl'TKK XXXV. 



Th* Xarraclve of My EmrajM- fr-.m the Confederate Military 
Prison al Columbia. 8. C. NovemU-r 28, 1864. After Fourteen 
Month*- lmi.rta^.nment. by Lieutenant William W. Calkins. 
« -mi^any K 



LLUSTRATIONS AND PORTRAITS. 



J View of Lookout Mountain Battle Field 153 

View of Mission Ridge Battle Field 1 66 

/View of the 104th Veterans in 1888 327 

>y Arnold, Lieut. S. V Co. A. 378 

V Burgess, S. W Co. B. 389 

y Brown, C. H Co. E. 430 

y Bagwill, M. O Co. G. 458 

V Brown, Corp. S Co. H. 470 

V' Bane, J Co. I. 482 

V Burkart, J Co. K. 496 

/Conarroe, G. R Co. B. '669 

y Collins, Capt. W. H Co. D. 415 

V Clark, Capt. Thos Co. D. 415 

>/ Clark. G. C Co. D. 418 

n/ Calkins, Lieut. W. W Co. E. 430 & 506 

V Conard, Sergt. W. H Co. E. 43a 

V Campbell, H Co. G. 458 

^/ Cook. Sergt. C. B Co. G. 506 

v' Craig, aergt. W. H Co. K. 496 

y Dyer, Surgeon R. F 373 

y Daugherty, Sergt. F. M Co. F. 377 

v Deegan, Corp. J. C Co. G. 405 

V Doty, Capt. J. S. H Co. E. 430 

V Dewey, Capt. R. P Co. E. 430' 

y Davidson, Lieut. O. S Co. H. 470' 

/Ford, Corp. J. J Co. D. 418^ 

N/Frink, Corp. W. E Co. I. 482 

/Fitzsimmons, Capt. J. P Co. K. 495 

V Favor, Lieut. O. S Co. K. 49T 

,' Gage, R.J Co. D. 418 

■/Hapeman, Col. D 367 

/ Howe, Capt. G. W Co. B. 389 

V Heslet, Capt. S. M Co. C. 405 

Harrold, Sergt. W Co. C. 405 

'^ Hills, J. M Co. E. 433 

/Hawk. P. A Co. G. 458 

/ Johnson, Lieut. C. M Co. F. 377 

V Jones, W. M Co. G. 458 

/ Kirkpatrick, Sergt. M Co, D. 415 

I'Kain, W, A Co. E. 430 



V Uw. M J 



4 y 

J y. 
4 y 



I I: 








...Co. A. 


377 




...Co. E. 


433 




Co. H 


470 




. Co. D. 


483 

noo 




...Co. F. 


377 




. Co. D. 


41ft 




Co. 1). 


418 




....Co. 0. 


458 




Co. K. 


496 




. ...Co. F. 


49U 




Co. E. 


506 




Co. G. 


458 




Co. A. 


»77 




Co. IJ. 


388 




. . .Co. D. 


415 




Co. I). 


470 




Co. 1. 


482 




Co. H. 


889 




('... H. 


889 




Co. E. 


432 




Co. E. 


506 






871 




1 ( 


•rr, 

105 




( u. 1). 


415 




Co. I). 


418 




( O. I). 


500 




Co. I). 


418 




Co. E. 


432 




c.. n 


470 




( ,. K 


496 




i ... i . 


405 




Co. I. 


482 
800 




(k». B. 


405 




Co. E. 


488 




C... K. 

.( ... n 


432 
470 
4^2 




I .. K 


45»6 



('IIAPTEU I. 



Remarks on the Impending Strugsle-The Fan nf tj^ . c 

■i:.?;:;;r;, -H i=H;r ■"";!■"?" 

WW i"iii« SC Vi",~ V',"'' - "" 

tioii^ nf fi.<. TT • \^>-^^^^ DeiAveen the two o-reat see- 



rv 



• ii'Viiwwii ANI» F<»rKTH 



,n rn-t.i.|.M»i of lilt >..iinMrii • oni.a.-rary, w.- iiuix 
jUHih x^oiMlrr whv iIm- L.val ni.-ii of tlu- nation wtMr 
not i;*H,iu.r iiroUMnI to a tnu- n-;,li/.aiion of tlu- uuan- 
11... an.l pnriH.M-H of tli.- rouKi.irators. Hut when, on 
tl.r. lltl. ..f April, isr.l, Fort Sumt.-r fell, the Hn.l.lrn 
.';.,|.|H-aran.i- of a .omintMil fn.ni the ;:.M.;rrai.liy of 
ih. w.rl.l toul.l not hav,. rauMMl j:nalri- suii.nsr ;iii.l 
ftMir lliiiii »lul thin llnal Hl.-p anion- the loval .iti/ens 
..f the liiioii. Their in.li^Miation was nnhonn.led. lint 
tiM- insan.- .I.imI was .lone. Hy that aet, the most oiit- 
nipM.iis \i-t att.-nipt.MJ. th.- Sontli op.nly an.l vn.lently 
m-vt-nil thrir r.-lati.»ns with the I'nion. .l.liautly .lial- 
li'iipil It to the wapT of hattle; ami inv.iked the clod 
of liattl.-s an*l tlo- opinions of inankitHl as to th«' jiist- 
Ui-%H of their eauKe. 

Then iM'pin the greatest war of niiMhrn iiiins, if 
not of all tini.-; on oin- side for the eslal.lishiiuMH of 
uu in.le|M.ii.l.ni nation, of whieh, to use the laiij;uaj;e 
of ll*« Vi... rr.-si.hin, Alex. II. Stevens, "Slavery is 
to b*- the ehirf rorinr stone," ami. on the oilirr si.le, 
for the prewTvation of tin* Tnion of our fatlu*rs in 
all ItH national int.-^Mily. Hnt wli.> in the rarly days 
of Isr.I fully n-ali/..d ihr meaning; and scope ol ih.- 
im|M-iidin;: hi ni;:;:lr'.' Tin- North was slow to hrlieve 
that till- South was in .armst, and, ev«ii aft«r the 
«-lai«h of aniiM, that rtmipromise wuk impossible. rii<y 
thoii^iht that, at all i-v.-nts. tli.' sup«'rior stren^Mli and 
ri'Hi.urri't* of tin- loNal states would make the coiilt'st 
n Hhort om*. and that a hatth- or two would de. idr in 
ftt%*or of the riiioii. \V«- know how vain w<*re all ili<'.>>r 
ho|M*M. The rlliiiax of Sumter arousi'd the nation. The 
I»n-^id«-nt immtMlialrly ralhd for To.tMM) men f«»r llire*' 
inonthH* jM-rvin*. Tin* pnMlamation was hai<lly ^iveii 
fnilii the hand that immiiuhI it lufiue the rutin' iiiim- 
!mt hail volnnteiTi'.l. and niatiy of them wrre mi their 
wnv to tin* front. Tin* Hurr«*Hsive rails that follnwrd 
ui-ri" tpitikly l\lh*«l l»y viduntiM'rs. mon*. in fa<t. hrinjr 
teiidereil than wi'r«' nskrd for. Tin* South was iMjually 
aliTt. Thiin, while twith Miden were niakiiifr the most 
iitn|M'n<loiiM pn'paratloiiK for war, aetiv«' operations in 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 3 

the flekl were ciii-ried 0.1 ovei- nu extensive territoi-v 
more especuilly i„ the ^Vest. Those iu the North wh,; 
piedic e,l the early defeat and collapse of the rebellion 
were doomed to bitter disappointment. The "On to 
Richmon.l" cry of a foolish and in.putient press soon 
had Its logical resiilt in the lesson of ISnll Jtiin. There- 
after we made haste slowly. The year 1S61 clo.sed 
with .some minor advantages in the fiehl and a con 
siderab e redemption of t<.rritorv in the AVest tlmt 
res ored a degree of conhdenee.- The .-itizen a'rn es 
had learned something of that military drill and dis 
ciplme so necessary in the day of battle. In the East 
nothing of importance had been done. A "n sterlv 
inactivity 'seems to have seized npon the lea ler o^ 
her magnificent army, which lay inactive before the 
qm leer g^.ns of Manas.sas, while the coveted pr.e 

BifwinV ''■''" "^ ''"■ °« =^"'1 unattainable aslver' 
But .with January, 18(i2, came a new era of ho„e -in 1 
a welcome change. The battle of Mills, rii "s Kv 
fought and won by (ien. «eo. H. Thonias' iufwf^t-' 
e rn troops, was a decisive victorv, and the first vet 
obtained The results were imooi. ant, as the enemy 

wresteV? "'"?""'•'■ ■■' '••"•8'^ l'"rti"" "f Kent uc i 
"rested from l„s grasp, and the rebel plans of cam 

im.gn demoralized beyond repair. There was .^rent 

rejoicing in the North, whilst public atte t on'w;* 

ixed up,,,, the (ieneral who was destined to wn more 

distinguished laurels „„ wider battlefields, andJo 

leaZ: tfJer H -"f^" '-"V' '«-'> "' «" "'"'iniH ar ' 
leadeis. After this followed the victories of Fort Don 
e son, Pea Kidge and Pittsburg J.audin, Bv t^ese' 

™n..u?,re 7V"n?'''' ■"«''''"^" '" the Uni?:' 
ine laptuie of New Orleans and some other sennoits 

had been effected, ^-hile these results were of i 1 L- 

tance, and reassured the North, thev were no Z 

elusive, simply .serving to .lispei the cloud ofll^om 

and disappointment that had settled down upon tie 

Northern people. But with summer came rev rses 

The Army of tlie Potomac, of which so mii ■ > w^^' 

expected, had not taken the'rebel ca ti^ ts seven 



I THK ONK Hl'VPHU' aM. K. THTH 

tlllXHof l.aill.V »M-f..n. Kirl,.....MM. u.Ml llM- h.ruir li^hl- 
M,:. or ilH M.l.lu-r.. ha.l iHfi. ..f iM' avail. IH- suaiups 
.f ll„. nilrkalioiiiiiiv w.-rt. whH.-i,..» wnl. tlu- bon.s 
f tl... Hinhi. aii.l .liwaM. xvuk .loin- a iiioif .ka.llv xvork 
„ il... raiik», of thr liviiij: ihaii iiuiimt..iis battl.'s lia.l 
aiiM-il. AfTain. in t Im- NN 'st xvrir at a slau.lslill. 1 In- 
..ull.M.k wan iioi promiMii;;. TIm- n-Lrl rausr s.mmh.-.I 
lo Ih. piiiiiiiu HtnMij,lli 111 hoiiir ami al.n.a.l. I m »i 
,aii,ix aii.l alarm piwaiLnl anion- loval mm whilst 
that ".-l.-nM-nt in tin- Noitli ahvavs oppos.-.l to tin- war 
vx.-n- lou.l in ilH-ir asM-rtions, •Voii rauiiot ,on.nMr 
III.- S«.ulli" Tliir* was tlw ...n.liti.Mi i.f allaiis in .Inn.- 
Im;2. Il wan appan-nt to all that a .lisis l.a.l arnw.l 
rtipiirin;: prompt ariion. 

Hni thin |M-ri.M| of j:lo..ni ami .l.-spon.l.-mv .|uii ki.v 
.|iwip|H-anil, an.la lirm.-r .Irtmiiination that thm-lH-l^ 
lion hIiouI.I not Irinmpli was maiiif.st. Th.- haii.ls «.f 
|*n-Mi«li*nl Limoln wm- now iipli.*M ami stiviij^tlu'mMl 
in a wav llial was MiMiiin-lv an inspiration. The 
inij:l»tv voirr of ili.- I.»val nation foiiml .-xpn-ssnui 
throiiuli iIm- <i«»v«TnorH t»f tin- loval statos, in th. ir 
■ . lo liini of .Inly 1st. IStil!. ph-.l-in- am-w tluir 
n-sonrr.-h of in*-n :iml mom-y to rarr\ on ili»' 
war, ami aKsnrin^ him. in ii" iimrrtain t«Mnis. of tluir 
nym'patlix ami il«-voiion to tin- raiisr. Thr ••IT<m t was 
«-'l.i irirai. Tin- l*n*si«l«Mit's pio.Iamai ion rallin;.! f«»r 
t xolnntii-rs f«»r tlir**** yrars soon folJowiMl. 
in;: lM-;;an at t.m.-. ami .-v.-ry rm-r-y was hrnt 
to IIm» urn- pnr|MiH<- of lillin;: up tin- tpiotas « allr.l for. 
TIh* mil. r.imiii;: in tin- mi«lst tif harvrst. rails. ■<l iiiaiiy 
to .l.'lay who intrmltMl to .Milist lat.r. .\u-iist Ith 
unollM-r f.r.M lamati.in f.»r ".{mi.diMI mon" was issii«'«l 
ami a «lraft \mi» onl«-nil. Ton ii.>w. tho pn'ssm*' of 
hitiiK* •InlU'x Im'Iiij: ovi'r. vo|nnt«MMin- iMM-aiii.* rapid 
ami tin* "Irafl wan onl«TiM| to Itr Knsp«'ml«M|. An a.l.li 
tioiial imlm»Mm*nl wan ofTi'ml t.» v«»lnnt»'«'rs Ity th.- 
lioviTiimi-nf pmvi.lin- lMinnti«'s of onr hnn.lr.'.l »h»l- 
lani. Mam nlaii-s an«l •••untii's also voicl lnniiiti('H. 
TlMtM> iiiilm>«'«l iiM'ii of famili<i« to rnlist wh.> lirf.nc ha.l 
li«<«ilntiil. A» lln* monlliH of .Inly ami An-usl w.tn- 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 5 

away a vast wave of eiiTliusiasiii swept over the conn- 
try. Re<^iiiieiits and companies were raised and ten- 
dered to the Government faster than they could be 
armed or cared for. Every city, town and village was 
a scene of excitement, only equaled bv that of the fall 
of Sumter. Business became of se<-ondarv importance, 
and, (hiy after day, on the corners and public places 
mio-ht be seen groups of citizens, representing all occu- 
pations, eagerly discussing the war and encouraging' 
those who thought of enlisting. Rut the main intei-est 
centered around tlie little recruiting tent on the pub- 
lic square, where "the boys" were putting down their 
uames for "three years" or "during the war." Meet- 
ings were held nightly at the usual jdaces of assem- 
blage, where orators declaimed and recruits were gath- 
ered to swell the mighty armies of the Union. S^)me- 
times a company or regiment was filled in a single 
day, and to overflowing. This is but a faint picture 
of those exciting times which manv of mv readers wit- 
nessed. 

At last, when the ranks are full, come marching 
orders, and the trying day of departure for the froiK 
arrives. 

"Ah! then and there was hurrying to and fro, 
And gathering tears, and tremblings of distress. 
And there were sudden partings, such as press 
The life from out young hearts, 
And cholcing sighs." 

The relations that bind men to their homes and 
families must be severed, perhaps forever. :Many wlio 
enlisted will never return — never have returned. Tiieir 
remains have long since moldered to dust on the bat- 
tletields of the Rebellion. The majoritv are voung, 
some in middle life, but all their hearts filled with' 
high hopes and expectations, coupled with an under- 
standing of what they enlisted for, and have sworn 
to do, and of the chances of war, which do not cause 
them, in this last hour, to regret or falter. Dutv and 
patriotism alike call upon them. But there 'is no 
excess of mirth on this last day. Here are o-athered 



.Ni: in N1>UKU AND ForMTH 



(IN.1,1 rouiiiiN ai... ...... Il»«-»r rflaliv»-s ami fiuu.is lu 

,^»> fart-urll^ TIm- aptl iii..llH-r t^ivi-s lu-r <.nlv son, 
>;. hupiH.rl ..f Imt .I.m lining' v.aih; tlu- wiff Ih r Ims 
• !• il.r uiai.lrii hrr L.vrr. All of Um-s.. an- ivpiv 
,1 ill ihr aKH«'ml.lanr. ami all f.^-l tin- H..lrini.iiy 
^..•11. Thr iiiiniHUT als.. is tli.Tc to luvoUr 
..f tin- (Jo.l of liatilt-s ii|Min th«»se >vlu» have 
l.iiH lai.l lli.-ir livrs U|h.ii Hi.- altiir of ili..ir '"""yT; 
1 In- lasl iiioiiH-iil arrivrs, Th«- .•.>lou.-rs loiiiiiiamK "fal 
,1, •• ,^li.M^ alon^' thf lim-, ami, with proiul steps an.l 
lirm M-l lips. xxhi. h Imt ill roiirt-als th.- emotK.ii Nvillnii, 
!hi. iirw re;:iiiM-iit of voluin.-..|s iiianlu-s away from 
lioiiic aiitl friemlK. 

Surh a sr.-m- as this is only a \\\>r of many o,-,iii-- 
riiij: almobt .laily al th«- time of w hit li 1 write. 



CHAPTEK II. 



What La Salle County Had Done-The Organization of the One 
Hundred and Fourth-Election of Field Officers. 



hriP^v -''Z ^''''"' ^^'"^ ^'''^"^' '^'^^^ ^^■^'"^'^ Sketched 
briefly m tlie previous elia])ter to uotc^ wliat was 

transpiring- in La Salle County in its military relations 
to the national cause, and to trace the organization 
and narrate the achievements of a new reo-inient, the 
One Hnndred and Fourth Illinois Volunteers, (-om 
monly called the La Salle Countv Kegiuient 

The times and circumstances that called it into 
beino- were somewhat different from those existin- at 
the beginning- of the war, when an insulted nation ?ose 
in its might and the swelling waves of indignation 
and enthusiasm caused armies to spring into beino- in 
a day as by a magician's wand. Fifteen months had 
passed and the holiday anticipations of the sanouiue 
assumed a more sober hue in correspondence "with 
actual conditions and the bitter lessons of experience 
La Salle County had already sent into the field the 
following commands, all either whollv or partiallv 
recruited on its soil: The Eleventh Illinois, of which 
Geneml W. H. L. Wallace went out as Colonel; the 
Fourth Cavalry Col. T. Lyle Dickey; the Fiftv-third 
Infantry, Col. W. H. W. Cushman; Capt. Cogswell's 
Battery; Capt. Ford's magnificent companv of cavalry 
—the two latter organizations forming with the Fiftv- 
third what was at first known as Cushman's Brigade 
There were also Campbell's, Henshaw's and Ilough- 
taling's Batteries-later Capt. M. H. Prescott's, and 
Company A of the Sixty-fourth Illinois, raised bv 
Capt. (afterward Gen.) John Morrill. 

These commands had proven their valor on numer- 
ous battlefields, and their deeds illumine manv pao-es 



» THK ••Ki: HTNI.in:!' ANT' roritTH 

III till- iiiiiit.iijk III-.,..,, .., ,iM \\,-i.lll ailllirs UlltliT 

<iniiif, Slirriiiaii iiimI miIum- roiiiiiiaiiilrrs. Km iniiiilM'rs 
hail falli-ii. ami tin- mihi' suliil raiikK lia<l Immmi ili-ci- 
uui!«-*l U\ ball If ami iliwasr. Tin* hnivi* ami ;:ifl«Ml 
Wiillar** wai* iii> iiion*, and won*** «»f •mImt lirav** sons 
«»f Iji Sallf <'«niiil> \vi«n- sIiM-piii^ lln-ir last slci-p mi 
luiiiilifrii Ktiil. 

Smli uaM tin* iiMonl u Ihmi «iiir |mm»|»|<' wm* auain 
cull«*<l u|MHi hi iiiakf furihi-r sarrifui's. Aiioiln-i- i«'^i- 
uifiit wa»* fall«*«l for fitmi La Salli- (oimiv. I'Ik 
rf^|MiiiH«' wiiH |iroiii|ii ami lii-ailv. 'Pin- Ifii <oiii|iaiiics 
Itiiil iMMaiiM* ilii'<Mi«' iliimlr«M| ami l■^Mll-tll iiriziiiifiil 
iM'^aiii lo aHfiiiiiif r<»riii in tin* last davs of .hil\. ami 
««•!*«• lilliNl ill Au^nKi. I'nrilHT on will In* ^ivni full 
«li*lailM iif tlifir oi-;:ani7.alioii ami ni<MiilMM'slii|i. while 
we will oiN'ak now of iln* material ami nioiale oT iliis 
H|i|c||<li<l Imn|\ of liMMI, who, wiihoiil |ii-eiii«li<-<- to the 
viMfran miMiers iM'fon* in<'nlion<Ml, iMM-aim' rclel»rate«l 
for their valor on nian.v l>attleti<'lils. ami made the 
eoiiiiiiaiid known as one of "the li;:hlin<j re;L;itiienls." 

1'he men eoni|Hisili;^' the laiik and tile oT the < >lle 

Ihindriil and l'*onrih did not enlist under any suilHeu 
ilii|Mils4*M. TIk'V iindei*siood what war meant. The 
illiiHi>e rliarni that envelops the soldier's lif«* had l»ui 
little lieariif^' with the majority. They realized that 
iioi only must they endure sepa rat ion from loved homes 
and frieiidH, linl iiiust he pre|iared for privation, suf- 
ffriii;;, woiiiidK and ileatli itself, when on. •• sworn into 
the M'rvire. .Nejirix all Were of La Salle t'ouuJy hy 
birth or ailoplion, while the ;:reater portion wi-re in 
that fiioKt pmiiiisiii^ |N«riod of life, from seNrniecu iu 
lw«Mityfoiir or twenty five. A very few had heeii in 
the tlm**' iiMiiiiliH, or other servire, and were r«';:;arded 
with r<MiHiderable awe li\ their i-omrades, who as yet 
|Hi»<jMfuMi| ( rude ideas of military drill and disripline, 
«ir Ihi* MliTli n-allthf* of a siddier's life. These niliv 
die*! our eiirl> ramp firen with fairy tah*s «tf hair- 
brejidlh eH<-a|N'f< anil warlike di*4M|s, well ralrulaled to 
<*xi-ite admiral iiiii and reH|MMt. Nearly all iMiu|iations 
niid prof«tM»ion«. wt-n- repn'senietl. then* liein^ not a few 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 9 

ministers of tlio ^osjx'l in tlio ranks, three or four of 
M hoin ^\ere ofilicers. These (h'terniined to ti<4l»t the 
i-ebels with tlie same si>irit and zeal tliey had disjthiyed 
in iiiiliting- the world, the tiesh and the devil, from their 
puli)its at home, bnt with carnal, and not spiritual, 
\\(Ni]tons. One of tlu'in, the loved an<l lamented Lieu- 
tenant iiandolph, yielded np his younj;- life in battle 
at Ilartsville, a eostly sacrifice to the moloch of 
treason! 

^Vhile all classes were represented in the Regiment, 
that strongest and safest bulwark of our fail- land, on 
which it must ever rely in times of trouble, the farm- 
ing popnlation, contributed the majority of the recruits. 
These swelled the ranks of the companies to the full 
comi)lement prescribed by army regulations. And 
the fact that the residents of all the thirty-seven town- 
shii)S in this large count}' had relatives and friends 
in the Eegiment explains why it ever held a warm 
place in the hearts of the i)eople, who watched its 
progress from the day of its departure to the front, a 
thousand strong, followed it with their prayers and 
blessings on long marches, through fierce campaigns 
and battles, from the Ohio River, through Kentucky, 
Tennessee, Alabama and Georgia, to Savannah, ''This 
day fair Savannah was onrs," — thence through the 
Carolinas, to see its bullet-torn flag waving amid the 
smoke of the last battle at Bentonville; over Johnston's 
surrender at Raleigh, and on the Grand Review at 
Washington, winning the plaudits of a half million 
epectators until, at last, the mission on which the Regi- 
ment went performed, the people welcomed the battle- 
scarred veterans, in numbers less than three compa- 
nies, to their homes and the peace they had helped to 
conquer, the country and flag they had helped to save! 

Such is a passing glimpse of the Regiment the his- 
toiw of Avhich we propose to chronicle from its enlist- 
ment to the day of its discharge. 

B}' the middle of August it was known at Ottawa, 
the county seat, which, naturally enough, had been the 
rendezvous and headquarters of all the military forces 



iM THK nVK HfXDUKn AND FOURTH 

tiiMH I. II .». m liii-. 111. lifM fnuu La SalU* l'»»uui>. iliat 
Ihr It'll oiiii|»aiiii*M wrn* imw iimuIx. willi a surplus in 
»«tliif iif Ihriii. Tliii* fart wan l«-l«-;:ia|»lnMl lo iSovniior 
Viihti, u lio onlt-nil ail iiiiiiii*«liair »»r;;aiii/.ali»tii 1«» be 
rullctl tlt«* (iiii* IhiiiiinMl ami Fourth K<';;iiiu'iii. n.\ 
Kti|iiilatii»ii. llu" H<«l«Mtinii of lii'M oflij-iTs was l»fi it» 
tin* I{i';:iiii«Mil. It iu-<il not In* su|»|M»stMi tlial tlu'ic was 
tiiiv lark «»f tainll«lat«'H fur tln-st* iiiii»oriani olVicfs. 

Ill pn-paratioii for tin* t-vnit thf followiii;; conipa- 
iilit* ;:allifrf<l at Ottawa, tlif h'ttfn* ;:ivtMi iM-iiij; thoso 
by wliitli tliry w«Tf «I«'si;;!iai«M| aft»T tin* or^aiii/ation: 

('oiii|iaii\ A.l'apiaiii .laiiM's M. Loi^xliioii. 

Coiiipaiix 1(, ('aptaiii loMir^^r W. llo\\«\ 

(*oiii|iaii\ t', I'aplaiii Saiiiiicj II. llcslct. 

roiiipaiiv l>. I'apiaiii \\ illiaiii il. Collins. 

( 'oiiipanx I). < 'apiain .lolin S. II. I >oi v. 

I'oiiipaiix l-\ ('a|ttain .laiiirs .1. .Mi-Ki*rnaii. 

<oiiipaiiv ( !, ( 'aptain .lojinsoii Misiicr. 

Coiiipaiiy 11, ( 'apiain Lewis Ltitiin;:ton. 

i'oiiipaii,\ 1. 1 'aptain John \\ a)ll)i;:li. 

(*oiiipan\ K. I 'aptaiii •iiisi us \\ . l'a)uM-r. 

An iiiMiMM ii«Mi of tin* muster rolls shows less than 
thirty tiH'ii who ciilisttMl as fi-om oulside the coniity, 
iiml. aliMi, that mon- than niiiei \ -tive \h-v <-i-nl cni-ollcd 
their iiamef* l»ei\\«H'n the 1st and ir»th <»f .\ui:ust. 

Tint**' eiimpainit*s. imw roneeiit latiil ai the (uunty 
eapitiil for tin* first time, where they were (HuirteiiMl 
leiii|Mirarily in the hotels aiml l»oanlin<^ hous<*s, at oixe 

.It 1 1 .!• ti<| puMie inlereNt. 

I III- lime lieiuti'ii the l.'ttli aiul L'ltili was iui|)r<)Ne<| 
liy the iiM'iiilierN ill \arioiiH ways, siu-h as s(|ua*l aixl 
eoiiipaiiy drill, ^ettin^ ariinainteil with each other ami 

niliiparill^ lioteti oil till* impiM'lailt i|Uestio|is tif the 
hour. Threi* prominent ramlidates for the ('ohmeh y 
WfM' ill the liehl. .MiHalom It. .Moore, I Uiver ( '. ( Jray aiitl 
William IL ColliiiM. Karh rlaimiMl, of cotirse, that h(> 
roiiM lead the |{e^iiiieiit ill the paths of ;:loiv ami savi> 
the r«iiiiitr,\ •|iii«keraiid heiter than an\ ImmIv else. Tlu* 
timl iiaiiietl WHH n prominent |>oliiirian hohlin;; the 
■ •nil •• of till- I 'III L ..r I !.•■ I'ii.iiii I'onrl and |{«Torder «»f 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 11 

Deeds; he also had been a local preacher in the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church, a gentleman of ability, tine, 
large physique, imposing appearance and pleasant 
address, and was in fact a Aery popular man. The 
second was one of the brightest, most learned and dis- 
tinguished members of the Illinois and La Salle County 
bars, had served with credit in the Mexican war, was 
at one time a brigadier general in the Ohio militia, 
and was, before the war, cjiptain of a local military 
company, the Washington Light-Guards of Ottawa, 
The writer, as a mere boy, remembers following this 
command on imblic occasions through the muddy 
streets, wrapt in profound admiration, and wishing he 
was big enough to be a soldier and wear a bearskin 
cap! The third candidate was not less able or less 
popular than the other two, lived in the west end of 
the county and possessed qualities well entitling him 
to consideration. He had also been in the field as chap- 
lain of the Tenth Illinois Infantry. There were a few 
men in the Begiment who favored giving the Colonelcy 
to some one of our La Salle County boys at the front 
who had shown ability for high command. They said 
we should have as Colonel a man of military experi- 
ence, one who has smelled gunpowder if not lived on 
it. Such were the candidates, but as the contest waxed 
warmer William H. Collins withdrew in favor of Moore 
and then the fight narrowed down to him and Graj', 
with all the voting forces arrayed on one side or the 
other. Two of these men are now numbered with the 
dead, and the writer, who was one of the bojs, does 
not consider it necessary to enter into the details and 
merits of the short and sharp electioneering campaign 
that preceded the election. As a participant and 
observer he believes that each member of the Regi- 
ment acted and voted, as he thought at the time, for 
the best interests of the Regiment. 

The result of the election was that Absalom B. 
Moore became Colonel by a large majority. There were 
several aspirants for the offices of Lieutenant Colonel 
and Major, but it appears of record that William H. 



i'ollniH was fliMiitl l.iiMiu-uani « .'|.>ipI. :iii<l .lii>nis \\ . 
TaliiM-r Maj«»r. 

<»ii .\u;;iiKi 27lli lln» Oiu« llnmlnMl and I'»»iiit h, Tol- 
«iii«*l .M<Miri> ill niiiiiiiaiHl, iiiiininMl lo ilic «)l«l "(-"air 
linnimlh" ami wan iiiiiKii'in>4l iiiin tin* s»*rvi««' <.r ilit- 
I'lilliil Slalii*, "for tlinM* y««ai-s unless souihm- (lis- 
rharj*!**!,** hv raiplaiii .lulm <J. r|irisl«»|»lnT, of tin- K**;;- 
ular Armv, who ha«l roim* fiom ('liita^o f<»r iliis piir- 
|MM««'. Tin* KiM'iif wan iiiiprcsKivr, as iIm* l{«*;:iiiH'nt «»f 
licarlv «iii«* lliiMiHainl iin*n, iliaw ii up in a IioIImw stpiart', 
t'Mik iIm* ••alli thai finally ImmhkI ihrni l** snvr ihrir 
roiiiiirv, maintain jtml pioiiMt its < 'onsiii iii ion and 
liiWH, ami nphohl its hun«»r and tin* "Siari'v ilaiiiDi' mT 
fhf rn-**" rviMi nnto d«'ath. II«t\v \\«dl this iiiist was 
iMTfoiiiHil flu* pa^rs »if this IxMd; will shnw. The fcn*- 
inony ociMipitMl a ronsidfiahh* part mT the aftt'inoon, 
IIh* mnHt«*rin^ ofllrrr in-in;; «hdav<Ml sunifwhai by 
iiii-«>HHarv examinations into tin* fitm'ss of soim- .tf Hie 
Miruils on arioiini of tln*ii' htin^ too (dd or too younj::. 
Th(*r«* is no doiilii inn that a niniilM-i- of siirli niana^tMl 
to H<|uc<>£«' llirou;:li *'l»y tin* skin of iln- icfth" as it 
wiTi*. and that sonn* of tlicni sulisnuicm ly pi-ovcd thoir 
rapatiiy as Holdi«*rs is within th<* writer's knowhMl^e. 
Al lh<* roiiiliiHioii till* roiiipan,\ i-oniniMiidi I'i ]Mi-ii)it- 
t«il many of ihi-ir mm to ;;o honir iniiil tlic lirst of 
H^'plfmlwr ill order that they mi;:ht make iIiimI arr:in};t»- 
iih'IiIh for a hui;: .ilisem-e. The t Mie Ihnidred and 
l-'oiirth then marehed hark to the rity. the linn ^oinir 
!«• their honii'H or «|nariers. no donhi with ii<u and 
Ktraii^e fei'liii;:^ in their hearts when they ihoii;;ht of 
lh«» tMTioiiH ret«|MinHihilities assumed, whii h w eie so 
Nliortl\ lo M'parate them from home and its assoria- 
tioiiH, and link their li\es with that of ihe sohjier. 
Here we lejive f hem to enj«»y for a few more hours tho 
iMH-ieiy of loviil oiii*M. nor will \\f vent ure to draw aside 
Ihi' Hjirr*"*! Veil roiirealiie^' the fears and a^^oni/.innr sor- 
Mtw of tlioM* Ml H«»oii to |m> ih'priM'd i.f father, hiishand, 
or lover. 



(ILVrTEli 111. 



Flag Presentation — March to Camp Wallace — Scenes in the Camp 
— Running- the Guard — Marching Orders Received — The Field 
and Staff — Packing Up. 



Oil Sei>teiiil)er 1st, 1802, the 'Due IIuiidrcMl jiiid 
Fourth, piu'siiaiit to orders, marched to the court house 
in Ottawa, and were presented with a beautiful silken 
iiag' bv a number of Ottawa's j)atriotic ladi<'s. The 
usual stirrin<4 speeches were made by i)rominent citi- 
zens. Then the banner was unfurled to the breeze, and 
amidst cheers and soul-inspiring- music the Kejiiment 
took u]) the line of march to Cam]) Wallace, or the Fair 
Grounds, which was situated two miles west of the 
city on the banks of the Illinois. Cushman's Brigade 
and other commands had been organized here. We 
arrived in due time and assumed the regular routine of 
military duties, so far iis we knew them. A thousand 
men, fresh* from the pursuits of peace, could not be 
expected to come under strict military discipline imme- 
diately. The weather on this first day was perfect, and 
consequently all were in high spirits. There were a 
few tents, and these, with the buildings on the grounds, 
were to be our quarters. The Quartermaster, Ed. Iler- 
rick, was much in demand, and the first attack made 
by the One Hundred and Fourth was on his stores of 
provisions. The da}' was a sort of picnic, and Ave had 
appetites to correspond. There Avas more or less fault 
found with the menu and some of the boys resolved to 
piece it out in town. 

We had no arms or uniforms, but a line of sen- 
tinels, armed with canes, was throAvn around the camp 
to prevent free ingress and egress. An order was 
issued from regimental headquarters that no one AAould 
be permitted to lea^e camp without a pass duly signed 



II 



Ji. .»1»UK'' ^"^ '' »■' ''HTH 



liv hiH roiii|iaiiy coiiiiiuiiiilfi- ami r.MiiiK i si-ii. <1 ii\ i In* 
Adjiilaiit. TIiIk liiul lln-«-fT.M i »»f MUiinhiiif: like a ««»1(1 
HlKtwcrlmih in .liiiu*. and «li«Mk«*«l tlio hmhIiihv on tlit* 
IMirt of our nion- (luring; antl n-KlIfSs spiiii*^ i" *^««'1< the* 
allnr«*nii'ntM of tin* i'it>. 

TlH-r»* wiiH nior«- or Ii'sh «oiiipanv ami >tjua«l drill 
that da>, >\ hirli alTord«Ml anniKfnuMii io nuiin*n>ns vis- 
itunt, lx>tirniu{; to ctMik t»Vfr a iani|» lin* orcuidtMl con- 
Hidcraldf linn*. Tin* first nij:lit in ramp will nrvcr be 
forj:otii-n. Mnrin;; ilif da.v M-vt-ral l»»ads «d straw had 
Imimi liauli**! in for our I»«mIs, and at nine or tfii o'rltnk 
la|iH Hounddl for li;:lits t»nt, aftrr wlii«h «*v«*r\ solditT 
wuM Hn|i|MiH4Ml to l>4> in liin litth* IkmI, pcrclnince to ilitaiii 
of ^lor.v and his sw«i'l In-art, 

< Ml Sf|»trinlH-r -d, tin- morning: was nslnM«'d in rarlv 
l»v n-vrilif. Kojl-rall l».v tompaiiirs fojlitwcil. Tin* 
ImMikfast and sirk rails wrn- nt*xt in order: xcrv frw 
ni(|Mindin;; to tin* latter. Tlu*r«' w«*re many novel 
K!ori«*s relatiil of tlie first ni;;lit's exju'rirmt'. 'Pin* 
jond hiiorcrs who Iia*l disturlM>d iIh* sIuuiImm's of Hmmi- 
roiimMlcs wen* H|»ott<'<l. (Mm or several of iIm- Imys 
had run the ^nard line, and tin* nearest sentinels, 
ignorant of their duly or for fun, had ;;one in imrsuit. 
It is to !»«• inft-rred thai the runaways *';:ot' there" an«l 
Hiiw their Kliza .lane, or obtained the sedut ii\e soda 
water their thirst deiininded. 

Then* was nimh «lrillinj; ne\i da\. 11 le lone ..f i Im- 

rami* **"♦* more subdue«|. We knew that the maiehini: 

- nii;;ht (-om«* al any hour. 

I '• .'hi, lih and ."iih passed with ihe usual muud of 

diitii'N and the aiiiionnr«Mnent liy <Vdonel Motuc of the 

reri'ipt of orders to leave on the I'.fh for the front. 

.Meant illie < 'oloiirl .M oore bei u ^ d issa t jslied with th" 

eliiiioii of Mi-KMiH. r.iJIiiiK and rainier as Lieutenant 
r«doiie| and .Major, refiiseil to abidi> b> their selertion 
Hiid n (*onli*Mi artiM* over llit> matter whi.h became 
I»r»'fly warni lM'lw«-in the line oRirers and < "ohmel 
M«Hir«'. but was finally seiil.Ml. This done, the Hrld 
and MlafT nI«mn| as fidlows: 

(*.iliiiiil Vl.w.iloiii |{ .M«Mire. 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. ^ 

Lionteiiant Colonel-Douglas Ilapcn.nn. 
Major— John 11. Widmer. 
Adjutant— Rufus c. 8te.vons 
Quartermaster- EdM-ard L. Herrick 
burgeon— Eeubeu F. Dyer. 
First Assistant Surgeon— Julius A. Freeman 
Second Assistant Surgeon-Thomas B. Han ilton 
-Non-eommissioned staff- ^»«iimiTon. 

Sergeant Major-Q„incy D. Whitman. 

Quartermaster Sergeant-Asher D. Gibson. 

Com. Sergeant— Austin H. Fowler 

Hospital Steward— John W. Cuppv 

Principal musicians, David McCampbell W'm K>-,v 

t. Slider, of Company K, was appointed Hosnitn 
Steward and Rev. W. Scofipld riin..io- ^i*>*^Pital 
later by W. C. F. Hempsiead ^^^^^P^^^^°' succeeded 

The Lieutenant Colonel and Major were at this timo 

hadriirr' '^'"^ ^^ ^^^ ^^-^^^^^ mimis T "v 
?rot S mt^/T privates at the sound of the first g^ n 

ration'fif f)'^^-^' '"^ ^""'"'^ ^'^"'^^'^ ''^^^ «Pent in prepa- 
rules and discipline were relaxed "omewh^'' r^f"^ 

msmmm 

bein, ,.„„„., „„r depart^^'^.^LedVo-^ne r'irro," 



tC THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

livitt aii«l frii-ii«lK raiiic fnuii all |>arts of the rouiitry 
to iM<«* lilt* l{«'piiii«Mit i*fT. Aiiii«l all (lii* rxcitfiiifiil and 
iiM*rriiu«*iii an wril, tlu-n* AVt-n* many s«»|mt fa»M*s and 
Mill licarlH ill (III* Kc^fiiiiciil. A lar;:c iiiniiImt must be 
|iariiil fmiii faiiiilifH d<*ar !«• llifiii. It mi;.'li( !><• \\\o 
Uitit iMirtiii;: ill (iiiK world, and so it proved to \»\ for 
iu ilirtf kIioi-i niontliK, lifiy luaM* mm i>r iIm* < Mu* 
lluiidnil and roiiitli lii\ dead or mortally wmindtMl 
on tli«* Itatt li-lit-ld. Till- yoniliful soldifis. of w liom the 
\vril«T wah •hm*. lonKidcfiMl tin* ma Iter l«*ss sniousjy, 
iiiid wen* impatient to In* iiiovin^. The majority, born 
an«l raind in rural lift*, had hitln-rto i-ujoyrd \y'V\ lim- 
it til op|Hirtuniii<>h for iravi*l and si u<l\, and if 11 Uc l hose 
tif I he writrr, tln's** were ludy «o-»*xt«*nsive wiili the 
etiiinty. Thrn* wan a lon^^in;; to k«i* tin* «;r«'al world 
lM\vond. inlcnnixtMl with patriotic impuls<'s, bui that 
duty and patriotism wen* abo\<* all oiImt i-<>ii>«iil< la- 
(ionn no on«- but a skeptic ran doubi. 

At hiht darkiifSK sett led d<*wn on t'amp Wallace. 
Tli<*«-amp lir«*s burn low and only a few linger around. 
Tin* majority hav«* sou;:hl their downy «ou«ln's of 
Htrau ! To niorr«»w wc marchi 



CllAPTEK IV. 



Leaving for the Front — Arrival at Camp Holt — Getting Settled 
— Issue of Clothing and Arms — Drilling — Removal to "Camp 
Brickbat" — March Over the Ohio — Buckner's Plantation — Grand 
Review — Exciting News — March to Louisville — Camp Wilder — 
Work on the Fortifications — Killing of Genei'al Nelson — Presi- 
dent's Proclamation — Under Marching Ordeis. 



The spirited notes of tlie reveille, ^M-lioiii^ tlinttiiih 
Camp Wallace oii t^eptember Gtli and revcrbei-atiiii^ 
over the placid waters of the Illinois until lost anioiii;- 
the wooded hills beyond, aroused the sleei)ing sohliers 
to the fact that the day of departure had arrived. The 
coinniahd from orderlies of companies, "Fall in for 
roll-call," Avas obeyed with more alacrity than usual 
by those present In camp. But it must not be for- 
gotten that the spirit of restlessness under restraint 
still ruled strongly the heart of the volunteer, who^ 
could not quite relinquish that independence of thought 
and action born and ingrafted ui)on his soul when he 
first breathed the pure free air of his prairie home. 
Therefore when some failed to resi>ond to the call of 
their names, the cries of "arrest him," "put him in tlie 
guard-house," and other complimentary remarks, 
shoA^ed an appreciation of duty as well as a sense of 
humor. All knew that the absent ones were improv- 
ing the last opportunity for a lark in toxAii, or were 
spending the night Avith friends, and wouhl join their 
companies as they marched through the city. At ten 
o'clock the encampment was broken up, the assembly 
sounded, the One Hundred and Fourth formed in line, 
and, preceded hy the drum corps, at the word of com- 
mand, moA^ed off bA^ the right Hank toward the Rock 
Island depot, Lieutenant-Colonel ITapeman command- 
ing. Colonel Moore was sick, but joined the Regiment 
at CaniD Gilbert. 



II THE ONE HrNDKKD AND FoL'KTH 

Antlu* I{«-^iiin-in iiiairrluMi ilin»iij:h tin* slH'«*ts llnm- 
wiikIh virwtil llu'ir iiro;:itM<s iiml rluMTfil iIhmii on. 
Arnvliij; af tin* «I««|miI a i«»iij; «lrlay niKiU'tl, wliidi was 
iiii|in«v«il ill f\rliaii;:iii;; hiht words with fii«'ii<ls, but 
llifH* waK an absfiirr of Ifviiy, all ft-riiiij: «l»«' sfiioiis- 
iMiMt tif tli»« luTaxioii ill a ;;n'at«T or I»«ss tU'^nM-. Tin* 
ciiiluirraKKiMcnt was tiiuillv n'li«*v«M| \t\ tin* arrival of 
llif iraiii. TIhmi hasty j;ooi|-|iyrs \\■{'V^' saiil, tin- lasl 
i*arii«T<f ItMiks fn»m fai-r to fatr soiiir to br rrjicatrd 
iH'ViTiiiort* wrif ;;iv«*ii. and tin* Kr;:imriit fihd on 
iMuinl. At luHt thf whistif blew, and, amidst rhm-s 
and waving: of haiidkcrrhirfs, the <Mm- Miiiidr*<l and 
Fourth wan iarri«*d raiii«ll.\ away. 

For a tiiiH* sil<*ii<-<' |ir«'\ail«Ml ainon<; all, fach bcin;; 
busy with his own thou;;hts, which w<'r«'. no doubt, 
fix***! oil the frifiids and scenes left behind. Hut this 
wiiH so<in broken by stor\ and sonj^ from ihos<* liilaii- 
oils spirits whom sadness lould not lon;,r restrain, and 
ih«"«'rf Illness reij;iied a;;ain. 

From Ottawa to .F«di«M. winii- a iransfer was made 
t<i tht* nitofT for Indianapolis, the Ke;,dnieni was eiit Ini- 
Hiasiically receive<l in the towns and Nillaues by clu'ers 
aiid words of welcome from the peo|)|e who had 
lH*iir<l of ||i(> Hew K4*;:iiiient. The journey, atiei- having; 
*I(di«'t. was thr«iu;:h a dismal and thinl\ setih'd coun- 
try, with t««\\ns few and far bet w«i'n, but now tin* nov- 
«'lty and e\rit«'nient had worn away, daylij^ht fa«led 
into ilarkiieHH, and each std«lier, having; satislied the 
waiilH of the inner man from his liaversa«U, prepared 
to pass the ni^ht as best he could, «'iiher in his seat 
«»r on the lIiM.r in the aisles. The wiiter remembers 
slii-piny soundly and sweiMly in Mm- laiier |M.siiion. 
I>a.\li;.'lit on Siiii<lay. the 7th, fonnd us in the capital 
of Indiana, but only ii short time was spent there, and 
tlie train iiioviil mi a^ain. 

At niaiiy town» we passed iliroii;:li iht- |HMip|t> 
ftlmweil plainly tlieir Hympaihy for the laiise. ami 

«% iHlieil us "t iod s|m««m|.*' ihoKe .if Se\ Ulour beiu" UUMSU- 

nlly ctirdial and K'^in;: the b..\h all the apphs, p.a. ins, 
I'lr^ they eiinid eat. The da.\ linall,\ diew i.. an . n.i. 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 19 

and at dark the Regiiiient reached JeffersoiiviHe, and 
quifkly (lisenibiirkcd, much wearied with the loni; ride. 
Here an order was received to march out to Camp Holt, 
two or three miles further. The Regiment fell in and 
at nine reached the designated camj), which was found 
to be situated at the Falls of the Ohio, about two miles 
below ]x>uisville. There were no tents or (juarters of 
any kind for us. Naught was to be seen that afforded 
a prosi^ect of shelter except the native forest, through 
which we caught glimpses of the Ohio glistening in the 
moonlight. AH this was romantic and beautiful, but 
hardly what we expected to see in a military camp. 
No doubt many a soldier, as he lay down that night 
on the bare earth, thought of his own comfortable bed 
at home. Without much ceremony the soldiers 
wrapped themselves in their blankets and retired to 
the land of dreams. Fortunately the weather was 
warm and dry, and very little complaining was done. 
Thus closed this Sabbath day's journey, which had 
been a novel experience to many in the Regiment here- 
tofore accustomed to spending it in their homes and 
churches. We began now to realize that there are no 
Siinda3'S for soldiers. 

The rays of the sun had scarcel}' penetrated the 
encampment on the morning of the 8th before reveille 
called the Regiment to duty. After roll-call many or 
all repaired to the river to wash off the stains of travel, 
and in the meantime breakfast was being prepared 
by numerous cooks. The companies had geneially 
divided up into messes of greater or less size as suited 
their convenience. One or two, however, tried the plan 
of having a single table for all, several men being 
detaile<l to cook. Company E employed a civilian for 
a time, but a little experience demonstrated that all 
schemes except the small messes were failures. The 
early history of our cuisine would have puzzled and 
amused the ladies at home. To the soldiers, thrown 
suddenly upon their own resources, the ])roblem of how 
to best accomplish the results sought in the simplest 
and quickest manner was one to Avhicli they gave much 



to THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

Btiiily wIh'U lime iMMiiiitttvl ami rations were pU'iity. 
Viicfe Sam ^iMuTally i»r«»vi«UMl wfll for his Imys, ami 
tliev soon h'armMl h«»\v to ov«TroiiM* llu* iliflicult i«*s in 
tlif way. 

Itrt'akfast in i'ain|( I lull In'iw^ over, various diHirs 
fullowtMl. Sirk tall ami details for y:uar(l ami police 
Wen* iiiatlc. Tlit'ii raiiic rtunpaiiy ami s<|ua<I drill in 
tli«' for«-noMii and hailalion drill in tli«' aflcrnoou. The 
Intervals wt-n* <*mplovfd l»v iIm* nn-n tosuit tlu*msrlvrs. 
AftiT invfsli;.'alin;; ( "aniit lltdl many prornird passes 
iiiid vlsittnl tin* n«'i^lil»orin;^' farnn-rs who had ;j;ood 
onhards. It may In* sarcasm to say tln*y wtri- wfl- 
conn-«l. 

Tin* (irst day in rjimp Molt was, from the novelty 
of tin* snrroiindin^^s, rnjovalde. No more perfect 
weather could have been desired, alheit pretty hot at 
mid«lay. \N'e stood on the border land between fnn^- 
dom and slavery, and could st-e just across the river 
**OU\ Kentucky," the miserable neutrality state, which 
had bet'ii tryin;: so hard to ^et out of th(» Union, or 
else to be allowed to remain neutral, Imt, as Senator 
Stephen A. I>ou;;las said in his last j;reat spee<h at 
the lM-j;innin^ of the war, '•Henceforth there can bi» 
!»ut two parties in this country, one for the Tnion and 
the other a;:ainst it,*' so this slate had been c<unpelled 
to fall into line on the ri;;ht side by tli«' |U-oiiipt artiou 
of her citizens, who, in lar^'e majority, reiiiMiinMJ Inyal 
and true, assisted by I'edi-ral bayonets. 

Kuniors today that (Jeiieral Bra;;;; had be^nin his 
advanee into KentiirKy excited the camp, tienernl 
Kirby Smith, w ith a lair;:e rebel for«-e, was also rej»orted 
to lx» within a few mih*s of t \»vin^ton- -op[M)site (Mn- 
f'innati. Thene reports furnished a sid)ject for thoui;ht 
and s|MMiilation by the camp tires in the evening. Hut 
while the r«*be|H NeiMutd to have the advauta;;e, it \\as 
known thiit <ieneral Kuell, with the .\rmy of the Ohio, 
hnd pUKftcMl NuHliville, and was runinn;; a rac«» with 
Hnici; for I^minvllle. The new re^jiuients had beei» 
|MMiriii(; into the city for days, and they, lo^rther with 
rilifllN pH'MHed into the Service, had huilf .v I .iisi \ ,. 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 21 

eai'tlnvorks and foils. In this exciting- condition of 
affairs the Ivegiment eagerly wished it had tlie neces- 
sary guns and ammunition so that it might take part 
in the anticipated battle. 

The One Hundred and Fourth remained at ("amp 
Holt until the 14th, engaged in drilling from four to 
six hours per day. Tlie weather continued fine, but 
the days were unusually hot. During the week tents 
were obtained, also uniforms, arms and e(iuipments. 
The latter were not satisfactory to the men, but, after 
a vigorous protest by the officers, better ones were 
furnished. All of these things being obtained and 
issued by the Quartermaster, that gentleman was sub- 
jected to considerable vigorous criticism, all of which 
he appeared to receive with affability. The tents were 
the "Sibley," and each large enough to hold from fifteen 
to eighteen men. In appearance they resembled the 
Indian wigwam of the story books. There was an 
opening at the top and a fire could be made in the 
center in case of A^ery cold weather. When the tents 
were full of men, lying down, their feet would radiate 
from the center like the spokes of a wheel around the 
hub. The clothing issued consisted of dark blue jack- 
ets, sky blue pants, blue overcoats with capes, woolen 
shirts and socks, cotton drawers, and blue caps. Some 
of these were made of shoddy and caused much cuss- 
ing of everybody supposed to be responsible for them. 
Each company officer received his quota, and the boys 
at once began to "shuck" their store clothes and don 
the new uniforms. This proceeding proved highly 
amusing when a very tall man stood arrayed, not like 
Solomon exactly, but in a pair of pants about a foot 
too short, and a coat reaching to the waist. The out- 
landish little cap completed the ensemble, and the hero 
was greeted with roars of applause, which he enjoyed 
as much as any one. However, by dint of much trading 
and the use of the tailor's art, all were fitted reason- 
ably well, and at last looked more like soldiers. 

The stay of a week in Camp Holt was productive 
of much imj^rovement in drill and military disciplino, 



t: Tuy iivr nivftuKi" -\Nr> fdL'RTH 

uikI iIh' li«-iiii«iii .»!>»<• at <niiif<l some kiu)\vlo(l<ro ahoiit 
iIh- H4iMi«-i*H lift-, lik«l\ i<» l>«* iis»*fiil. 

M«*aiiiiiiic tin- lu-wK fnmi tin* fr«»ni thai Hra^^ii's 
ariiiv hitil lM*hi«';ittI Muiufonlsx ilk* was coiilirmt'tl, aud 
<|niii»iH wrn* I'Xpntiwtl wIh'IImt CoIoiu'I \ViI«lt*r, vom- 
iiiaiiiliii^ thai |N»st, wuiiM !>«• al»h- \*> lioM tnit until ic- 
n«-v«Ml li\ Itihll. 

KviMitH sti'iiiiil to Im> hastt'iiiii^ aii<l th<' si^^iis aiotniil 
t'aiiii» Holt iiiiliiatiil an rarly i'«'!iioval of tin* IJ«'i:i- 
iiH'iii. Thfi'rfon*. whiMi oil Sniiiiav, th«* 11th, afl<*r ih<' 
usual «luli«'s ha<l Immmi ]H'rfonii«Ml, iiithhliii;; iiisprcl ion, 
an i»nl«T «aiu«' «linMiin;: iln* i{«-;;iiii«Mil to \u- ij-ady to 
iiiarcli at ihmui, ii«t ^;n*al Kui'|>i'isc waK shown. The cam]* 
at oiirc assuiuiMl a iMisitT apiM^afaiico than usual, ami 
all wfVf rn;ja;:«M| in parkin;; up, loadiii;; ua^Toiis, and 
in various oiIht inaltrrs. At twrlvr tin* l{«*;;inh'nt 
iuovihI nut, followed bv thr t fansporiat ioii. 10v«ry 
Mddirr wiiH load«il with all In* fould carry, and, as it 
was vrry hoi, many sulTi'ml srv«*rcly. It had Ihmmi 
aiinounr«*4l that th<* luairh would Im' a short om* (»r a 
(*-\\ mill's, hut, as no halt was made, thosr "frw miles'* 
provtil to Im* Very Ion;;. Sonu* had lo slop ami ri*st, 
niialili* to «'iidiirt' it. 

Aftt-r passiii;r ihrou;;li .IdL'isonvilh' I he lic;:ini«»nt 
llnall^ halh-d a mih* furilicr on in tlio siiliurhs, and 
tiM.k poKHfssion t>f an old brirkvard. Thr jdar*' had 
Imi-u I'litirt'ly di'iimh-d of inTsaml prcsonicd anythin;^ 
lint an inviiin;; appi-aram*' rompar<-d wiih the sylvan 
''hadi-s of ramj) llo|i and lh«« Ih-auiifnl t>hi<t flouin;; 
l»,\ its sid«'. 

It haM ln«oii Miiil that "iuIkimw lovfs j-onipanx," aii<l 
ih.n-fon' it wjiK ^'ratifyln;; to ohsfrvc thai tin* i'i;;litv- 
iir^l, Ki;;hty-s«M«Mid, and Ki;;hlys«'V«'ni h Indiana ha«l 
Imimi plantiMl in the saim* plastic clay near us. It 
h-arned that the Om- Hundred ami Fourth had 
l.«-«-n hripi<le<) Willi Iln-He re;;imeiitK, and that (Jemral 
niirl»rid;:e, a loyal Kentuckian. coininamled the whole 
for«i-. The remainder of this Sahhalh day was fullv 
orcnpi.ll in piichinu the tfiilK and clearin;; away som'o 
,.f il... l..i. 1 . ....... lik.-Iy lo init-rfere with tlu' sle.'pin;;- 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 23 

places on the groiiiid. The «liiy had been one of hibor, 
and all were tired enoiinh to retire early ex('0])t tliose 
(h'sirous of atlendinii,' the prayer meetini;. 

The liiirbrid^c brigade remained in Cam]* (lilberl 
— or, as the boys more aptly called it, "Camp lirickbat," 
— until Wednesday, the ITth. As often happens, how 
ever, it was denioiislrated that a vast amount of experi- 
ence could be actpiired in a short s)»ace (d' tinu^, an<l 
that of the One Hundred and Fourth did not prove 
an exception. The broad exposure to the sun was 
annoyiuji', and our greatest necessity, water, had to 
be brought some distance. The constant moxiui:,' about 
of nearly lonr thcuisaud men within a limiied space 
of sncli character kept the dust in agitation and caused 
it to settle down on everything, to the discomfort of 
the men. It was noticed that the Indiana regiments 
showed less concern about the matter; their appear- 
ance seemed slovenly and was commented on by the 
boys, but a few days' personal experience modified their 
opinions. 

rom])any and battaliiui drill with varions other 
duties fully occupied the time at ('am]) (lilbert. When, 
on the morning of the 17th, an order was issued to be 
ready to march over the Ohio at 9 o'clock, its announce- 
ment met Avith applaus<', Xo one seemed to know 
where (U' how far the command was going, but our own 
imaginations supidied the want of definite informa- 
tion and induced the belief that we were to be led at 
once against the enemy. Every soldier examined his 
musket more closely and gave extra care to his car- 
tridge box and accoutrements. Finally the tents were 
struck and the wagons loaded. A number who were 
sick reported to the surgeons, but as yet the list of 
these was small. AVhen the assembly sounded the 
brigade fell into line, and, after a short march to the 
wharf in Jeffersonville, Avas slowly carried across to 
the other side by two steam ferryboats. Tliis opera- 
tion occupied considerable time, several balky mnles 
in the train or their green drivers causing a delay. P>ut 
at last the One Hundred and Fonrlli stood on the 



SI Tin; «».m; m.M'ici.n a.ni' i > >\ !;iu 

Kiu-nnl Koii of till* Soiitli iiiul vifwt'tl tin* iifw ami 
Kiniiip* h«fni*ti jiImhii us with iiiirivsl. Konniuji in 
liiii", I In* iiiairtli wiiK Ih*p;iiii tlimii^h the strtfts of l><)uis- 
vilh', hut ihrn* wrn* no wi'lmlnin'; rht't-rs fr«»ni an 
f'iip*ran<l h»wil iM-oph* ;;raih*ful (m I hi'ir (h'livt'rcrs fioni 
nihiinifv: no National Ilajrs lh»aiin^i from thr house- 
lo|»H. Fr\v white |MN»ph* a|»|»carc<l, whih* thr Ithnk 
|Mi|Mihitioii lin<*4l the siih'walks and iiciTetl fioni ihr 
>\in«h»u>i. Thf ritv was unth-r ih*- iron «iias|) of luar- 
tiail hiw, anil sentries walktMJ t ln'ir hrats nu every sti*e<*t. 
I^uiisville IiikI het'oine a vast ariueil eanip. Thousainls 
of siihlirrs jiml iiupi*<*ssi-«l riii/iMis wei-i* still at work «la\ 
ami nij^lit mi tin* th-fmsfs. Tin* l*i*«»v«»si Marshal eom- 
|m«II«mI all \\hil«' iiiah- riti/.fiis ImMnximmi the a;:«*s of 
eij;litifii iind foft ylive t«» «lrill «'V«*ry May or pi to jail, 
n rej;ulalion that eaiiseil a ptod «loal of s(|uiriuin«; 
anion;; tin* disloyal ehMiirni. It may In* iuf«'rred that 
as tin- aniiiMl h*;;ioiis of tli«' (iiiou mar<-hed alou^ the 
Htn-i'ls of th«' lM'h'a;.'urrfd riiy siii^iu^ ".lohu HroxN n's 
IhmIv li«*s niouldi'iin;; in I ho ;;ra\o, iiut his soul j;oes 
luarehin;: on," and otloM* patriotic sou;;s, those who 
|miks4'knimI tender ffelin^is on tin* slavery «pn'siiou did 
n«>t luivo their admiral iou for "^'aukee" soldiers 
InrreiiKeij to jilIX (ofisitleralde ext«*ni. 

After passing; throu;;h Louisville and luarehiiiy; out 
Into the roiiiitry some tlire«« ndles the hriyade went 
into riimp on the plantation of the rebel i^n'ueral. Simon 
n. niiekiier. The ample ;:rounds in front of his larjre, 
line hrirk ret*ideiire made jin aidiniralde hivoiiar for i lie 
Ite^iiiienl, whose ideas about surh thinj;s were yet aes- 
lh«'lie. No phi re could have bei-n more |o\ ely ; t he beau- 
tiful ^in-i'ii lawn hlo|M'd ^'ently tlown from liie house, 
and was covered with a scattered ;L:f«»wili of nobl«> oak 
and \HHt'U tn'i'H, under the shade of whii h we lerliued 
when not oil tint v. A stone wall laid in moriar. with 
an lr«»ii uaie, encloKeil the ample i,'rounds. This was 
oiii fii-Ht view of 11 typical Southern manor, the idt»al, 
tiMi, of one of the inoHt aristocratic of the slaveholdin}; 
rlilvalry. and fiiniisheil a Hiibject for much reflenion. 
Klranp*. thai while Ceiieml Simon ltoli\er |{iirkuer 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 25 

by the courtesy of Geiieral Grant and President Lin- 
coln was enjoyino- the lios])itality of Uncle i^am in F(»i't 
Wari'en, the Reitinient slumhl be eni;a<:,ed in liuanling' 
his property while incidentally guests upon his lordly 
estate! 

Truly, the lines had fallen t»> us in jilcasanl places, 
made more attractive by the warm balmy air and the 
hazy atmosphere peculiar to this latitude in autuuin, 
so that to live in it was life and health. When night 
came no one missed the tents left behind, but, 
wrapped in their army blankets, the men lay down on 
the velvety green lawn with the starry heavens for a 
canopy. « 

The succeeding live days were passed in this place, 
known as Camp Robinson, which acquired also the 
soubriquet of "Gamp Grasshopper," from the abun- 
dance of that festive insect among us. Drill by com- 
pany and battalion was zealously pursued. The 
depressing news of Colonel Wilder's surrender on the 
ITth, with several thousand men had reached us, and 
it was feared that Bragg would be thundering next 
at the gates of Louisville. Some rebel prisoners 
brought in from the front increased the runu)rs and 
excitement in camp. 

SVIiile in Gamp Grassh(q)])er many of the men, in 
anticipation of hard marching and tighting ahead, sent 
home their surplus clothing. 

The quality of the rations issued here caused a mild 
tumult one morning and led to some very vigorous 
measures as well as language on the part of some of 
the companies, who, shouldering the objectionable 
bacon and "hard tack," proceeded to interview the 
Quarternmster. Before night an exchange was made 
for sui)plies not liable to Avalk oil' without notice. 

The brigade had its tirst review on the 21st by Gen- 
eral Burbridge and presented a splendid appearance. 
The spectacle of nearly four thousaml men drawn up 
in battle array, with all the ])omp and ])ano]dy of glori- 
ous Avar, performing military evolutions, their burn- 
ished arms flashing in the sunlight, was well calculated 



St THK «>NK Hl'NDHKD AND FoLKTH 

IM awakt'ii \>\'u\i' n\u\ «Mitlinsijisiii. AftiM- ii*v*u*nv, w liirh 
«'los«tl iib<Mil Miinl«»\vn. ih.- K«'j:inn-in iii;iitlM'«l t<> qiiar- 
terw ami bn»kf ranks for tin* «l:iv. AiiMthi-r Sunday's 
dutli»« had Immmi iMTfoniMMJ and tluM-viiiin-; was divtded 
to lUi' uKual ramp ^lossip. \vritin«r I«-(trrs, or prayer 
m<*«*(iii^. 

Tlir ruiiiors lo whirli \\v luid Immmi irt'Mird <'Vtiy diiy 
lMi-aiii<* iiiort' fxrliin;! on tin* in«»rnin;; ol i lie L'Jiid. Mui •' 
n-lM-l jirisoni'rs. said lo havt- ln-rn taU<n only hii or 
lUtti-n niilfs out, had Im-«-ii l(ron;:hi in, and sonic of our 
**inuh' w harkrrs," who always smnrd to haNo ihf lirsi 
lU'Ws, ii«|M»rl«il ihr a|»proa<h of Hra^r^^'s advantc Tlio 
Ktorifsdid not ;:ro\\ U-ss in siz«* hy tilling. Al^^" >l't* fact 
WHK K<Nin in»t«'d that all tin- «onnliy |MM»ph', white and 
bhu'k, wi-n- ll\in;: in hast*- towaiil Lonisvilh-. 'IIk- 
aftir»»Haid tranistfi*8 r«»ntirnM'd this disrowry. Uui, 
though tin* day passed withonl tlu* Ho^nni«*nt luin^ 
ralh'd sndth'idy to prrpar** for action, it was rxcitin^ 
enough to k«M«p all in inonn'niary rxp<'rt:il ion of sonic- 
thin;: new and startliii;;. and when at ni;j:hltall t'oloncl 
MiHin* iiTciviHl orders to march the Keuiim-nt ha« k to 
I^Miisville, it was construed to mean thai the enemy 
ctinld not he far away. 

Ahont 1» o'clock the march heiran, and after strik- 
ing the main road it became a|>parent that many otlnM- 
forci-M were also iakin;r the same direct ion. Tlie <lelays 
rauHiMl b\ a blockade of tin* transportation were fre- 
ipient and very lires«»me. Company K ha<l been de- 
taib'il UH Vi'iir ^nard, which was consiih-.ed an honor, 
iiM fmin the Hl;;ns a ti;;ht or adventure of sonn* Ixind 
promising ;:lory was not nnlikely. IWit notjiin;: more 
exciiin;: than the capture of sundry stray cili/ens and 
ne;:roi-H happ4-ned, and these were taken alon^ as 
tni|diies. At 2 o'clock in the moniin- the Kr<jiiiient 
arrixiil w iiliin the defenses and lay do\\ n to sleep on t he 
breaHi wiirks. < Ml the morn in;: of the l!:{rd the Iveuimeiit 
went into camp jiisi below a lii;:li blulT on the easiern 
ontnkirtH of the city, in a location surrounded by |»ack- 
itiClioiiMtt and tumbledown tenements. .\ dirty s;|ou;:h 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 27 

emitted offensive and disease-breeding odors. The place 
was called Camp Wilder. 

We saw no more of the Indiana regiments and the 
One Hundred and Fourth was temporarily uuhrigjulcd. 
It was learned that General Bragg had declined tiie 
battle offered to him on the 21st and 22nd, and had de- 
flected his army further east toward Lexington, where 
he could gather in more supplies, of which his army 
stood in need. He also hoped to gain many recruits to 
his ranks from the Kentuckians. The aggressive cam- 
paign of the enemy in Kentucky had ended, as with 
General BuelPs veteran army ami the .~)0,000 new troops 
in and around Louisville further operations of an offen- 
sive character would prove disastrous. 

The startling peals of the "long roll" at 3 a. m. ou the 
24tli, aroused the regiment from its slumbers. This 
meant to fall in at once, first, however, falling out of bed 
in double-quick time, if by courtesy ground floor privi- 
leges could be so called. There w'as a hasty donning of 
overcoats, arms and accoutrements, after which the 
companies formed on the color line. The Regiment 
being aligned and having come to an "order arms*' and 
"rest," awaited further orders. When at last daylight 
appeared the companies were dismissed to their quar- 
ters. It was learned later that the order calling us u]) so 
early emanated from the commander of the I'ost of 
Louisville, and was intended for purposes of discipline. 

Our tents, left behind, did not arrive until the 2r>th, 
just in time for a change in the weather. The Regiment 
for several days sent heavy details to work ou the forti- 
flcations, which extended along the hill southeast of the 
camp and ran through a lovely cemetery. It seemed 
like sacrilege to thus invade the city of the dead, but 
military necessity often compels many things to be done 
that seem cruel or unnecessary. "Inter arma silent 
leges." 

While at Camp Wilder the One Hundred and Fourth 
received calls from several Ottawa citizens, among 
them Sam W. Raymond, Thos. J. Wade and Richard 
Thorne, all of whom had relations or friends in the 



r Tli.. - -w. HUNDRKl' AM< Kt'fUTH 

K*'i;iujrni. ii iM ikhmIIi^hk to miv that >v«' wovo jrlad to sec 
llifiii. 

Tlu* Ki'^iiiKMit h|K-iii ilifiii;;ht of tlirL'oth ou the color 
Jim* umltT ariiiN from «laik until daylifihi. This was in 
olKilifurt* tt» aiiothiT tU'iU'i* fnun hi*a«l«|uarters, and 
MnMuiiI HiMiM'li'Ks rnoM^h, fsiMM-iallv as th»* lurn luol 
wurkiMi all «lav in ihf trtMuhos ami wen* ontitlfil lo n-si. 
Our ideiiH uf {^luriouK war lio^aii to Ih* of a less romantic 
fhara«'tt«r as wi* camo far** to fa«M' with tlu' coM liai'tl 
fails. 

On tho nnirninj; of tin* L'sth rumors w»*rt' (irculair.l 
that tlu* K«*;:iin«'nt would leave soon for the fioiit, wlii« li 
nieaiii atiivi* scrvi«*<* in tin* field and suite*! oiii- itl«a> 
Ik'Hit than Nxoikiu;: on fortilitatious. It was also 
d(*tiniti*l.v settled that the Ue;:inn'nl had heen assij^ned 
to the Thirty iiinlh Brigade, Twelfth division, Aiiiiy of 
the Ohio, Tolonel (1. 1', Liinher;:, of the One llundfovl 
aud Ki|;hth Ohio, had Immmi appointed to command the 
brigade, which consisted of the ( Mie llundiH'd and 
Fourth Illinois, One Hundred aud Sixth and One Ihni- 
dreil amd Kichth (Miio, the two latter heinjj; (ierman 
n'j:iinents partially oi-;;ani7,ed. (len^ral I'3. l)iiiin»ni 
commanded the division. 

The •♦\« iiin;: event of the L'lMh was the sliootin^^ of 
Ueneral Nelson hy tJeiieral delTC. Davis, in the (lault 
HoiiM* at lionisville. Itoth were distinguished Inioii 
^Jeiierals. When the fa«ls liecaine known ]tni>Iie 
opinion justilied the latter. 

Major .lolin II. \N i«lmer arriv«*d to-«lay, and was 
warmly we|conn'<l hy a s«'renade in the eveniuLr, wliich 
ende<| in pMHTal kimmm-Ii inakin;:. 

The hri^'jide receivd marcliiu'j orders on the :;(iili. 
and from then until the :{r«l of n«io|ier was held in 
nMidin<*KM to leaiveat short notice, the tents heinj; struck 
and camp <i|uipa;;e packed every morninu:. Meantime 
tluMiKands of tmops were alreadv mo\ in^ out. Ueforo 
we U'ft the pro« lamation of rresldein Lincoln in re^^ard 
to fn-i-in^ the nlaves in the rehellious state.-s raine to 
hand and met a»« a pMieral Ihinj; with approval lt\ the 
men. Many. like the writer, had enlisted not to "freo 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 29 

the nigger," as the phrase went, but to save the Union. 
However all must have foreseen the logical outcome, 
and no doubt came at last to accept it as right and just. 
At all events new hope and vigor seemed to be imparted 
to the men. 

Late on the 2nd, definite orders were received to 
march early the next morning, and we settled down to 
spend our last night in Camp Wilder. 



< iiAi'Ti:i: \. 



IXAvlns Camp Wlldrr— A lUrU Maroh— Arrlvo at Shelhyvllle— 
Conftiwair' WaKonit— Atti'ini't l<i Hct-owr Contrabamln— March 
t.. Krnnkforl -lUmy H.-trcat of the Rf«>eli»— Colonel Lin>»».rK''8 
Arrt-m— 4*<.in|»«ny K Ralmm a Klaic— Wild Ctooiie Chase After 
M-'fjun— Mttrrh t" Itowllnir <JrtH>n— SufferlriK l>y the Way— 
ArrtvMl n( li^iwllnx ••n-t-n— Review and Speech by Gener- 
al R<>M^-ran»— Thirty-Ninth Rrlgade Detached— Colonel Scott 
A*«umr* Command. 



Ill roiiKtMUHMM*' of onlt'i's nMM'ivtMl lull* tin* pn*vi«»u8 
uijclit. to Im* r«*ji«lv to iiijircli early on the iiiornhi^ of Oct. 
3, tin* hovM t iiriMMl out in'omptly at tiie souii«l of reveille 
aiitj fell ill f«»r roll call. Aftei- an early breakfast the 
lent.-* were siriirk, kiiapsatks paek«Ml aii<l all the prepa- 
nilioiiK iiiiule for marching. The wajj:oiis »»f each com- 
pany wiTe loa«le<l to their full jjipacity, containing;, 
lMt.i»leM caiiip e«|uipa;:«* ami commis.sary stores, a ^oo«l 
niaiiy knapHacks of tin* men, but still each soldier had 
a heavy h»a«l to carry, including' his musket and forty 
mniHlxof aiiiiniiniiioii. 

All liein^ rejuly, ".lor" soumled the "assembly," the 
< Mie 1 1 II ml red and I'oiirih formed in ranks, and, march- 
ing out of t'aiiip \N ihh'r, was joined by the rest of llie 
brigade on the blnlTh. We then took up the line of 
march on the turnpike leading' to Shelby ville, K«Mitucky. 
The H|HMiacle befMi«- iiur ey«'h uas inspiring:. We saw in 
llie diNiaiice Ion;; liiien of infant ry and bat teries of art il- 
IiTV, all f«dlow«*<l by ininieiise wapm trains coniainini: 
ratioUK and ainmnnliion. '{'here was satisfaction in 
thi* tiion;:hl that we were m.w a part of t his errand armv 
of nearl\ .vti.non men imirchin;: to ih<> from. Th,. ,i;i\ 
wai« tine of natiire'h lovelieht. only too h..i. 'rii,. roads 
wi*r«* ilimty, ami we hooh HiifTfriMi from want of water, 
wliirh. on acroiinl of thr Ion;: drou;;ht, was low in iln- 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 31 

wells and streams — braiiches as they are called iu the 
South. 

After a short halt at noon for dinner, the march was 
resumed, but not with the same quick step and buoyant 
spirits as iu the morning. The knapsacks were becom- 
ing heavy. By nigiit a number of men had fallen out 
and did not again appear until the next morning. The 
trouble lay partially in our attempts to carry too heavy 
an assortment of goods, such as extra shirts, blankets 
and notions of various kinds. As the day passed many 
of these extras were quietly left by the roadside. The 
author, being much given to writing, left a deposit r>f 
fine stationery as his contribution. 

When night came and no halt was made all had 
becfjme so footsore and wearied that to march was 
I>ainful. But there was no resigning in this war. The 
order was still forward, and not until 1 a. m. was a 
change made. We then turned into a blue-grass side- 
hill pasture by the road, and in ten minutes probably 
every soldier had found rest in slumber. The writer 
recalls with gratitude how that, as he was just about 
going off to the land of dreams, Orville L. Moorhead, of 
Company E, came and gave him a drink of cordial from 
his tlask (I think that was what he called it and it pro- 
duced cordiality). This gallant soldier fell soon after 
at Hartsville. 

Footsore and more or less weary, we awoke before 
the sun on Saturday morning, r)ct. 4. A thousantl little 
fires made from '^secesh" rails lighted up the early land- 
scape. A thousand tin cups, each S(ddier carrying one, 
contained the fragrant coffee of which Uncle Sam fur- 
nished a good article. This, with bacon and hardtack 
from the haversacks, put all in good sj)irits again. 

The march was resumed immediately after break- 
fast. Looking back upon the deserted bivouac, and be- 
yond to the rear, the ground was strewn with numerous 
discarded articles. One would have supposed that sev- 
eral second-hand old clothinti- stores ha<l been cutted 
and the contents scattered around. The vultures wi-vo 
behind us scenting their prey from afar. 



B THE ONB HUNDRED AND FOIIITH 

Tlu* Mvi ion of Kfiitutkv tlii-oii;:!! wliiili \v«* inari IumI 
wuM hijjlilv tuliivatiMl. ViiKi ulainaiious ixiiii.leii in 
eviTv tllrtMtloii. Tlif lar^'f rt'HMloiucH ami mj^ro quai- 
t€»r8 t>ii KoiiM* tif tin-Ill lo|«| (»f wralili ami coiiiforl. Hut 
Ui-raMioiiailv \v«* pasKiMl l««ss iinMriiiioiis lioiisos or tlu* 
log liiitM «»f tlif **iMM»r wiiil*' irasli," ami the «oimasi 
wiiH an iiiarkiHl as tlu* «lifr«'n*mi' in tin* iMMipU'. All of 
Iln-M- tliinjis wrio fl«-\v to us ami of surpassing' inteivst. 
Wf wiTt* iHMoiniii*; iMliicatrM in !u«»rf wa.vs than on.-, 
Illid In a |ir:iii i< ;il injiiiin-r, i III |Miv>iIiIi' to IcaiMi lioiii 

iMHiks. 

As ihr sun UK'Uiitrd 111 tin- /.<iiiiii wi- lM';^an »<» I'l'fl 
its ffTiMts. I'liusrW to colli iiiuous iuar»hin;x, luany «;av«' 
out. < MoikIh of (lust ami sranit v of water a<ltl<'<l to tlic 
•llMromfort. A f«'\v of tlu* Im»\ s, imu-e dariiiL: than others, 
iiiaiiapil to slip away, ami p>in;; to nei^'lihorin;^ plan- 
liitioiis iontisral«-4l several N\a;:oiis. which they luou^ht 
up ami loaded with knapsacks, thus relieving many ol 
thi* men. After dark we continued on in silence until 
II o'clock, when Shelhyvllle was leached, and we went 
into camp m-ar the town, having marched thirty-three 
miles since leaving; Louisville. A pari of DuMnuil's 
division nMiiaiiied at or near Shelhyville until \N edues- 
cliiy, (Vt. N. The One Hundred and rourth enjoyed iIm- 
r«*Hl very mmli. Those who have read "I'mle Tom's 
Cahin" will reinemher the vivi«l scenes therein picture<l 
of this place and its pi^iple in tin* days of slavery. We 
found it a small, ramldin;: villa;;*', in which iie;;ro»>. 
miMutMl to pnilominate. \N'e learned that most «»f the 
whites were rebels. As <'aptaiu Leii:hton remarked. 
*'ll is a very secesli pla<e." When our hoys discovered 
tliiK they coiiclud«*d thai a Utile cont rihui ion in the 
Hlia|N> of turkeys, chickens, hom-y, etc., from the lioiiies 
of the iiolde citiy.eiiM, now mostly in the Kehel army. 
uould he an appropriali- lesiimonial of our esteem 
Tliereftipe many a fine ;;oldder, intended for the Christ 
iiiiiK home miirket, found his way into the mess pans of 
the One flundreil und I'oiirlh. It is true that p-iieral 
orders did not Ham lion fora;;in;; of this kind, on the 
rontniry forhade it, hul ih.- im-u com Imhil ihai om 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. SS 

enemies ouj^ht to feel son^e^vhat of the consequences of 
their Avicked rebellion against the government. The 
Unionists were left untouched or else were paid for what 
was taken.' 

The days at Shelbvville had passed most pleasantly, 
though we were in expectation every hour of orders to 
march. Reports that large forces of Rebel cavalry were 
within five miles of us tended to keep things lively. It 
was certain that wandering too far from camp miglit 
be dangerous, as every white man was a spy, or likely 
to be one, and shooting from ambush was a common 
occurrence. It Avas learned that General SilFs division 
and part of Dumont's on Oct. 7, met and drove the 
enemy under Kirby Smith, from Frankfort aud occupied 
the town. These forces constituted the left of BuelFs 
army, the bulk of which Avas on our right, and numbered 
eight diA'isions — ab(mt 00,000 men in all. If Bragg could 
haA^e been brought to bay a battle Avould haA'e occurred. 

In pursuance of orders, we resumed the march at 
noon and were in better shape, as each company had an 
extra mule team to carry the baggage. These Avere con- 
fiscated from the rebel citizens hereabouts and caused 
much commotion. With them were numerous contra- 
bands. About the time we set out, and after moving, 
the OAA'ners of the aforesaid goods and chattels put in 
an appearance and tried to gain a hearing from Colonel 
Moore and other officers. Some, more bold than others, 
tried to snake out the contrabands, Avho kept close to 
the ranks, but they little knew the temper of the men. 
At once an order passed down the line of the regiment, 
"Fix bayonets!" A citizen had grabbed a darky from 
the rear of Company A. Sergeant Woodward, of Com- 
pany B, being near by, broke his musket OA'er the rebel's 
head. This demonstration satisfied the gentleman, and 
thereafter Ave had no more trouble. The march con- 
tinued all night, but was made with comparative ease. 
Just as the first gray streaks of dawn lighted up the 
eastern horizon on Oct. 9 the Thirty-ninth Brigade en- 
tered the environs of Frankfort, where the turnpike we- 
had traA^eled came to an end on a high bluff overlooking 



U THK ONK Hl'NDUKD AND FOURTH 

ill.- iit>. \N li.i-Iiii;; l.» tin* \rU tin* hriy:a«lt' wout iui»» 
«am|» jil«nij; its lunw . ;;liul l«» !»•• allitu «m1 |m irsi aft«'!' 1 h«' 
loii;; iii;:lil iiiarrh. 'VUv l«Malioii was «;raiul. Inn siihjrct 
to suiiH* iiiroiivi'iiitMicf, as llnTc was iim wati-r to b** had 
iifurtT tliaiii tin- rivtT, u ton«iih*falilr ilisiamt* away. 
TlMMffon* tlir «o(T»M« aiiii hn-akfast w«-r«- lair. It Ix'in;; 
HM'crlaiiitMl thai wt* woiihi rmiaiii in tin* pn'snit loca- 
tion only ti'ni|>orarily. tln*«lay wass|M-ni in rrslin«;an<l 
inakiii^ short trips in tht* viriniiy, an<l to tin* hridp* ovi*r 
tin* rivfr. whirh was ;;iiaril<-il. iMirin;; tin* <lay in*WN 
arriv«il that a ;:r«'at hatih- ha<l Immmi fon;:hl tin* May 
|tn*vionsat |N*rry\ilh'. part irnhirs not known. We now 
li*arn<il th<' fa<*ts in rt';>ai*<l to the occupation nt I'lanU 
fort liy our troops. It appeared that whrn oui- < avalr\ 
forcfs Mn<lil«*nl\ rntrrtMl tin* town a p«»rtion of t'lrnnal 
Kirhy Sniii h's romniaiKl. all nnininilfnl of t lit- a {iproa ch- 
in;; storm, were linsil\ cn;;a;;«Ml in the plc;isinLi <<ic- 
niony of inaii<:ui*atin^ Dick Hawcs as ilic *K<iMl I'l-i 
\isionar* tJoNcrnor of Kentucky. But while thus em 
plo\»Ml they were sn<hlenly ami rmlely interrupted l>y 
tin* blait* of the I'nion cavalry lMi;;les ami the io;ir of 
lomlinont lied cannon planted on the very site of our 
pn*sent camp. Ilawes and his rebels barely had limo 
to escape b> the back dooi'. ||is address t<» the "I'ree 
and patriotic people «d Kentucky," as he called them, 
wuK left unlinisheil, jind thus ended the brief ri-iun of 
Dick Ilawes. As one of t he boys reniaikeil : 

"If HO Hoon li«' wnH i|on»» for, 
What In thunil«*r wan hi« l>oKun for?" 

Our iinpreHKions of I'rankfoit were most favoraith . 
The blue waters of the Kentucky liNer tlowed by in a 
half «irc|e, and on the concaxf of this Ia\ the »itv, a 

phice of fi.ur thousand | pie. nestled in aiiionj: ili. 

hills, I'ui-ther back bluITs from iw.» humlred to fom 
InindnM] fii-t UmU rose in terraces, and were i..\.i, ,1 

with pine, cedar and b h. Down below our camp la\ 

the Kentucky riv.-r. valley. Ibr,. was the luMiie of 
Daniel IImmh... the "Pioneer of Kentu«ky." This was ih. 
dark an. I '•' 'x MMuml. maile memorable b\ maii\ a 



REGIMENT ILLINOKS VOLUNTEERS. 35 

fierce contest between the early white settlers and t heir 
Indian foes. 

When at night-fall the camp-fires of tiie One Hun- 
dred and l<\)urtli were liiihted on the blulfs many a 
soldier lingered long by their tiickering blaze to medi- 
tate on the day's experience, and later, wrapped in his 
blanket, to dream of the historic scenes now before him. 

The One Hundred and FiMirth arose early on I lie 
lOth, fr(Mn the coucIk'S of fragrant c(Mlar boughs, and 
just in time to see the snn crowning the hills in wreaths 
of golden brightness. During the day the regiment 
moved camp to the south eml of the bi'idge in the valley 
where the tents were })itclied and ])repa rations made 
for remaining some time. Drill ancl the ivgular camp 
(Inties were again inangnrated. Company F, under the 
command of Lieutenant Wni. Strawn, Avas detaile<l to 
guard the capitol, and from all accounts the l)oys had a 
g(M)d time in the legislativ^e halls. Other companies 
went on guard duty at various points in the city and 
vicinity. 

It had noAv become definitely known that Bragg and 
his army were hurrying out of the state, leaving, how- 
ever, ^1 organ's and Forrest's cavalry to cover his rear 
and hover on the flanks of our army, which was pur- 
suing. 

While in Frankfort a good deal of sensation was 
caused by the arrest of Colonel Limbc^rg, commanding 
our brigade, on the charge of "horse-stealing"' doni^ 
while enroute from Louisville. In consequence of this 
Colonel Moore, the next highest ranking officer, as- 
sumed command of the Thirty-ninth I^rigade and estab- 
lished his headquarters in town. Colonel Moore imme- 
diately a])pointed Captain James M. Leighton, of Com- 
])any A, One Hundred and Fourth, as his Assistant A<1- 
jutant Geufn'al. Lieutenant-Colonel llapeman took 
command of the regiment. The rest of the week passed 
quietly, and the fine weather with our pleasant sur- 
roundings were enjoyed by all. On the 11th, a part of 
the One Hundred and Fourth, with detachments from 
the One Hundred aud Sixth and One Hundred and 



TH I- ' ••'^ ' ■ " ' .s 1 -li t .1 • A "^ ' 



iiKTH 



Ki;:htli. u.n-MMit iu.|..f..ml a l.aiins ulii.li l.a.l Immmi 
ilin-at.-ii.ll Willi alia. k. I.ni ii was u..i iiwul.-. 

Th.- writ.T ami a Uw ..iImi-h .m Siin.lay. tli.- l-Hi. 
w.-iit I., visii 111.- !...auiif«il .•.•iii.-t.-iy ..ii il».- lilutls ii.-a. 
III.. riv.T ll.-n- n-^» «»"• n-iiiaiiis ..f many r.-lcbrated 
K.-lilu.kiaiis. Slal.ly sl.afis ..f n.ai hi.- aii.l bioii/.- . ..ni 
ii„Mii..ral.- III., naiu.-s aii.l .I.^mIs ..f li.M.ii.-. flay, < al.l 
w,.|| «-..|..ii..| K. M. .I..hns..ii aii.l ..lli.-i-s. Paitinilai l.\ 
iioli.V.al.l.' Hixiv f.-^'i lii^l« >M»^ ""* iiiMiiinn.M.t ly 
ro|..ii..l .I..I111 .1. Ilanliii. win. f.-ll in M«xi«M win!.- l»a.l 
iiij; an inin..iK r.-;;iin.iii. N«-ar by w. n- srv.iit.Mii n.-w 
ma. I." ;;rav..s ..f s..l.li.-rs wli.. ha. I fall.-n in llu- pn-s.-nl 
tinhappv war. Tli.y u.-n- unmaik.Ml l.y marl. I.- slab! 
Wlial aVMiitrasl was |.n-s.-nl.-.l b.-l w.mmi ili.-s.-aml iIk.s.- 
\..n.l.T in ih.-ir "spl.-mli.! mo.k.ry ..f marbl.-!" \\ ..ary 
aii.l iniNlitativ.-ly \\v n-lurn.-.l to .ami. as tli.- rays ..f 
th.- M.tiin;; snn li^'lit.'.! \\\* tin- K.ntn.ky liills. 

Th.-.-v.-nt ..fill.' i:?lli.al i.-ast f..r t '..mpany i:. was a 
tla^' i-aisin;;. Tliis .MmiiMny, fioin fi-.'.|ii«'iil dulv in iIh- 
.ily. ha. I lM-.-..nn- w.-ll km.wn to tli.- liiioii < ii i/rns, an.l 
lln.y iiivi!...! rapiaiii I».»ly ami hism.n to raise th*- Stars 
ami Sirii».-s on a m-w stafl" lln-y ha.l j.rovi.h'd. Ai th»' 
ji|.lM.ini...l h.tnr ih.- rompanv was .-scortcl bv a band 
..f innHJ.- ami a .l.-l.';ralion ..f s.-v.-ral liun<ir.'<l la.lirs an. I 
^..ntl.-m.'ii l.» Ih.. pla..*, w h.-r.- ( ojoml Dt.tv inifiirbd 
th.' Starrv llanm.r I.. Ih.* br..../.' amidst h.-art.v rhit-rs. 
'rii.-n .lu.lj:.- S.oi! mad.' a patriotic sp.-.'.h, b.llow.'d l.y 
Ih.' v.-m-rabl.' tb'ii.'ral L.-sli.- Coiubs a hero of two 
wan*, wlm was pr.'s..|il al Ih.* batth' w h.-rct 'olon.'I .lohn- 
Hon sh.ii Ih.' trr.'al In.liain .hi.'f. T.'. ums.'li. Aft. r souk- 
fnrih.'r pal riot i« .-x.'r.is.'S th.' ass.'inbly disp.-rs.'d and 
i '..mpaiiy K man h.-.l ba. k i«. ipiart.'is. proud of tin- pan 
il ha.l lak.'ii, ami th.' warm pla< .• »'\id«ntl\ scmn-d in 
III.' h.'ariH ..f rraiikf..rrK |.»yal p<'opl<-. 

NNhih- III.' Thirty iiinlh |{ri;:ad.- was t Iimn pli-as mi 1\ 
Mitnal.'.l ami .hiil> improviip^ in drill, onr roinrad.'s in 
till* Ib'l.l w.'n* man-hill^ .»n in liop.-s ..f ov.-rtakin^ Hi- :ii:u 
b.'f.m. h.' .•.•nhl ..»«ap.' into 'r.nn.'ss...'. (Min-ral Ilmll 
having; Imi-ii .liHapp.iinl.l in this, or.h*r<d a rom «iil ra 
ti.m ..f hiH army at Howling r,n'.*n and Na>.li\ill<' ami 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 37 

iIi(Mliff(M'('iit divisions \v<m-(' ])iit (Miroiile for those points, 
TiK'Twcinii Division stili remained at Frankfort await- 
ing- other movements and that of General iSill, south of 
ns, then inovino- to fJlasgow. 

Nothing- of iin])oHance disturbed the traiKiuillii y <d' 
the Thirty-ninth JJrigade until the ISih, when a report 
coming in that Morgan was raiding with his eavaliw 
around a little place called Versailles, fourteen mile's 
distant, we were suddenly called ujmn at J) \>. m. to get 
in pursuit, wiiicli we did in h(»t haste. After a tedious 
nuirch we riniched Versailles at 3 o'clock on the morn- 
ing of the IDth, but the enemy had tied and the Brigade 
bivouacked until G, when the march was resuuKMl xo 
Lawrenceburg, thirteen miles further. But we were 
again too late — caused by a shot tired at the enemy by 
our artillery. They left behind a wounded horse "^and 
some supplies. As it now became a])parent that the 
attempt to capture cavalry with infantry would be 
useless, the Brigade was marched back to Frankfort 
where it finally arrived, tired and hungry. 

The warm autumn days were disai)i)earing and the 
nights becoming chilly. During our stay at Frankfort 
many attachments for tlie ])lace and ix'ople jiad been 
formed, but the a])proach of winter ma<h' us anxious to 
hear of marching orders for a warmer climate. 

By the 25th it became known that Bragg had es- 
caped from Kentucky through Cumberland (Jap. (len- 
•eral Buell had not been able to catch up nor bring on a 
battle, but was pressing forward toward Nashville, 
Avhere General Negley had been left with a small force 
Avhen Buell marched to the relief of Louisville. It now 
became imjiortant to i-aise the siege of Nashville, Avhich 
had been unsuccessfully attacked by the forces of For- 
rest and Breckinridge from Murfreesboro, as it was 
anticipated that Bragg wonld hurry forwai-d additional 
troops, via Chattanooga, in ho])es of capturing the city. 
There was in(li<ated to us in the various movements on 
the grand chess board of war an early nmrch of Du- 
mont's Division, therefore, when, on the 2.")th, orders 
<!ame.to be ready to leave at 8 the following morning, 



» THE C>NK HiviiUhli a N" I • lolKTH 

no «»in' wjiK Korrv. Tin- \\«:iilni liau iiiriUMl vi-rs to|<| 
ami KiM.w hail fallen l«» lln- «l«'i»ili «»f srvnal iiirhrs <lnr- 
iii;: tlir I'vciiiiic. 

Tln'Tliiriviiiiitli llri;:a«l«' was ast ir rail v on Siiinla> 
tin* '-'tifli. Tin* air was rhill.v nii<l lln* «laiii|> snow iinulr 
iiM ftfl mit oiiifnrialil*' an w«* wrn* «Mi;:a;:«*«l in pat kiii^ 
ii|i an<l loatlin;: lln* \Na;;oiis, 'I'liosr ronlisralt-tl ai Slul- 
hyvillf \\r jiroiMimMl lo tak<* alonn, hut iln*ir owin*rs lia«l 
followiil and th'nian«hM| their i»ro|MMt\, thriffon' with 
nni« h pfhi* «an««' tliev wen* ^iivrn u|>, with a ffcc <'X- 
|ir«>HHioii of opinion in i«*;;ai<l to thr trndt-i im'ss of oni' 
«»fli»ft> for tin* rrln'l ownris. No inon- atioinpts w«M(* 
niaiih* to rcrovi'r the contrahainls in «atii|). an<l it was 
well, as tli»-ri' woiihj liavr li»-«'n op»ii wai- <»ii this 
(|ii<*stion. 

At H o'rjork lln* iiifantiv, aiiillory antl cavaliy of 
Ihinnuit's division wm* in lino, tho hn^io soninlnl the 
"forwanl" ami, with hamis jiiayin^ an<l t!a;:s llyin;:, wo 
iiiair«-h«*4l awav towani tho south. (»iii- lonio for ti\o 

inilos la,\ o\or a ;: I t ninpiko innnin;: ahm;.' i he hi nil's 

of flu* K«*iitnrky riv«T. tliosronoiy \\as;:raini. ilio iroos 
Iwin^ tovommI with snow. whi«h ;;list«'nc(l in iho sun- 
li|:ht with ila/./Jiii<^ hri;:htm*ss. Knt \\«* soon stinck a 
iNNtfor roa«l iIii'oiim|| ;i ihit. ilonsoiy wooth**! rountry 
ofTorin;: no variot\ of sroin*iy. ami, as rxny man was 
fiirryiii^ from forty to lifty ponmis, tin- lomanroof war 
lH*;;aii to he loht si^ht of in tho lahorious task of march- 
in;;. I'ow honsos w oio passotj. an<l I ho loiiiiiry iMM-ano' 
of a ronj^loT rharartor. In tho afloiiiomi wc niarchod 
lhnMi;:h a Hmall lo;; hainlol rallo«l "Koiiuh an*l lo:oly" 
wliirii Ufll iloKorvoil tin* minio. huth on a<-<-onnt ol tho 
cliiirartorof tho lMiihlin;:s ami tho |M-o|»h.. a fow of whom 
viMiluro<l to HJHiw ihonisolvos on tho siroci.s or at tho 
winilowh ami «loors. Wo passoil thron;;|i La wromoitnr;; 
towiinl ni;;ht. ami ;:oin;: fonr milos hoyontj haltoii ami 
HiMil into rsinip li\ tho roailsiilo at 7 p. m.. t iiod out with 
lln* ila>V loil. i'ori nnaii'l> tho wa;:on train arrived 
HiMMi. tho li'i^tH uon- pill hod ami tho rations cookod. 
AfliT MupiMM- ami ronr«i« tho ramp iiKKuinod a li\olirr 
apiHMirami-. Imt all u.-ro ;;lad to koop noar Ih.- tiros, for 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 39 

which tlio cliestnut rail fc^ices furnished ujood uiatoriall. 
The l^rij»a(le had marched eighteen miles, and iis en- 
durance had been somewhat tested by the heavy h»ads 
carried, as well as by new and ill-fittins:,- shoes, and th<> 
entire chaiij;e from ail that we had been accustomed to 
at home. When the cami) tires had burned low and the 
last story had been told by those choice s])irits whom.no 
fatiiiue could hnig deju-ess eacii sou<j;ht his hard couch 
and restorinji' sleej*. 

Uefore daylight on the 27th reveille called the One 
Hundred and Fourth to another day of toil and hard- 
ship. Tlnne were many stiffened limbs and maimed feet 
in the regiment. Some also had been attacked with 
troubles arising from change of diet and water, and the 
unnatural strain put ui)on tlienu The Surgeon sent a 
number back to Frankfort. 

Having tirst brace<l u]) Avith coff'ee, hardtack and 
bacon, the march was resumed at half past eight. The 
light snow on the ground made the walking difhcult, 
but wf' pressed on until the roads or "traces" through 
the woods became so bad that frequent halts were made 
to fix them for the ])assage (»f the trains. The country 
Avas much broken. Now and then a small clearing with 
a log house came int(> view, with the inevitable darky 
or some poor white trash, all looking like r<'lics of a past 
age, and seemingly in harmony with the wihl natural 
surroundings. Sometimes our route lay through dense 
forests of chestnut and beech, where, during the halts, 
an abundant harvest of nuts was gathered, but the coun- 
try seemed to be mostly covere<l with scrub oak and 
brush. After thus toiling on all day a halt was ma<le 
at night near Chaplintown, the distance traveled being 
only eight miles, pretty good evidence of the difticul- 
ties in the wa}'. 

Our route on the 28th was over a bndven and hilly 
country until late in the afternoon, Avlien there was 
some improvement. Frequent halts were made to rest. 
We camped at night in a lovely beech grove on a hill- 
side, where, notwithstanding great weariness, the 
woodland scenery was so fine as to attract our atten- 



40 THE ONE Hl'NDHED AND FOl'HTH 

litAi. Tin* (lav's iiianli was iiiinltrii iiiilts. (Jiiitr a 
iiiiiiiIm'I- wi'n* shk, lli«' writer anion;: iIhmh. ami Siir- 
^i*«in I >>«•!' ha<l Ills liamls full oT itaiifiiis. 

NNi* sri out "Ml lln' 'J'.Mli ill •:«Mi(| >jtiriis aii<l n\t'i- a 
IwlhT roati ItNiilin;; l«» Hanlsittw n. Tin* rcuiimv iiii- 
|iniv»'«l as \v«' advaniMMl. Om- rations, »'S|MMiallv iimmI, 
wviy ;;»Mlin;; sln»ri. AImmH Walk wi' «ioss«'(| Kollii);^ 
Fork, a small siirain, an<l went into ramp near Hanls- 
lowii. All Wfir fool sort' ami wrarv. Afit-r our arrival 
nitions of frt'sli lMM«f wiTe issm^l to tin- li»'i;iim'nt, a 
4|iiart('i' lo fairli comiiany. Our a|i|MMii<'s wen* lavon- 
4MIS, an<l as fast as tin* Imm'T roiiM Im* a])|)orl ioiicd 
anion;; I he messes it wasrooketj ;ili*l eaten with a lelisll 
known only to the liiiii;rrv. The |ni\ile;:e of letiriii;; 
early was im|»ro\e«| hy most of the men. Ion the wiitei- 
aiml soiiM' others ha<l to work nearly all iii;:lii on tlio 
pay-rolls, an or<ler ha\in;; lieeii issued to make them 
out at oiire. This was not an a^^rocahle task after our 
Ion;; iiianhes, with no tables exrept tin* liar<l-tark 
boxes, no li;:lits but ramlles, ami knapsarks for%;eats. 

We resiimetl the luairli eaily oil the .".(Mil, ;;la<l to 
Icavi* the rust,\ looking; ohi town an<l its hai-*l looking; 
]KM»p|e. Tin* line of niarrh lay throu;:li a biok<'ii, hilly 
4onniry of little interest. \\ «• passed the ruins of se\ - 
4Tal houses be|on;;in;; to I'liiou men, wliiili had been 
burned by the rebels. An interest in;; «'vent orrurrrd 
in ;;oin;; I hroii;^h La Kiiet'ounty. Near t he ant i<|uated 
hamlet of llod;;en\ille we saw the site of i he hiimbh* 
cabin where Abraham IJiiroln was bom. It was on a 
lillb* kiioll, and near b\ were some old pear, peach, 
and apple irtH's. We did iioi iIhii realize the ;;ri*at- 
iu»HH of the prophet and leader InMe raised u|) to sav«' 
<iiir Nation and free a race, or every i lee would have 
Imm'Ii «arrie<l away as relies even to the roots, Pass- 
in;; ihroii;;|i a place called New Haven, wf bivouacked 
jiiHi iM'Vond ill a ^:riiKK field, w hirh w ill be remeinbered 
iis the steiie of a Very lively time in li;;htin;; tire, it 
iia\iii;; <au;;hl in the ^rass. Iiiii the boys had seen 
prairie iir<>s before and knew how to deal with it. s(» 
thill i'<'i Miiich daiiiaL"' ^^ •*" 'l-'H'- Thev took tare lo 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 41 

get the aiiimiiiiitioii out of the way, not proposiiii; to 
be killed in any such inj;lorious niannoi-. The Jay's 
march was nineteen miles. 

Early on the 31st the columns wcr*,' set in motion 
and kept going all day through the same dreary coun- 
try, with nothing to excite inteivst hut ilic problem as to 
when we would halt for the night. Continuous march- 
ing, much of the time on half rations, had reduced a 
number to the point of giving out entirely. 'J'herefore, 
the order to camp was hailed with joy by all. liut 
knowledge that we were now ai)])roa(hing nearer the 
scenes of more interesting events than had been viewed 
before, was encouraging to us. 

The line of march on Saturday, November 1st, lay 
near the Louisville «fc Nashville Kailroad, and even the 
sight of this Avas cc^mforting. Our progress was slow 
and painful, and after marching twelve miles the 
Brigade went into camp at Bacon Creek, near the sta- 
tion of the same name. The weather was remarkably 
warm and, all being weary and dirty, the creek was 
soon filled with bathers, strange as it ma}- seem at 
so late a period of the season. It was Saturday night. 
To those at home enjoying the blessings of peace and 
plenty it brings rest and a respite from labor, the com- 
ing Sabbath and its privileges, so necessary to body 
and soul, but wnth the soldier it is diiferent, and Sun- 
day is almost sure to be a day of toil or danger. 
Anticipating the morrow our camp fires burned low 
early. 

As anticipated, Sunday, the 2d, was ushered in by 
an early start, after about sixty men of the One Hun- 
dred and Fourth had been examined by the Surgeon, 
and, being found unable to march, A\-ere left at Bacon 
Station to come on by rail to B<>\vling Oreen. The 
delusive hope of an early halt caused the command to 
step off with alacrity and the twelve miles to Mum- 
fordsville was traversed by noon. 

The Brigade went into camp on the battle-field, and 
the w^agons coining up were partly unloaded and cott'ee 
was being made when Colonel Moore received an order 



THK ONE Hl'NDRED AND FOURTH 

lo iiiarrli ill twniiv iiiiiiiit<*s. \\ hat a fall was ilicrc^ 
ill tlu* (licriiioiiicli'r <if uiir hupcs! 

Afirr liiistv :iii<l half tiiiisliiMl meals (lie iiiar< li was 
I'-sniiicd. lull uilli It'SK uilliii;: sti-ps than in the iiioin- 
iii;j. (Ml tin* way over the tiehl shot and shell were 
•'•iMI, also tin* New linule ;ifil\es of oVef one lniIMlfe<l 

•hliers who ha«l fought their last hat tie only six 

\\e«*ks hefore. 'rhen* Were linineloiis e\ itlein t'S of t lu» 
;:allani tlefi-iise made hy Tolonel \\ ihlei- hefoie he sur- 

remleled. 

.MiimfoidNX ille jiroveij to he a St la^i^iliii;: villaj^e 
wifhoiit atlrartiofi exre|»t as the loratioii «»f the le<ent 
hat tie. The < ill "en |{i\ei- tlou s t lifttn^h it ami had heeii 
spaniieil hy a line iron railroad hiid;:e. w hirh only par- 
tiallx ••sra|MM| dest !*Urt ion h\ the lehels. ('rossill^joll 

a |Miiiioon hrid;:e laid down hy the I'ioneei- I'orps, we 
asreiided the hlnlTs and pnrsued a sontheily etmrs*' 
oNer roii^^h loads nntil daiU, when a hall was made for 
the iii;;ht in a rleaied tiehl. The loni^ mareh with half 
rations for sii|»per east a shade of depression o\er the 
• amp. Hni, to rompensate in a measnie foi- jtrevions 
irouhles. the mail for the One llnmlred and Fonrth 
arri\ed in tin- e\enin;r. and dilTnseil joy anion*; a laij;«* 
niimher. Weariness wjis lt»r;:<ilten in the pleasnre of 
heariii*; from friends at ht»me. Those who did not 
n-reive a letter had the synijiathy of the rest. It may 
he sate|_\ asserted that ouf earthen roMehes seemed 
softer and oiir aehes and hrnises less ttainful. \\ f 
also learned here the pleasing news that the Army of 
the Ohio now had a iww lommainlei- tJem-ral W. S. 
Koseiians. who had eonie to ns with a hi^li reputation 
for military ahiliiy hy virtue of many sn« cesses in the 
li»dd. The order iiiakin;: the rhan;:e was dated < >< ioIm r 
L'llh. and went into efTert ( >etoher :?tM h. The territory 
within (ieiieral |{«iNe( rails' jiirisdiel ion was s^tyled the 
"hepariiiieiii of the ( "umherhi lid." and the tit le "Army 
"f ihe ( Hiio" was rhaii^ed to "i-'oiiiieeiiih Army < '<trps.*' 
The ilivisioii iiianhed of]" early on the mornin;: of 
the.'hl with li}.'hier hearts and nioie elastir steps. The 
soldier joVeH rhail^^e, iiew seeiies aild e\( i t enielM s. 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 43- 

besides the fame of General Kosecians had preceded 
him, and all believed that the hei-o who had been so 
siiceessful in Mississip]>i woidd lead us to victory. 
Durinj^ the day we passed by Horse Cave, a station on 
the Louisville «S: Nashville road. Mammoth Cave was 
under us and the (Mitram-o but eiuht miles distant. 
This section had been the favorite r(^s(U-t of i;uerrillas,. 
the inhabitants bein<>- almost wholly rebels. It was 
a God-forsaken, wild country. After j;oinj;" ei<;htee« 
miles we camped for The niy,iir within a sluut march 
from Bowding Green. 

At 9 o'clock on November 4th, the command a<;ain 
set out and in high spirits, as we were now drawing 
near our objective, Avhere we expected to remain for 
some time. But we found the roads l)iocked by numer- 
ous wagon trains and other troo]>s ahead of us. Many 
halts were made, and it was sundown before we arrived 
at the Big Barren river, which runs through Bowling 
Green. We crossed this on a pontoon and marched 
through the town, supposing that our cau4»ing place 
could not be far off. It turned out that we labored 
under a mistake, for we kept on three miles further, 
until the town had disap])eared from view. Then, when 
every one was getting mad and many swearing like 
troopers, we halted and bivouacked in a corn field on 
very stony ground. It was late when our tents arrived 
and were put up. AVe had been on half rations for 
several days. The whole comuunid had borne up well, 
but were very tired to-night. At a later hour, and 
after coffee and rations, matters around the camp 
assumed a more cheerful aspect. AVe had accom- 
plished since leaving Frankfort a journey of IfiO nnles. 

The 5th of November was itasscd in camp, and the 
One Hundred and Fourth im])roved the time in rest- 
ing, repairing damages to limbs and clothing, and in 
going on excursions, when a pass could be obtained, 
to town and the many interesting ]»oints aroun<l Rowl- 
ing Green. Our cam]) was on Lost Kiv<'r, an allluent 
of the Big Barren. Within a few rods was Lost Cave, 
where the river disappears and does not flow above 



4( THE ONE Hl.'NDKED AND FOURTH 

Kniiul ji^jaiii. l*r«»l»al»l> «*\<'r\ ••nc in iln- |{f;^iiii(nl 

\|i|MnMl this ;;ii*at natural ruriosiiv ami ln<»n;:lii 

.iwav many ln-auiifnl sialariiirs found on tlu- i«»of. 

This >\ Intif MTiion of iln* «onni i\v is lioin-yconihrd w itli 

i\fs. alf in linii'sNtnt- formal ions. 

NoVfUibiT (iili Nvas si;:naliy.«M| l>y oiii- iciuoval lo 
aiMMht'i* Iofali<ni. onr mil«* disiani. in a t.-dai- ;:ro\c, 
w Inn* \v«' urn* anno\«*d Irss hv dill and dnsi llian al 
L«M ( 'av«*. l-^xploiai ions roni inn«*d lo In* i In- diMTsion 
of sonn* w Ih'Ii olT duly; oiImts «Mrnpi»M| tin- linn* in 
writ in;; 1«'II«ts and n-siin;:. I'nII raiicuis wit** issued 
a;:ain. W'v nTi'ivrd letlrrs and paiM-rs fnun lionic, 
wliit-h made tin- posimasirr of ili«- nnr Ihindied and 
I'ourili a \«*iy |>opnlar man. 

i 'oloind Mooie. al Ids own i< (|Ufsi, licin^ sup<*r- 
>«'d«'d in tin* rommand of iln- 'riiiiiynini li I>i-i;^adt* l»y 
<'o|oni-l .loscpli K. Sroii. lit ilii- Nim'tfiMiili Illinois, 
ri'inrm-d lo ilicnnc llunili-*-(l and l-'ourili. 

Tin* rvrni of iln* Till was iln* n'vi«*w of Ihimoni's 
iMvisioii by <J«*m*ral Kos<*(ians. 'J'liis was mir liisi 
\ ifu of iln* disi iniiuislicd ( H'm*ralin-< Miicf. A«tom- 
|ianifd l»y a lai-^f and lu-illiant sialT. In* rod** swiflly 
down iln* Ion;; liin*s of l(ii;:ad«*s and r«*;;inn*nis, wliicli 
|U'«'s«*ni«*d anus as In* |)ass«*d. Kidin^ up to iln* < Mn* 
llnndn-d and l-'ouilli In* hailed, mad«* a (liiiral sni- 
v«*y of I III* K«*;;inn*nl and addressed it in tin* fojjowin;; 
\\«iids, wliirli Wfif laUfii down !>> ili«' w liter \iil»aiim 
I literaiiin : 

**< Mliri-rs and ni«-n: I w i>li i" lh^'- \>>>i a liiile 
adNire. Wln-n you inrei |i|c fUt-niN liic low. Nc\ci* 
luiMi _\onr harks lo ihi* fo»' rowards art* suii- lo Im' 
hIioi. Look yoiif anla;:oiM>»i in tin* i\f, and li.' will 
not dai<* tn hhoot y«»u.'" 

Till* <M*in*ral lln*ii iod«* a\\a.\. Ii-a\ni;: wiiii u^ ilir 
impi-fssion of his ;:i-«*aiin-ss and that wi* had hmi 
^i«*aily lionoi'«*d l»y his pn*s«'nr«*. Aft**!* i«'\ i»'u tin* 
On«* lluinli'i*d ami l-'ourth i'«*tui'm*d to ramp ami spcr- 
iilaltMJ about out' futun* moMMuriiis, at it was known 
ihat all of tin* iiooph wrir pushin;; for Nashvilff*. 

Hattalioii drill oi« u|ti<*d a ;;ood poriimi of ihc tirni> 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 45 

on tlie 8th and 0th, but in tlio afternoon of the land- 
date or(Un'S were roecivod from arniv lu'adqiiartors 
(h'taehing the Thirty-ninth P.ri«;a(h' from Duniont's 
Division, and directinjjj Colonel Seott to be ready to 
inarch on the 10th to Glasgow, Ky. As General Sill's 
Division had jnst left that place our movement was 
ordered for the purpose of replacinj; his forces, and 
in conformity with the general line of advance toward 
Nashville, at the same time protecting our extreme 
left and Avatching the fords of the Cumberland river 
for any attempts of the enein^' to cross. 



ruAPTKi: \ I. 

Mnn-h to «;ia»»K«»w — • Nn lJ«>b'— Arrival al TompkluHvllli'— Olias- 
InK <Ju»Trllhii»— Atlaok on th«' fMckfli*— Tliivali-nlnK Dt-mon- 
Rlratlon l»y H«'l»^l t'uvi»lr>— HuHty Kxlt arnl N'IkIiI Murch — 
Ouowt' t'r«H"k Valley— ThankHKlvIng CVIebrattMl— Arrival at 
HartMvllU — t^•l<•ni•l Moon- AnHumeB Command— The Situation 
and Tr<">|.»4 — rori<*niH of UanK*^r. 



TIh' inlvjuuf ttf iIm« Tliii-ty-iiini h l»iii:;i«lf will Im- 
iiiiii-f rh'jirly uinlrrstoiMl li\ liii«-il\ ic\ ii-w in;^ i In- sit ii- 
;ii iitii with I'ffrmir*' lo i In- ( in ire li«'ltl ciiihrinctl w il liiii 
tile liiH's of iip«'!;it imi t»f < it'iMMM I Kos«'ri;ms* ;irm\. 

Ili> ln-;nl»|ii;irl»ls liii*l Imm-ii est al»lisli»M| ul N;isli- 
\illi- 1)11 ili«> '.Mil. < ifiM-ral Tliuiiiiis, ruiiiniiiiiiliii;: tlic 
« i-iiit-r roii.MJsl iii;i of tin- (li\isioiis <»f littsscaii, Nf;^- 
l»\. hiiiiiniii. I'ly iiiHl PaliiMT, was at (iailatiii, Tcii- 
iifs.siM', from \vli«*iiri' Im' tjirrctrd i»|M'rai i<»iis aiitl f«'|»airs 
«>ii iIm* raili'ttail in i.ouis\i|Jr, tliih liin* luiim tin- only 
way of «-oiiiiiiiiiiirat ioii li\ rail with thr rrar. (iriinal 
ihoiiias so <lis|M»s«'»l of his irot»ps as to ^iiai<l this roatl. 
< it'iMM'als Mi-< 'ooU a IK I < 'lit t«'ii<l*'ii. «-oiiiiiiaii<liii^, rc^lMM-t- 
ivrly, Ihf i-i;;hl aii*l h'ft wiii;:s, wrn* slowly <'oiivt'ii;iiii:: 
oil Nashvilh* l»y •iilTciriit ioiit«*s. 

Tin* iiiti'iit ion of loMU'ial Hiau;: ha<l not iImmi (h'V«*l- 
ojmmI, ImiI his tiodps wri)' known to In- ronrciil lat in^ 
al Miirfi'r«*slioio. I lis tavaliy. lai ^«'ly sM|Mi i.tr ill mini 
Imts to that of 4!<-ii<*ral Kosmans, luMaint' \oiy ariiNc 
at this tiiiM- in o|M-i'ai ions a;:aiiist oiir liii<- of roniiiiii 
nidation with tin- it-ar aiitl onr thinks, ih-mt n«';;h'rt in;^; 
III o|i|iorl unity to ijrst roy or rapt iir«' siijiply i rains ami 
-iiinll oiiilyiii;; ilrtarhiiH-iit s. In acronlaiiri'. then' 
lorr, with tin- ^••iii'ial polity of a«l\aiiri> j;;ovi'inin^ all 
of III*' ti'oopH, and piiisnant to ihi> ordrr iniMitionrd at 
t Im' rIoMf of till* last rhaplrr, i Im* Thirty nini h |{ii;;a<h', 
« ofn posed. iM'sidrs I III' < Mm • 1 1 nndifti and I'<»iirni, itf t In* 
One Ihiiidi-rd and Sixth and nn<- lliiniln-d and iOiuih 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 47 

Ohio and a (letaclniiont of the Second rndijiiia Cav- 
alry, and conmiaiided by (;oh)nel Scott, broke camp 
at noon on the 10th of November and be^an the march. 
Passing thronj^h Bowling (ireen the brigade marched 
five miles and bivonacked for the night in a grove by 
the roadside. All were in good spirits and Imd fnlly 
recovered from the effects of the" long tramp froni 
Frankfort. In the evening the camp darkies gave an 
impromptu eutcM-tainment of songs, hoe-down dances, 
and a butting exhibition with their heads, in which 
the amount of pounding they endured was aston- 
ishing. 

We again set out early on the 11th, and soon turned 
Into a poor road through a rough, hilly conntrv. The 
marching becauK^ fatiguing, and after toiling on all 
day, and only making fourteen miles, the Brigade went 
into camp. 

Starting early on the 12th we pursncMl a rough 
country road, which had to be rei)aire(l often. The 
country was hilly and densely wood(Ml, offering much 
attractive scenery. The One Hundred and Fourth held 
the advance, and at noon we entered (llasgow after 
a march of thirteen miles. From the name we expected 
to see a place of some impoi-tance, but were 'disaj)- 
pointed. Many of the buildings, in fact most of them, 
had an anticjue ai^pearance, as if they might have come 
from the old Scotch city, and the majority were built 
of logs. Their occupants were in keeping with all else 
in this out-of-the-way village, even in color — except 
the negroes resembling the yellowish clay soil on which 
they grew and apparently thrived, notwithstanding 
the tell-tale traces of whisky and tobacco, both, bv 
the way, leading products of this part of Southern 
Kentucky. Marching through the one main street the 
Brigade went into camp at the south end on a hill- 
side, at the foot of which flowed a clear beautiful 
creek. Our marches thus far had been (hdiberate and 
Colonel Scott had the credit of knowing how to "inarch 
men" and take care of tln^r bodies and interests Gen- 
erally. *^ 



THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

\\ «• iriiiaiiUMl at (ilah;;MN\ iwo Wavs. rn;ia^»il in llie 
iiKiial ramp diilifK, aiul bftwtfii liiiifs i*xpl«»iiii^^ tin* 
low II. lalkiii^ with tin* |m'o|.N', and tltdii;; si»iin* iiatliii'X 
ai I In- small Nl«»n's i«i Jn-Ip •ml «nir rali«>ns. rcisiin- 
iiHUis aii<l mils \iVi-\\ altiiinlanllv anniinl tin- pla««' ami 
w.-n- -alluTiMl liy all who had a lasu- for such luxuries. 

i'lirsiiaiit to ordcrH rei-eivinl by <Vd«nitd Sf«>lt tin* 
Ilii^adf h'ft <;ias;:ow oii Sal unlay, tin* llih. \N «• at 
out «• tMiirn-d a wiidrr and louj^hrr ciuintiy iliaii \\«* 
had KtMMi hrfon-. winir hills and vailh*ys followed in 
rapid sint«'ssi«»ii. and ihr roails wi-n* In iIh* woist 
p«issildi' 4>rd«M-, i»'i|uiiin;r fn^iucnt halls lu li\ ihtiii 
and lo hrlp ill*- inuhs and wa;:ons ov»t n»u;;h places. 
I'he liri'sonie iuar«li was < oniph'ifd at tiark l>y our 
sudd<*ii ilfhoin hiiie fi<>ni tin* woods inlu a rharin^ 
diinlv outliin-d l»y tin- tall forests around ii. in which 
was «lisccriiildc tin- lo;i hainh-i enjoying lln- cii|th(Hii 
oils name of "No jtoh." Noi Immii;: jtartitular aitout 
iiaim's, wf passed t hrou;:h and w cin inio camjt to si udy 
th<* flyiiioh»;;y of iIm- word l>> iln* warmth of our tiivs 
ill the evening:. In tin- niornin;:, which was Sunday, 
we were ^iiatilied to lind the weather warm and pleas- 
iiiil. .\ casual survey of the place l(rt»u;:ht to view 
ahoiil twi'iity lo;; houses in ;iraduated sta^^es of decay. 
The few inhahilaiits were <»f the type coinniou to these 
iemot«' and wild sections of Kentucky, showing: in 
their faces the fearful t'flecis of (heap corn whisky, 
«»r ".Mouiilaiiii dew," of i;;iioraiice and pov«*rty. There 
was whisky in e\erN house. Sherman Lelaml. of Com- 
pany \>, clerk to the Adjutant, who possessed a judicial 
mimi and much taste for r«'search, inier\iewed liie 
"oldest citi/.eii" as to the ori^^in and history of iln- 
t«Tiii "No Hob," and siiciiimIimI in extracting fmni liini 
the following: explanation: 'I'he tow n was once know n 
ax "I'lal lleiid" reason therefor unknown ; but once 
on a time a man mimed Koberi was lost in ihe adja- 
riMit foreMlK. and a st-rchiii;; parly, after a fruitless 
wanb. met by prevituiH a^ireennMit at Flat Head, and 
reporteij "No Ibd» found." and tlnr<afie|- ji wms laili-d 
bv the ureHent liaille. 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 



49 



• ■^'y.'Ji^.*^? ''^''''^ '^ "^•'■'' ^'' 'l<'<l"<o<l that the cxpres- 
sion "Whats in a nanu- has bc>en often used unre- 
fleetively. A\ itlnmt citing a tl.(n,san,l instances iu 
proof the reader will notice h<»Nv direetlv an<l tiltin-lv 
our soldiers and the untutored, but honest, iKM.nk^ we 
were among, always arrived at just conclusions in the 
simplest way and acted accordinolj-. Having rescued 
this remote hamlet from oblivion bv the unsolicited 
honor ot Its presence, the Thirty-ninth Rrioa<le set out 
again to perform another Sabbath ,hiv\s journey and 
Avas soon struggling along through the dense forests 
over execrable roads, liut, while delayed by the 
numerous obstacles in the way, we did not fliil to 
appreciate the grand and solemn bc^autv of the vast 
solitudes of forest, of tlu^ rocky glens and clear run- 
ning streams that lay along our pathwav. As night 
approached the sky became overcast with clouds and 
a drizzling ram set in, increasing our anxietv to reach 
loiupkmsville, which we did by <lark, haviui niaiV-he.l 
only thirteen miles since morning. 

Heing now iu a section lillecl with rebel ,itiz<Mis 
and omi subject to sudden forays fi-oui the cmumuv's 
c'ayalry, Colonel Scott selected a camp suited for 
defense on an elevated part of the town, and the tents 
were spcvdily pitched. The short rations and the .-..f- 
fee were heartily relished after the labcuvd nmrcl, of 
the day. Having dried their wet clothino- most of the 
men were glad to slc^ep. Thos(^ scMit out on ^uard and 
pic-kc^t duty did not have a pheasant task ou this stormy 
nigiit. oiwxiiij 

The time up to the 20th was cmiployed in drilliu.- 
and camp routine, and much eidinMied'by the known 
exposure of the Brigade to attack, and bv tiie daily 
rumors of intendcMl forays. Most of the people hail 
Klentified themselves with the rebels, eithractivcly 
<;r as spies and abettors, in which position they coulil 
do us the most damage. .> "huo 

.h 1 ''f/'.'," ^^^^-^^^^'""l'='<l been Acting Provost Mar- 
shal at (rlasgow, and held the same position in Tomp- 



•0 THK ONE UrNDRED AND FOURTH. 

kiiiKvillc, wJHTr, Willi Li«'iii«'iiaiii Tivsruii. ili<y loiiiid 
tiieir liiiu* fully omipitMl in jirr»*stiii;i and takin;; care 
of iM'lifl (iii/fiis and s|»irs. !!»• alsn disrdxcitd a iiuiii- 
l>i*r of «;iM»d I'nitin iii«-n and faiiiilirs. 

(in«Trilla liands in iln* ininicdiatr viciniiv wtTi* 
acli\<*, and vwv <»n tin* waii-li in ainhnsli t«> sliotit down 
<Mir |ii<kfts and an.v t li«»n;;|j|l«'ss s«ddi»'r \vln> nii«;ht 
wandiT outside tli<* IN'dtM'al liut-s. < )n<- < 'ajitain liaiu- 
illon «-«iinniandrd these fl-eeliniitels, and Ue|il tlie leltel 
j^eiM'i-als south «tf the ( 'uniheilaiid fnllv iiushd in 
rej;anl lo our inoveinents. 

In (-onse(|uen<-e of theii- ImhlneNs haviii;: already 
dashtMl suddeidv ihiou^h the luiiskiits of the town, 
hut without doin;: or sulTeiin;: daina;:e, ra|»!ain holy, 
with Company K, was on the eveiiin;; of ilie LMMh 
detailed to attempt t heir t apt ure m- desi ru«-t ion. Also, 
other si;;ns and runioi-s indiraiin<:: an attack on the 
town, the entire llri^ade was oi-dei-ed into line and 
remained thus all iM;rht. Startin;; at nine |i. in. with 
the <V>inpany and a ^nide, t'apiain hiii\ marched to 
the rel)»'l reiide/vnus. tive or six miles distant. The 
writer will m*M*r forget the enthusiasm ami ftuid 
(•X|NM'tation we all ftdt, as we stumldeil alon^ in the 
darkness over hill and dale in silence. The ;j:uns ami 
sixty i*i>nmls were ready for instant use. At last the 
company was so disposed as to rush in and surrouml 
the rebel caiup, wliieh w as situated near a house in a 
little valley. The lim*s <»f circumvallalion slowly 
<-|osed in. Iiiit to our surprise no hostile i halleii^e 
awoke the in;:ht echoes the foe had lleill Itui the 
still hri;;lit camp tires ami scattered piles t»f c«u-n were 
there in evidence. Our cha«::rin was ^reat, and after 
hiterviewin^j the citiy.eii in the house, who knew noih 
in^ and claimeil to lie a I'ldonist, the ronimand 
nnii'ched liai k ti» camp, where it arrived at da\lireak. 
just as tin* rest of the ltri;:ade was hreakin;: ranks 
after its niyht vi;:il. 

Niiiliiii;; of an excilin;: < haracier disinrlMd the 
cam|i dnriii;: the day or iM;:lit of ihe 'Jisi. ('<>l<inel 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. M 

Scott doubled the pickets and guards, and every iiuiii 
took extra care to have his nuisket and cartridge box 
handy in case of a night attack. 

The events of Saturday, the 22d, proved to be the 
most interesting and important of any yet experienced. 
Early in the day the scouts and pickets re])orled that 
rebel cavalry were hovering around, api>arently in 
force, in consequence of which Colonel Scott ordered 
the command to remain closely in quarters ready to 
respond to the "long roll" at a nioinent's notic<\ In 
the latter part of the afternoon a detachment of the 
One Hundred and Sixth Ohio, doing picket duty, was 
suddenly attacked, one man killed, one mortally 
wounded, and six captured, but the enemy advanced 
no further. Aroused by the firing and the long roll, 
the Brigade immediately formed in line of battle, where 
it remained until one o'clock Sunday morning, at which 
hour the scouts returned and reported the rebels 
encamped three miles from the town. Colonel Scott 
at once sent the One Hundred and Fourtii in pursuit. 
The Regiment started, but owing to the darkness and 
rough roads or paths, marched slowly. The rebel camp 
was surrounded and closed in upon, but the enemy 
had again fled, warned, no doubt, by friends. Much 
chagrined, we retraced our steps to Tompkinsville, 
arriving early in the morning. 

We were permitted to pass Sunday in quiet, but 
vigilance was not relaxed. ^lail arrived from Bowling 
Green, and news of the death at that place of Bufus 
E. C. Hurin, of Company' D. The One Hundred and 
Fourth was further saddened by the death here in our 
midst of Stephen AA'alters, of Company E, who died this 
morning of disease. Hi tlie afternoon of to-day he was 
buried with military honors in a soldier's grave. To 
die in battle may be regarded without emotion, and 
is expected, but to waste away with slow disease and 
die in a hostile land, far from home and friends, is 
inexpressibly sad. These were among the first deaths 
that had occurred in the One Hundred au<l Fourth. 



12 THK ONE HUNDUED AND FOURTH 

N..(\viilistainlinn lli«- fart thai iIm- Thirix iiimli 
Hri^atU- wuk not exritiMl by alarms on tin- l!:M, rnoujih 
ha<l iH'fii tIrv.-loiKMl to till all with lii^cli fXptM-tation 
of still nion- iiii|Miriaiit .-Vi-nts. It htM-anH' known to 
a f«*w «>n Moil. lay that Colom-l S«i.tt lia«l r«M«MVtHl 
orilt*rs on Siunlay t'V«*nin;; to niiiivh at on« «•. An«l ho 
>voul«l hav«' ilom* ko, but lu^HitattMl on acronnt of tho 
Hiipjily train that lia«l ;:on«' to Cavr Tity for rations, 
but had not n-niriMMl, and In- frit sonn* jinxirty about 
it. Hut tui Moll. lay In* s«*nt a .-.Mirirr to turn tin* train 
towanl Mowlin;; tin^-n, an«l nsolv.-.l lo brt-ak «anii» 
in tin* I'Vi-nin;; at all «*v«*nts. 

ll.i\v»-v«'r w." wvVi' .Irstiii.'.l lo .-iijoy a linh' iii"!.- 
«*xrit«MM«*nt iM'f.m* niakini: our linal .l.-part inc K.-lx-l 
ravalry sn«bb*nly apiM-ait-.l in foi. .- at noon in fr»»nt 
of tin* pirk«*ls an<l in si;;hl of onr canii*. and sonn* 
«b»snll.»ry lirin*: roninn*iM«*.l, in which t In* i>i(k«*ts stood 
tlH*ir ;:ronn.l, aid.-d by our small drtachnn-nt of rav- 
alry, and sn<..MMlrd in «a|»t urinj,^ ojn* man. who said 
the tMU'Uiy was tho i*i*Im*1 Toloiu'l S«'olt's cavalry, TOO 
siron*:, ami n'iin*s«*nt«*d that another forc«» wasadvano- 
in;; on tin- S«»»i is\ ill.* road. Iji.tn ln*arin<; tin* lirinj; 
tin* lonji roll was b.-atrn an«l broui:ln tin- hri^Md** into 
lin«* on tin* .loubh* .|uirk. Cdoin*! Moon*, by order of 
<\iIonfl Siott, direri.il rom|»ani(»s A and l> lo In* 
deployed t.i the ri;.dit an. I front, ami <'(un|>any II to 
the left, as skirmishers, all under Major W i.lnni-. 'The 
rest of the Ilripide was ftu?in*d in line .»f batth* in a 
^iood position by i'olonel S<-.»tl. While these nn>\«*un*nts 
\v«*re lu'in;; executed arlilb*rv lirini; was heard on our 
b*ft front. Hut, kntiwin;; from the soun.l of iln* ;juns 
that they were small ones, called ".M.uintain howitz- 
i*rH,** (or, in army parlance, ".lackass howitzers") we 
w'fvi* more amused than alarme.l by this part of the 
show. .Meantime ('olon«*l Sc.»tt ami stalT w«*re doinii 
Honn* ra|>i.l ri.lin;; ami r«*connoiterin;.^ in the direction 
of the enemy and makin;: such m*w tlisposit ions (»f the 
llripide UM rirciinisiances sn^jfested. Hut no further 
deinoMMirat ion was made b\ the euein\ . win* ha. 1 nl ir.'.l 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 52 

to tho woods. To pursue tliein woul<l liavo been use- 
less, and we had no artillery, niueli 1<> Colonel Scott's 
regret. 

Having stood in line until nine in I lie evening, we 
were marched back to camp, and here met with an 
order to be ready to march in half an luuir. This 
order met Avith a cool reception by the One Hundred 
and Fourth, most of whom were not aware of the 
order before mentioned. It looked like running away 
in the face of the enemy, a "skedaddle" in fact, anJl 
the Regiment having come down here to fight did not 
relish giving up the promising prospect of a nice little 
brush with the enemy. There was mnch grumbling. 
The baggage was scattered around in the tents, and 
as five of our twelve wagons had been sent to Cave 
City, mnch had to be left behind, also all of the sick 
— quite a number. These were quartered in the houses 
of Union men in the town, and would probably be 
captured. But, packing up in haste, the Thirty-ninth 
Brigade, at ten o'clock, filed out of camp and the town, 
and in a short time was lost to view — even of itself — 
in the darkness of the forest. As we were traversing 
the narrow "trace" with thick brush and trees on each 
side, the thought occurred that here was a splendid 
opportunity for the enemy to attack. But all were 
ready — half expecting it. The Brigade was kept well 
closed np and frequently halted to await the arrival 
of the wagons which encountered numerous difficul- 
ties. At two o'clock a halt was made until daylight, 
and in five minutes every man except the guards, rolled 
np in his blanket, was sound asleep, alike oblivious to 
friend or foe. 

At daylight of the 25th we found that "our fiag was 
still there," and also learned to our surprise that the 
Brigade, though having marched ten miles in the night, 
was but three from the camp we had left so hastily. 
The guide had purposely or ignorantly misled us. This 
news did not fall pleasantly on our ears. After a hasty 
lunch the march was resumed at seven o'clock, and 
continued until ten, when a halt was made for break- 



THK ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

fasi. TIm- Hrijijule llieu iiioveii slowly aloiij; all <lay 
ovtT vtTv rou;:l» roads, but amidst miuli lin«" s«tMu*ry, 
as \Vf \vrn« imw i«iit«*riu;j tlu* inountain re«;i»ui of Kni- 
tm ky. \N hfii wf l»ivunatk«Ml at ni«;lit \vt» had iiiarcluMl 
only ivu iiiilfs siiHM* t»Mi «>'«l«Hk. T\h' livilizat inii of 
this s«Miitiii was of a vn-y priiiiilivi' type as r»*j:anl«M| 
h«>iiKi*K and iun»|d«*. Tlifi't* were eorn, eotton ;iii<l 
ttd»a<e«> patilirs at intervals, and we were pleas«»l to 
s«M' many appli* and prach orrliards, with fruit si ill 
«»n tin* tr«M'S, tlnis j^ivinj; ns an op|»ort unity to make our 
>«<ant half ratituis wlnde ones, and it was not n«*gle(t«'d. 
<it\iu' aviM-red, also, that they found a superior article 
of a|»plf jack, also prath l»iandy, which was iKtt dis- 
puted. 

The Hripuh' inovtMl earl\ *>\\ \\\v L'tiih uvrr much 
rou;;ln'r roads than lM*fore and thnui^di valleys wImmc 
tin* hills four or five hundn-d fret hi;:h looke<l to us 
lik«' m<Minlains. At noon \\r rrossrd the Harr<'n river 
l»y wadin;^ and halted fcu- dinner. We th«-n moved on 
and soon after passed tin* state line into Tenness«H'. 
The ramp at ni^jht was in a favorable lotality. bein^ 
near an orrhard, and where ^ood rtir«'d tobar«o was 
ibundanl. 

Kesumin;; the march early on the JTtli. <Mir route 
h^l ns over the wildest and most mountainous country 
y»'t se<*n, and nearly all day thr«>u;:h "( Joose ( 'reek \'al- 
ley." a locality never to be fiir;;otten. We saw few 
white men, but plenty of the nativ«> proiliict of the 
_'entler (?) sex heaven save the mark! also iieirr'»«*s. 

Some of these Women JXa \ e IJie Imi\s. as they luafclied 

.ihiii;,'. their opiniMus (»f ■'\'ank«'es," and used those 
natural weapons of war, vi/. : their toni;ues, in a most 
re;;ar«lless and profane manner. Ilowevei-, the ( hie 
lluiuli-ed and I'ourlh was eomposed of ;:entlemen. au<i 
the\ seldom replied, but maintained the same meek 
lomposure they would have displayed when listenin;; 
to a curtain lecture at home or a chidinu: fi'<uu their 
KWiN'thejirtM for Koin<* fancied ne;;hMt. rie- plileuMiialic 
iMltchllieli were umifTe<led not UinhMst a lldill^^ the 

nKMintiiin jar;:on of these women. At all events n«>t 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 55 

one of them dvopiK-d a .o(„,se()r eliickcii in consequeuce. 
We niarcluMl on, and let no one sn]>p()se that tliis 
Thanks<iiviii<i- Day remained nnceiehrated by ns in 
the wild mountains (►f Tennessee. In menioriam, we 
were thankful and joyful, and fortunately the eiivum- 
stanees were favorable to our ])uri>ose. This valley 
literally te<*med with an abundance of all those things 
which we had been accustomed to see enter into the 
menu of the great National festival day at home, such 
as tnrkeys, chickens, geese, i)igs, and fruits, in quan- 
tity. There were also some other products we had 
read about and had had some previous acquaintance 
with, tt) wit, apple-jack and peach brandy. Here was 
the ''still" "whose Avoriu dieth not," from which flowed 
liquids almost as abundant and (nisy to obtain as the 
pure water of the mountain rills tlowing at our feet. 
The "Happy A'alley" of "Kasselas," so vividly described 
by Dr. Johnson, could not have produced a purer or 
more exhilarating article, nor one better calculated to 
awaken the latent emcttions of the soul on a great 
occasion. Such Avas the opinion of our experts, for it 
cannot be denied that we had among us some who 
were well qualified to judge. 

Colonel Scott, being in a good liuuior from having 
escaped a i)ossible catastrophe at Tompkinsville, also 
appreciating the day and the advantages of (lOose Creek 
valley as a cam]), graciously ordered a halt at 4 p. m., 
and we eam])ed in a lovely meadow almost entirely 
surrounded by mountains a thousand feet high, oii 
their craggy sides were perched here and there the 
huts of the "mountaineers," and around each was a 
small clearing devoted to the raising of corn and 
tobacco, with some apple and peach trees. The Bri- 
gade was in a good humor to-night. Some of the One 
Hundred and P'ourth— and all of the Dutch, who had 
been marching and celebrating all day, came in not 
only happy, but prepared to give the coup de grace 
to the last hours from well tilled canteens. As a chef 
d'oeuvre an order from Brigade headquarters was 
issued directing that two barrels of "Mountain dew" 



M THE ONE HrNDUKD AND FOURTH 

Wilicll till* (^liarlcI'lllJISliT luitl ru|itisr:ll«<| lir liKiprrlv 

(lisiriliiilcil ill ilif rr;;ul;ir way. This in:ulr tin* hill «»f 
faiv roiii|i|ci(*, aii«l im soiiJiiT unit t«» lu'd liuii'^i-v or 
tiiii*sty. TlniK at last cihIciI Tliaiiks*;iviu«; in a bla/o 
of ;;loiy ! 

W lii'ii the iiiarrli uas i-i*siiiiir<| mi iIm- |||u^Ilill^ tti 
xUv '2s\U oiir st«'i»s lia«l lost tin* spriiiy:y, i*lasiir quality 
jlisplayiMl oil tlir pn'vi«»iis «lay. Tin* i-oa<ls s«mmhi*(1 
roM;;lu'r ami tin* smuM-y Irss clianiiiii;: than in < loose 
('n*<'k vallry, as in fart it was. Tlic hi^li nioimiaiiis 
WiTf suri'«MMh'«| l»y hills ami a llaltrr roimiiy. This 
8e<'ti<»ii waiK stroii;;ly n-hfl in sent iiiinii. Thf folluw ini: 
liitj-pfst in;: ii-niaik \t\ a wtunan u host* Imusr w »'|tass(Mi 
was fnrnishiMl to tin- wiitn- hy Shnnian Ldand. The 
(olninii was inai'rliiii<4: hy, when, ohservln;; a r«»ntia- 
ham! in t'oinpany <i, she sai<l: **|)oi; on yom- heart, 

thail's my ni;:^ei-." She ha*l I ii we«'pin;i over the 

loss of a mule, \Nhi« h eause«l her tears; tin- loss of a 
ni^;;:er «liie(| theui np and luiiietl her anLiuish into 
aii;:ei-. 

\o riirilier int'jiieni o| noit- iMt-iMreW until we Ii;i«l 
arrived within thre«' miles of llarisville. w hen we <ame 
smhleiily upon a hoily of rebel iavaliy, w lii<h retreated 
ill haste, onr ad\am-e seiidin;; some shots after them 
and eaptiiriii;: two men. who said they helon;:ed to 
<'olonel Iteiiiiett's etimniand, -0(1 stron^:. 

.\t tWon'elork ill theafleinoMii the lllii;ad<- |»assed 

fhron;;h the villa^^e of llartsville and emamped one 
inile heyoiid ill a piere of timlier land which had iHt-n 
partially rleaied. The ram|i was on hi;:h ;;ronnd, oii<> 
li II ml red yards from i lie< nmlierlaml river, w hose hanks 
were from liftv to une hundred feet hi;^h. The tents 
W'iM'e pilrhed and tires made in them, as the weather 
Inid t nriied r«dd. 

We had mairhed lifly li\f miles sim e |ea\ in^ Tump 
kin^xille on mie and a half day's re;:nlar ijitions, hut. 
like the Israelites of idii. w •• had found fuauna provided 
for UK on the way. 

The Seroiid |{ii;:ad«\ I'iisi l>i\ision, whirh ours 
relieved, w at* still here. The wa;:on train sent t«i <'ave 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 57 

City arrived in the eveiiiiio witli five days' rations and 
a lot of aiuiiHiiiitioii. It had coiiic via (julkitiii and met 
with a hearty welcome. 

One of Coloiiel Scott's first acts after selecting the 
position for our camp, whicli lie did after confeniuj? 
with (N»lonel John M. Harlan, cominandino- the Second 
Brigade, Avas to make ont and forward his report of th<' 
Tompkinsville affair to General E. Dninont at (lallatin. 
This may be found in "Rebellion Reccn-ds," Series I \'nl 
20, p. 14. 

The Second lirigade left on the 29th for Castillian 
Springs, leaving with ns, however, a detachment of the 
Second Indiana (Vivalry and a section of Xicklin's liat- 
tery (Thirteenth Indiana), also a companv of the 
Eleventh Kentucky Cavalry— Captain Slater. 

The position we occupied was an important one, 
but exposed to attack. We were opposite the extreme 
right flank of liragg's army, which lay at Murfrees- 
boro, thirty-six miles distant. Dumont, with part of 
the Twelfth Division, was at Gallatin, fifteen miles 
distant. Harlan's and Miller's Brigades were at Cas- 
tillian Springs, the latter nine miles distant and sup- 
posed to be within sui)i)orting distance of Ilartsville. 
The objects sought to be accomi)lished were to watch 
the fords of the Cumberland for any crossing that 
might be attempted by Morgan and Forrest or bylarger 
forces. This was the more important, as Bragg had 
10,000 cavalry to Rosecraus' 4,000, and once in the rear 
eonld play havoc with our communications. 

Nothing of importance occurred until December 
2d, on which date Colonel Scott, having been ordere<l 
to report at Xaslivil!(% turned over the c!>mniand t(< 
Colonel Moore. On assuming this responsible position 
Colonel Moore reorganized the staff, retaining, how- 
ever, Captain William Y. Gholson, of the One Hundred 
and Sixth Ohio, as acting Assistant Adjutant (Jeneral, 
and Lieutenant Jacob Dewalt as Aide-de-Camp. He 
appointed Lieutenant M. Osman A. Q. M., Lieutenant 
William Strawn A. C. S., Lieutenant Tewksbury A. L 
G. All of these were fr<^m the One Hundrell and 



U THK ONE HLNr>HED AND FOURTH 

Fourth. ;ii»«l al muv fiiii-nMl u\uni iln-ir «lini»'s. Lifii- 
teiiaiit rol.iml HaiKMiian now ussiiiimmI c«»iuiiian.l ..f 
till* 4Mn- lluii<li»*«l jiiiM Fimrtli. 

(V.iiipaiiv A, i'aplaiii L«*i;:lii«»ii, was miii .lown i.. 
oi-cupv llaitsvillraiMl kt-fj. a wat« lifiil «'Vi- on i1i.m<1m-1- 
lious Vilizfiis of tin- villap-. It was «.ilaiii thai all 
wiTf rrlM'Is ami artiv*' as spies an. I alMiiuis ..i ili<* 
Confeth'rates. 

Tin* system «»f s««.nis ami i»irk.-is .'siaMisln-.i l>y 
Colom*! Srott was maintaimMl and fnitlnr str.n<:ili- 
eiKHl l>v liis siKM-esstn-, ami a<tiv«' nMiunmissam-rs made 
ev.-iy day on all ilie roa«ls leadiii;; into llartsville fiom 
the otln'V sidr of the iiv« r, as well as those up and 
down that stieam, whieh was deep, with few f<»rds 
and pieeipitotis banks. These duties employed all of 
the eavaliy and seveial ronipanies of infantry. Sleep- 
less vij^ilanre was to he ih«' jtrice of onr safety. 

The total elTe.tive foiM-e of all arms infantry, artil- 
lery, and eavalry did not exeeed 1,80U men, ami this 
inclndfd tietails of ronipanies and i»arts of eoinpanies 
for the various duties, whieh were eonstant and exa»t- 
ing. At this time, also, many wen- sick in hos- 
pital. There only remained, therefore, after making; 
due allowanre for the above detached services, an 
elTiM-tivr forn- of not more than l.-KO men in <amp 
«apabh* of Immii;; thrown into lint- o| haiih- m • ■> • 
of a sudden attack. .Ml of tin- infantry re^ri- 
nients were new, havin;; been in the service but 
thr<*<' months, most of which tinw beinj; (mmu- 
piiMl in mar«-hin;:, iIm* tip|Mirt unities ftu ac<|uirinj; that 
prolicii-ncy in drill and disriplim- whit h \i'\\v c»»nti 
ilencr ami elTecl ivi-ness on the day of battle had been 
few and far iM-tween, and It is safe to say that fiw of 
the ihif llundr«-d and I'ourth appr«'ciated as yri lis 
vital imporianci- should it be (*alled into action. Kut 
i*very man with ihf dements «>f manhood in him kix'W 
how to li^ht imlividmilly, had conlide!ic«> in liims<*lf, 
and. b«li<'\inu' ihf sanM* of his roniradfs. nami-illy 
ac<|uir«'d tin- id«-a that tin- K«';:inn-nt. when put to thr 
IihI, Would |»r«i\i- in\ inriblr. This, at least, was the 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS 5j» 

writer's idea, aud claimed with confidence to be rep- 
resentative of the majority of our brave boys. 

But it was feJt that not much reliance could be 
placed in the One Hundred and Sixth and One Hun- 
dred and Eighth Ohio, both of which regiments could 
muster only about GOO men for duty. One comj)anv 
had not yet been provided with arms. They were also 
in an insubordinate condition. The One Hundred and 
Eighth was armed with the Austrian rifle, Avorthless 
and condemned, the locks requiring to be snapped sev- 
eral times before the load could be discharged. ( \)lonel 
Limberg, the commander, had been along with us 
under arrest since leaving Frankfort, and Captain 
Ciirlo liepho now commanded. Dissensions among 
the ofhcers in these regiments, utterly demorali/in-. to 
discipline, prevailed. The cavalry and artillery, com- 
posed of a small but efficient body of men, were well 
officered. 

The week ending December 6th passed quietly. The 
weather had been unusually cold and there was a lioht ' 
snow on the ground. Rumors, which were usually 
abundant m camp, and a part of the pastime of the 
soldier's life, had been scarce of late. But it was the 
calm that precedes the storm. It is probablv true that 
at Brigade headquarters information and reports were 
daily received, which, if known to the rank and file, 
would have caused anxiety. Among the older heads 
and veterans of experience there were no doubt ai)pre- 
hensions as to the safety of the Brigade and the result 
should it be attacked. The fact that Colonel Moore 
had never been in action and was an untried quautitv 
did not lessen any of these apprehensions. But such 
were carefully guarded. 

Lieutenant Prescott was informed bv a negro three 
or four days previous to the battle that'^the rebels pro- 
posed to attack and reported it to Colonel Moore, say- 
ing he believed it reliable, as also the indications 
among the old men at the village where he was on 
duty, seemed to confirm it. There were besides other 



•0 THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

hU8i»ici()MH «iriumsijiiR-fK, l»iu lunu* of ilie warniuys 
aplH'iinMl In br ri'y;anl»Ml. 

*»N liilf llnis Iviiij: in fami'Ml siMiirilN tM»;ri»j;i*tl in tli ^ 
nnni«*t-<>ns «hili«'«< ralh'l f»»i- «lav bv «'av. lliat «laiin_i 
oavali'vinan ami rai<bT, (irnrral John Mor;;an, was, 
in lonjnnclion with (u*neral Hra;;;;, i»ri'i>aiin«; his phm 
for thf (b*Kt motion <»r capture of the Thirty-ninth Hri- 
pub*. Dnrin^i th«* hittiT part <»f the w«M*k Li<Mit«*nani 
^\■illianl '^tiawn. A. < '. S.. had b<-fn smt !«► <Ial!aiiii 
with a hup* detail t«» jinanl th«' siip|»ly ti-ain for onr 
jMisi. (Ml lh«' 'Jth Caiilaiii W . II (mUmk. ..f <'on:i»'in\ 
D, had ptne \Nith a part ol his own men and other 
details ID I h« ...iiiir |da< c 

Saturday nij^hl ranic and an iiiiusiial (juictness. 
indueiMJ by tin* srvt-re lobl wriihrr, prcvaih-d in tli 
camp and around the tires of tin* Thirty-ninth Uri^Mcb'. 
Tin- writi-r an<I Li<*nl«*nant l>«*\Noy, of < 'onipany IC. were 
at a latr lionr in their tent »'M;ia;;<*d in rt-adin;:: and 
writin;; Irtters, when, as if pro|di<'t i<"iliy. I Jewry 
reniarked, '*\"om had Iteiier burn those oi- ilie .Injiiiiiie-v 
will j:ei them." This was said jokingly, but has never 
Immmi for^ittten. Little did we or any <»ne dream «»n 
that peaceful Saturday ni;:hl that ere the mt>rnin^ sun 
of the approachine; Sabbath should li;;ht \\\> the hill 

lops uf the < iimlMM-Iairl I lie o.ii-lei! ;i.||S "|m||^ I i'!'" 

Would call us hastilx, as from an awful niulit niai-e. to 
|iarticipate in a scene «)f blood, carnage and death, in ^ 
which the tMie llumlred and I'ourth. after sulVerinj; | 
a loss in killed and wtuimled jji;reat«'r than ever aflei 
ward expi-rieiieed in any one battle, ami «o\eiiii. 
itself with ;:loiy. was to be defeaied and cajdured, bill 
Hot disjrraced. 



CHAPTER VIL 



The Battle of Hartsville, Tennessee, and Capture of the One 
Hundred and Fourth. 



In the early claAvn of Suuduy, December Ttli, 18(32, 
at half past six — before sunrise — and while many of 
the men in the camps of the Thirty-ninth L>riga(U> were 
still asleep, the cry was raised, ''Fall in, men, the rebels 
are coming." Some quick-eared soldier had heard the 
ominous report of guns on the picket line, and has- 
tened to give the alarm. The first shot was said to 
have been fired by Joseph T. Oder, of Company H, 
who, though a stripling of seventeen, did not lose his 
head or fail to do his duty, but was captunnl before 
he could escape. However, there are other claimants 
for the honor. Simultaneously the long roll was 
beaten with unusual vigor. The men of the One Hun- 
dred and Fourth, hastily seizing their overcoats, guns 
and equipments, fell in on the company ])arade grounds, 
and were marcluMl from thence to the regimental color- 
line, where Lieutenant-Coh)nel Hapenian took com- 
mand and double-quicked the Regiment to a position 
on a low ridge a quarter of a mile northwest of the 
camp. The timber on botli si(h's had been mostly cut 
doAvn, and the ground was rocky and broken. Tlie 
One Hundred and Fourth was formed in line of battle 
along the crest of the ridge, and, looking across the 
valley, could see the enemy wheeling into line at the 
distance of one-fourth of a mile. The Oue Hundred 
and Sixth and One Hundred and Eighth Ohio, coming 
up, Avere placed by Adjutant-General Gholson on the 
right of the One Hundred and Fourth. The section 
of twelve pounders of Nicklin's Battery, commanded 
by Lieutenant Green, was placed in position on the 
crest, where it was amply supported by the infantry. 



THE ONE IIL'NDHED AND FOURTH 



I illlllCr aiKI l^ll'llll'liaill I iUMCM Il-Bp^r*. ll»»ri_» , »H-jriw>i-vi 

l«i (h«* Irft tiaiik to <«»v«T tin* y;rMUihI h«'t\v«MMi lln' On,' 
IIiiii«lnM| ami l'«Mirlli ami tin* riv«'r. Tlit* ivsl t>f tlif 
SiMMnnl hxliana, nmlrr Lii*ul«Miaiit-('ol<>iu*I Stew ait, 
ami I he half ciMiiiKiiiy «»f llir Kl«*v«'iitli Ktnimkv, Cap- 
lain Slairr, wiTf onlrnMl to covt-r a ml |tioi»Mt tin* ri;ilit 
Hank, wliitli was rapalth* of lit'in;^^ easily nirnctl. Tiic 
l«'ft was ;iuai(l«'(l ami iiia«l»' «linituh t<> attatk by a drt'ii 
ravine rnnnin;: t»» tlic river. 'l\> iimie efreeiually pro- 
ten tlie ri^'lit an<l rear ('a|»taiii Lutlinj:t«»n was sent 
with ronipany II to oju-rate in that <|naitei-. 

Taptain Lei;:hit»n, who was on tletacheW diiiy with 
<'«»!npany A in llartsxijje. was left to ti;zht it out on 
his own arronnt . 




REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 63 

worth ji'iiiis and howitzors. Vide Morgan's Koport. ( )n 
the march liis forces had been further increased by 
all of the guerrilla bands and citizeus in the country, 
making- his total not less than 4,000 men. 

(leneral Morgan, in pursuance of his cunning and 
carefully devised plan, had left Kaird's Mills, twenty- 
five miles from llartsville, on Saturday, and, march- 
ing all day, reached the Cumberland near the Federal 
lines that evening. He occupied the rest of the night 
in crossing the infantry on an old boat, while ('olonel 
Duke, with the regular cavalry, passed by a ford hn\-er 
down. Another force was sent with artillery to take a 
position on the south bank of the river — o])])osite our 
camp and covering it — the ford and Hartsville. Still 
another detachment, 1,000 strong, was ordered to dash 
into the village, capture or destroy the forces there and 
attack our rear. All of these movements were being 
promptly executed before and b^" the time that Morgan 
was advancing with his main army against our lines. 
Our vedettes liad been deceived by Morgan's advance, 
who were dressed in the Federal uniform, and were 
captured without a shot. 

The battle opened about 7 a. m. by a desultory firing 
on the skirmish line. Companies K and C were soon 
obliged to fall back before the enemy's rapid a<lvance, 
which they did in good order. Meantime the artillery 
opened and was at once replied to by a furious cannon- 
ade from the rebel batteries, which made a great noise, 
but did little damage, as they fired too high. When 
Morgan's advance came within musket range the firing 
became general and continuous on both sides for some 
time. Morgan still advanced, but slower and there 
appeared to be some (^onfusion and a perceptible waver- 
ing in his line caused by the steady and destructive 
fire of our men and that of the well-served artillery, 
which had already disabled two caissons of the rebel 
battery. At this point, and when Colonel Moore gave 
the order to charge, Lieutenant Creen came up in haste 
and complained that one of his guns was Avithout sup- 



M THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

jHiil. L«n»kiii^ arouu«l it was sr«'ii that the One lliiii- 
tln-tl ami Sixth had llnl. (Mi th«' inai- appinarh ol the 
I'lUMiix lh«'V ha<l liiMMJ kul* volh\v and ran. The uth«*r 
two rt'piM fills, Imwever, HtiMMl liriii and linMl iapi<lly, 
ill whi»li thfv \v«-r»* sustained l»\ the ariilh-r.v and <a\- 
alrv. \U\\ .M«»ij;an s»Min «ildi<|iu'd a |iart «tf his ^t\vl'■ 
whrlmin;; fuiT«'s so as to turn our ri^dit Ihink. Then 
llu'Oue llundi'tMl and lCi;;hlh hrranic <U*niorali/<Ml and 
left the tiidd. Tht' action had now iastt'd on*- hoiii-, and 
the ( Mif I hindr«*d and I'onrt h si ill stood tiiin as a rock. 
Manv had Immmi kilh'd, inrlndin;: Adjutant •< liiicral 
(iholson, a brave and ]ironiisin;; oHicer. 

The ( )ne Hundred and l-'oiirt h now su|t|)ori in^ hot h 
liitM'e.s of artiih'iv, and finoura^N-d lt\ ( 'ojonci ilajM*- 
man. Major W idnicr, and all of t hrir o Hirers, roni inut-d 
tin* un«M|ual roiHcsi twenty minutes lonj^er and until 
th«' rebels iMMire<| in ou our think and \\<-re within 
lifleeii jjares in front, so near, in fan, iliai we saw 
the whites of their eyes. Tlu'ii it was ihai ( "ojouel 
.Monre, who had ridth-ii the lines all through with 
nnlliiichin;: bravi'iy, ;;ave the order lo n-ii-eat to the 
hills on the river. Oue df the twelve pounders was 
taken lot he new jiosit ion in safety ; i he horses attached 
to I he ol her ha \ in;;; been killed, ( 'a |tlain I low e, of ( 'om- 
I»an\ I', with some «»f his men tried to reiuove ii by 
hand, bui the rebels, observin;^ this, lired a \olley of 
biilleis at them. I'oit unalely a |»air of horses was near 
and the ;iun leiuoved. The Ke;:imeni fell back in solu«' 
eon fusion, but many t urned to tire a not her shot as i hey 
sullenly retrejited. In I he new position siuue furl her 
liriii;: was dom* as the enemy rapidly advance*! tui our 
front and Hanks. Ilui the tirin;^ had t hen bec<une desiil- 
t«»ry and produced noelTect. Colonel .Moore t her«Mipon 
surn'iideied wliiil was left, and ihe baiile was viitu- 
ally over. The < Mie iiumlred and Sixth am! ( Mie llun- 
dred and l'i;;hlh had hui;; before ln-eu taken in. 

('a plain Lei;: hi on, w it h ( 'Muipany .\, after a spiiiied 
resiKlaiice in llarlsxille a;:ainst a re;^iment uf cavalry 
;iiid two compiinies of luounted infantry, iu which his 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEErvS. 65 

command killed five and wounded ciulii, wiili a loss lo 
himself of one killed, one mortally wouiKlcd, ami three 
wounded, Avas obliged to siincndci-. 

Company II, Captain Liidinghui, wliicli luid Im-cii 
sent to the right, nniintained an niuMpial tight against 
superior numbers until after the main body had sur- 
rendered, and was the last to yield. So stubborn and 
astounded was Captain l.udington that the rebel olVi- 
cers in admiration told him to keep his sword, which 
treachery afterward obliged him to give up. 

^Meantime the rebel cavnlry were occupied in gath- 
ering in the stragglers, pillaging the camps and collect- 
ing the spoils. They had just cause to be elated with 
their victor}', but had paid for it dearly in killed and 
wounded, losing about two hundred men. General 
Morgan said to one of our officers that he never saw 
men tight better than the One Hundred and Fourtli, 
and that if the other regiments had done as well he 
should have had to Avithdraw. The sudden retreat of 
the One ITundred and Sixth and the One Hundred and 
Eighth gave his wavering line new courage. 

The battle was over. The Starry l^anner had gone 
down in defeat, bnt not dishonor. The One Hundred 
and Fourth, crushed and humiliated, were prisoners of 
war. Deep as Avas the sting of this disaster, touching 
to the A'ery (juick CA'ery man in the Kegiiuent, yet each 
was conscious of liaA'ing done his duty, and could point 
with monrnfnl pride to t^e long list of killed and 
wounded as evidence of the stubborn conflict. 

The defeat at HartsA'ille M'as the inevitable conse- 
quence of the conditions existing, souk* of which havc^ 
been pointed out. Colonel ^Nloore, as conunauder of the 
Brigade and of an important post, had to shoulder 
the blame and endui'e the odium of failure. It was 
his misfortune to hold a command for which he was 
nnfitted by reason of inexperience, the Avant of confi- 
dence on the part of many of his officers, and the 
absence of those military instincts Avhich soldiers 
recognize and trust in. From the first honors which 
many a AA'orthy and scarred veteran Avould prize had 



m THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

Imm'M tliiusi iiiMtit liiiii, :iii*l with in> storms !<• |mm|>U*.\, 
in> \\\\\ fin'iii\ III »'in«tiiiih-r or ti^ilitiii;; h> Im- tli»m* 
rtM|uiriii;; riilM-r ilu* natural or Ifaiiictl luilitaiy skill 
of a l»*a«lrr. In- liail worn tluMu rasiix. In tin* day of 
trial aiitl ;:ra\r r«-s|tonsil>ilily \\liil«' fxiiiltit iiij; |mm-- 
sonal bravny. In* faiN**! lircaiisr In* «li«l not jtosst'ss llu* 
i|(ialitics nanit'il, wliicli, hail tlicv rxisttMl, would not 
only liavf prrvt-ntiMl tin* rnnuy from taking; us by sur- 
prise, but would liaVf fiiabbtd liiin to liavo luainMivi-rtMl 
liis for««'s so as to liav«' baHb'd ami tb'lavfd Moi-;j:aii 
until Ihtrlan's bri«;a«U' arrived, as it did two hours 
after the snrremb*r. ll»»wever, llartsville was lo be 
Colonel Moore's 'rherm<tpylae as a military leader. 

<Mi the other hand, it «-an be said in extenuation 
that he did not seek the rommaud. ( 'olomd Scott, ha\- 
in;; Immmi unex|MMtedl\ oidered to Nashville, sluijdy 
tiiriUMl it <»ver to him on I ><•« » mbt r iM. Neither ditl he 
riM-eive an_\ oi-ders or su;:;:est ions Ifom his superioi- 
oOirers in the brief period bef<»re the battle. Ninety- 
nim* men in the hundred would lia\f d<>iie as he did, 
and most likely wo\ild have met with liu' same result. 

The < Mie llumlredand Fourth josi ."tl killed or mor- 
tally wouinlfd. and had H>.~» woniided; total, \Ttit. The 
following: lisi "f 1 b"' names is only partial, but all that 
is at t ainabh-: 

lllll.h .\M» S'|'.AI'I\ 

W'oundfd Adjuiani 1». < '. SieNcns. s«'V»'rely 
lhroii;:h t he t hi;:li. 

(d.MI'A.W A. 

Killet] Sumner N. iluridiam. 

Moiially woundid .lonaihau Lewis. 

Wonudi'd I'atri.k (>'h,,Mnell, William Hurkley. L. 
Toiit r. 

«<».\||^\^^ i;. 

Kilh'd Ser;;«*an( <"romw<II Woodward. Sert^eant 
Jos«-ph I K i'tu-ter. < Jeori^e St eidfU;:er. I lo\\ aid l>. While. 

.Mortally woundi-d bifuii-iiani .Moses .M. Kamlo||tli, 
Samuel IV r|a»-k. .lohn ( '. \ ail. .b.lm Keaibr, I, mien 
Stanford. 

Wounded (lardner I.. Chase, in the foot; Charles 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 67 

A. Bradisli, iii liaiid; James Me^S'ally, iu head; Fabius 
E. Phelps ; H. C. Graves ; James Garrison, iu wrist ; 
^'ewtoii M. Shelton, leg amputated; Samuel W. War- 
uock, iu shoulder ; D. J. Stauford, iu aukle ; Serj^eaut 
H. L. McKinnev, slight; T. ^^'oolle3•, slight. 
COMPANY C. 

Killed — David Berkstresser, Thomas Hastings, 
James If. Wilson. • 

Mortally wounded — Peter J. Sauressig, William 
Van Law, Clarence Brenuan, Frederick Foot, Francis 
ZaiT. 

Wounded — Captain Samuel M. Ileslet, iu both 
thighs; Lieutenant Daniel C. Kyuearson, in leg; Ser- 
geant Charles K. Brown, in side; James A. Kersey, 
severely; L. .W. Winslow, in hand; John W. Bullis, both 
eyes shot out; John A. Livers, ami amputated; Charles 
II. Jewett ; Oscar Sayles, severely ; K<jbert C. Doaue ; 
Hiram Beck, in arm; Samuel Banks, slight. 

COMPANY D (only one-half present). 

Killed — Abram H. Austin, Jos. L. Sapp, Corporal 
Thos. G. Steven. 

Wounded — Henry B. Anderson, slightly; Robert S. 
Brent, slightl}^; John F. Bute, seriously in three places; 
John W. Carmony, seriously, hit five times, breaking 
shoulder and three ribs; Lifee II. Powers, in head; Bich- 
ard J. Gage, seriously in leg; Henry E. Price, in hip; 
John Peter, slightly; Ora D. Walbridge, arm broken; 
Theodore P. Brown, seriouslv. 

COMPANY E. 

Killed — Corporal Tlu)s. Weeks, Corporal John D. 
King, David V. Diehl, Edward J. Curtis, Orville L. 
Moorhead, Roderick D. Reed. 

Mortally wounded — Lieutenant Milton Strawn, 
George Hemenover, Samuel N. Merriam, Felix McCul- 
lough. 

Wounded — Sergeant Homer A. Wilson, in arm; 
David A. Wisher, in hand; Sergeant George W. Cum- 
mins, in head; Corporal William J. Anderson, in arm; 
Corporal Lyman Nattinger, in neck; Benjamin Phillips, 
in face; Alfred Roberts, in thigh, seriously; James A. 



<8 THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

SiHTiiiaii, anu bri)krii; Cliarlfs 11. I'.iuwii, in iumU; 
.Taiin-s<J. Si'wanl; William I. l>;iil\ : < •. W . Wilson; .los. 
\V. < *nnanl. 

(•(^Ml^\^^ i" 

Kill.-.l K,M•^ llrorU, Julin .M«l)..w-all, William 
WotMlhurv. ror|Mtral .lann-s S|m'II(<t, .Ir. 

\NiMiinl«M| ('ai»i:iin Jam«s .1. McKi-rnan, in arm, 
wrist ami rlnM-k; lUnry A«Uciinan, srvrrrl.v ; Lcmm'l 
li. Laujihliii, sli;:htlv; ThoinaK Kyerson, in liii>. S. M. 
Z«-ln(T. sli;:lMl\ : 'PliMmas Tlmmpsoii. in sIi<mi1(1«m-; Sam- 
uel N. Trrnarv. sli;:litl>: Samml «in«ii; Anslin V. 
Mitrln-ll; Lirnlrnant .lulm < '. Linsl«-y: Kzfkit-l lli««\vii; 
llmiamin .It»n«*s, A. W'. nmkm r. 

('(KMI'ANA <i. 

Killrd S«M-p'ant Mynm Nt-wtun. Iluiili A. Dum- 
inrit, HtMijamin S. FnlW-rion, Osnian Larson. Anthony 
< »lM*rst, .John Palnu'r, 

.Mortally wonmlctl — .laroh Nelson, .lohn Thomas. 

WoiMnh*«l — \V«'sh*y Misiicr, in thij;h, severely; Sani- 
\U'\ 11. porter, arm lirokrn ; Tnnis S. Serrim'. in arm; 
.lohn Haih-y, in thi;:h, severely; .lames i\ l)ee«:an; IC. 
S. Hullanl, sli«;ht ; Serp-aiii < ". I'.. ( ook. sli<;hi. 
('(KMI'ANV II. 

.Moiially \voMn<le<| Henry \\illa\ ise, .1. M. Porter, 
A. A. .My. IS. 

W'tMindeil I.'-\i Nt'lson, sli;^hily; Xavier W <»lf, in 
hip, scrionsh . 

roMl'ANV 1. 

.Mortally wonmled Harvey W . Traver. Nicholas 

I'llenhoeker. 

W'oun<le<l ("orp.tral illhriil^e rhapman, in side; 
Kartholo \\*. Andrews; I'rank W'. Hnrns, in throat, seri 
onsly; .laeoli Pane, in hand; N. H. .Mnllin. in le^i . 
.\ndre\v I'tnits, in thi;:h; .Mark Pnrviance. in le;;, seri 
ously; ArteniaK <'. (^ninn. in hreast ; .Iidinson Traver, 
in hand; ('«»rneliiis Snyder; dames d. Traver, in fare, 
severely; Prure Winans. sli^^htly; William K. I'rink, \ 
sli;;htly. 

<<>.M1'.\.\\ K. 

Mortally woimdi'd- Jose|di P. Arnold. .jjimI he, em 
her *«t h ; Charles \. Prown. 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 69 

Wounded — Henn^ Pnst, leg' ainputated; Kobcrt 
Bell, severely; Andrew A. Hart, seriously; Chas. F. 
Peterson, severely; Thomas Mulkay, severely; Adolph 
Splitstosser, slightly. 

The rest of the r>riga<le lost in killed and wounded, 
as per the Official lieports, 105, Vide Keb. Kee., Vol. 
XX. But the foregoing does not include a number 
of missing, who were probably killed, buried, and never 
reported, except as unknown. 

A da}^ or two after the battle the citizens of Ottawa 
sent a committee of three. Rev. Z. Coleman, Dr. C. 
Hard and J. W. Calkins, to Ilartsville with sanitary 
supplies for the wounded, and while there they buried 
a number that they found dead in the wo(»ds, rein- 
terred all of the dead who were half buried, and, when 
the soldiers could be identified, marked their graves. 
They marked some as unknown, as appears from the 
"list-' in the possession of the writer. 

Through the intiuence of Surgeon Dyer and this 
committee many of the wounded of the One Hundred 
and Fourth were sent to Ottawa as fast as their con- 
dition permitted removal. The committee performed 
an immense labor, being in Ilartsville part of the time 
under a flag of truce, the rebels having possession. That 
their services were appreciated the following published 
letter shows: 

Gallatin, Tenn., Dec. 22d, 18r)2. 
To the Friends of the One Hundred and Fourth: 

In behalf of the officers and soldiers of the One 
Hundred and Fourth Illinois Volunteers, now at Gal- 
latin and Hartsville, Tenn., we, the undersigned, return 
our sincere and most heartfelt thanks to the good peo- 
ple of Ottawa for their symi)athy as expressed by the 
substantial aid sent to our noble suffering wounded by 
the hands of Dr. Hard, Rev. Z. Coleman and J. W. 
Calkins. We also feel under lasting obligations to the 
above named gentlemen for the manner in which they 
have executed the trust confided to their hands in min- 
istering personally to the wants of the living and assist- 
ing faithfully with Christian sympathy in burying our 



70 Tin: <"'Ni: in'xnnKD and fourth 

ilfiKi •Mil «>i Mill >iuhi. >il:iu(1 bv li. K. Dver, S. .M. lli-s- 
In, K. «', SirvniK, 1). r. KvinarsMii, M. (►sinan, William 
K. HiMisli, .1. MisiHT, Jos. 1*. I'ii/siimijoiis, \\ illiani II. 
rolliii*., .I;is. SiH-.j.ki-r. .luliii S. II. Duly. 

INflDKNTS ()]■ Tin: llA'l TLK. 

Wliilr it lias b«M'ii uiiiv«'rsall> adiiiilltMJ iliai ilif 
Out' iluii(liv<I and l-Nmrth did all that men could dt> 
at llarisvillr i«> win vi»t*>ry ur s(«'ni llic tido of defeat. 
Koine persitiial aet.s and W(»r«Is eamuH well be omitted. 

Said Coloih'l Limberjr, a witness: "'riic ( Mn- llun- 
dr«*d and I'onrtli foii'dit like bulls." 



e 

liis musket to a 
lonbt some one 



IM- 

ub- 



wniie ioiinin;::, oiii so oni onee; laKiu 
deliberati'lv loaded, and, brin^in;; hi 
ready, pirked his man and tired no (...m,. .^..m.- , 
dr<>|»ped, he cscaiKMl with a wound. 

tJeneral Tlnunas says in re^^ard to ihe un<' H 
tired and Tourth at Ilaits\ ille. The letter was p 
lished ill "Tat riot ism in Illinois:*' 

Louisville, Ky., .Ian. 10, 1 ^<i7. 
(*«doml A. 11. .Mooio, Ottawa, 111.: 

Colonel:--! re««'ived y<»nr lett<'r of ihr ::d inst.. and 
after earefnl t'xaminat ion of i he oiVnial reports of ot In r 
oHIrcrs who i>artiri|iated in the battle of llartsvilh-. 
Teiin., I am enabled to state that all romnr in test ify in- 
to your personal bravery, as well as to the ^Mllantr\ 
of your own i«';:iment thoOiii' lliindiod and I'oiirth 
Illinois. < 'olonel .lohn I larlaii, T<*nt h Kent iirky, who ar- 
rived with his own and the'rcnih Indiana re;:imentM 
very Kuon after the enemy had ic i-.iss.-.j ili)> t "umber 
land Itiver, menlioiiK in his i-r|Mirt that a lai::<> major- 
ity of the kilb'd and woiimb'd ttf your loniiiiaml be- 
ioii;;iM| to the <» IK- 1 1 iindi-< -d and I'oiii! h I lliiiois. w hirh 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 71 

is coiH-hisivc «'vi(le7i('(' of the steadiness and hravery of 
Y(Hir own rejiiment and of yourself ixTsonally. I am, 
Colonel, very respectfullv vonr obedient servant, 

(1E(). 11. THOMAS, 

.Major General U.S.A. 

WHO FIRED THE FIKST SHOT AT HAKTSVILLE? 

Joseph A\'. Coiiard of ('oni]>any E, says in regard to 
this event: On the morning- of Dec. 7, 1S(>2, Lieutenant 
Milton Strawn was in charge of the reserve picket post, 
located three posts from the (Cumberland river, my 
brother William was on ijuard at the reserve i)ost. I 
was on guard at the m^xt ])ost east — uiM)n a rise of 
ground. At break of day, I saw the rebels on the brow 
of (piite an elevation about opposite our last picket post, 
but I hardlj^ thought they were the enemy, knowing that 
there were three i)ickets between the reserve and the 
river and supposed that if they were the enemy, those 
pickets would give the alarm, but they did not, and after 
hesitating a few moments, I discharged my gun and 
rallied on the reserve. We afterward learned that the 
rebels captured^ the first (last) and second posts without 
their tiring a shot. 

NOTE ABOUT HAKTSVILLE. 

By Lieutenant A. Y. Mitchell, Company F- 

On Sunday morning, Dec. 7, 1862, I, being then Or- 
derly Sergeant of Company F, had arisen early as we 
were to have general inspection at 10 o'clock and there 
was much police duty to be done arouud the camp. I 
had just dismissed the men from roll-call when I dis- 
covered the rebels coming doAvn the stony point of the 
big hill and at once called ^Nfajor AVidmer's attention to 
it, when the alarm was given and the regiment thrown 
into line of battle and we marched out where the fight- 
ing was done. We' were taken in out of the wet and 
John Morgan performed the inspection duties that 
morning. 

Surgeon Dyer relates that while attending to the 



72 THE ONE HUNDIlEn AND FOURTH 

woiiikIimI oil iln« iH'Iil, hi* raiiH' h» a rnTmaii s»»ltlii'i- aii<l 
liiK sun, iiifiiilici'K of (In* OiH* llumlrtnl aiul Sixth (Hii«». 
Hofli wiTr \vnuiul«-«| aii<l sa'hl thai scriii-; thi'tMic Ihiii- 
tlitMl aii«l FiMiith tij;litiii;4 ahuif, thrv th«»u;;ht thrv 
woiihl roiiiooviT ailtl help. All htMlor t(» t hclii. 

K«»h«Tt S. Hi'i'iit, of < 'oinpaii.v I>, says: 1 saw oih- of 
the shells fioiii oiir hattfi-v (•\|i|o(lc in a irhcl aniniiini-, 
lion \\a;:on an«l tin* icIh-Is t InTrupoii ran liU«' sln-cp, 
Al that tiiiH* \\i« \v«M'«' onh'rtMJ to |ix l(ay<nn*ts an»l 
char^t', liiii I he onh-r was ronntcrniainliMJ, which was 
|H*rha|>s a niistaU«'. NNIn-n tin- irhrls wrn* forming to 
atta«k lis llt-niv K. Prii «• said to ni**, I hein^i in t he front 
ranks: "Hol», h-i nn* rhanjic places wit h yon, I N\ain the 
tii-st rhanre at them." 1 reni«*nil»er distinrtly one lebel 
sleppin;; ont from Itehind a I i-ee and liiin;^ dii'ectly at 

IIS so it seemed. I fell ihr wiml of tile JMlliet oil mv 

h'ft cheek and Prire on his ri^dit. We hoi h tiled at him, 
hill the smoke |>revented oiif seein<; the elTecl. Ijeiiry 
said to me: ** That was pretty close, litdt." The lehels 
Were then some jwehe rods fiMiin lis. I was wounded 
soon after, and l{. .1. (Ja^'e carried me on his hack ten 
rods, \\ hen I t hoii^hi I con Id walk, and he | nil nie dow n, 
iilid pdii;; l»a< k lo the line was wounded himseir a few 
moments after. I wjiiked a short distance, when I 
fainted :ind fell in i he snow from loss of hlood. < )n 
com in;: '•» I noi it t-d ;i j»erfeci sioini of I ml lets ll.\ in;; o\er 
my head and strikin;: the weeds artnind me. The Ke^i- 
iiieiil fallin;; hack. I was picked up hy .lohn .1. I^>rd, of 
<*oiii|iany h, and carried hy him and |iiit in a Com- 
pany K tent, when he covered ine with a Idanket. A 
memher of ('Miniiany K died that iii;:lii hy iii\ side, 
haxin;; had his le;; hntkeii and aiii|Mitaied. I < nii ne\er 
for;.'et I'alriek O'honm-ll, of rmnpany A. \\\\<< was 
wonnded in the nionl h with a pisioj |>:ill .w • lose ran;:e. 
When we Wi'I'e leinoNed froiii llarts\illc on the follow - 
in;: NN'edneHiJay he was the only one of ns that «oiihl 
walk, and when we had ;:one pari way to tJal- 
latin we stopped f"»r the ni;:hi in some ne;:ro lints 
on a plantation. The «dd lehel owner told his 

ne;;roeH not |<i ;;i\e IIS ;iM\ woml fur liicv. |5iil 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 73 

Pat had a revolver and went out and stood .ouard over 
tlie negroes and made them chop wood for us. He also 
ordered the colored woman to make some chicken broth, 
and we had an opinion that it was tlic best chicken 
broth we had ever tasted. Pat aftcrwai-d had the rhcii- 
matisni very bad and went home for a time. After- 
ward he lost an arm in battle. His one faidt conld not 
take one wreath from his brow. 

A braver man than John McCullough, of (\>m]>any 
E, was seldom seen. We had retreated to the river and 
the rebels were among us, one of them raised his gun to 
shoot a soldier, and, though almost surrounded, John 
covered him, at the same instant telling him with an 
oath to stop. He did. To tire would have been death 
to both. The writer saw this occur. The brave McCul- 
longh fell at Peach Tree Creek. 

Ilenrv E. Price of Com])any D, badly wounded in the 
thigh, said, "It would be all right if 1 could only be sure 
that I had hit some of them." 

Captain Doty, immediately after surrendering, man- 
aged in the confusion to slip away, and, going among 
the wounded, many of whom had crawled back to camp, 
began taking care of them, lie succeeded in deceiving 
the rebels until Harlan arrived, and also saved the com- 
pany books and papers. 

There Avas no extra charge for reserved seats in the 
front row during the battle. One man, and, it is be- 
lieved, the only one in the regiment, who was about to 
take one further back where he could see just as well, 
was convinced by Lieutenant Colonel Hapeman of the 
superior advantages of the parquet in this show. 

A noticeable feature on many faces was the [»owder 
stains on the mouth, caused by biting off the cartridges, 
instead of, when not in a hnrry, tearing off the ends with 
the fingers. 

The Brigade being i)risoners and disarmed, were 
hurried under guard of the victorious enemy to the ford 
over the Cumberland. The water being breast deep, the 
cavalry took two or three men on each horse and carried 
them safely' over. Occasionally a horse slii)])ed giving 



4 THK ONE Hl'NDRED AND FOl'HTH 

all a iiyntd wriliu;:. This otiupii-d two li..ms. aii.l m.-aii- 
liiuf Morjran'K lavalry haviii},' pitlu-rrd up iln- anus, 
ariilN-n, auiiu\iuiti«»u ami supplies, ou llu* li«'l«l aiul iu 
tauip, aiul |.»a<liMl tuir wa-ious. llu-s** wm- IiuiiumI 
tuwanl Hart's IVn y, as Mor^MU had n-poits uf ilu* ap- 
pn.a«h ..f Harlan's nri«:a<li-. Hut I., (h-lay its a«lvaiuv, 
h«* thn-w out two n-i^'inHiits of «avalry and fuur piwes 
uf artillrry. \\\r lati.T hron^hi fnun his n-snvc uu tlu' 
m»uth siili' of llu' rivt'r. \ i<h- .Moi-au's iJcpoits. K.l>. 
Hoc. Vol. XX. ThtMibjfct was a»«ouii»lislu'<l and u.arly 
owrx tiling' nMuov«Ml safely ovrr tin- ( 'uuilMTlaiul. 

fhf wrary uianh toward tin- n-lM-l liurs was ilu-u 
hf;;uii. but hVfon* Wf had lost si^ht of llartsvilh* llu- 
thuiulrr «»f ranu«»u arross iIm* rivrr auuouu»«Ml to us th<* 
arrival of Harlaii and Mill.!-. Inii. alas! lou latr'. U<- 
yond riMapturiii;: a f«'W wa-^oiis at thr ford and liriii;^ 
ii few shots across at the n-hol r«'si*rvo i»r roai- <:uaril, 
they could do uoihiu},' for us. liowiv«r, llu-y savrd 
luuidi ]»ro]MM-ty. whiih .Moi-;;au's lurn had ovcrh^oko.! or 
«ould u«tt nMuovr, aM<l also relieved and saved fi.»iii 
«apt un* a iiuuiImm- of our lucii auti soiur otVurrs who had 
hiddfu away. The wuu.idod and sitk iu the hospital 
wrro n«>t uudosird l.v Mui-au. That rvouiu-r llarlau 
and .Milh-r's l»ri;:ados n-iururd to Castilliau Sj. ring's, 
Iraviii;:, of ntursc, I ho wouudiMl and siik ai llartsvilh'. 
\ido Harlan's KopiUMs. Iv»l>. K*r. V(d. XX. 

.Ml day and until in u'dtM-lv at ni-hi i ho rouiuanis 
of ilu-'riiiityninth Uri«;adr won- niar«luNl briskly alon«;. 
N.» our had ratou a bito sin«v the ni;:hl boforo. Tho 
robol soldiors ha«l liith* in ihoir havi*rsarks and thai 
litlh-. < Ml II p.iiir. .Many <»f tlu*ni kindly sharod it with 
our iiM-n. Having ;:on«' luoiiiylivc iiiih-s wo won* put 
in bivouac for llu- ni^dit iu a rcdar biako. Evon horo 
wood was hard to ;;<•! for fires, as wo had no axes to «ul 
it. Tlio woathor boin;; very rohl and sovi-ral inches of 
Muow oil tin* ground, tlicn* was nnnh sufferiui:. N<» 
food was ;:iven us. We reali/.eil what it iiieaut to be 
prisoners of war. With several rebel re«;iiuenis nu 
^iiard about the camp the |ou<^' ni^hi liuailv eiidiil. 
The march was le^iui I "H Mi'H.Iav, i he sth, w ithout 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 75 

food, and after marching fifteen miles we reached Mor- 
gan's headquarters, six mik^s from iMiirfrecsboro, in the 
afternoon, nearly famished. The bivouac was again 
made in a grove, wood and water were brouglit, and at 
dark a half ration of flour and fresh beef was issued, 
but no salt for our meat. However, having been sixty 
hours with scarcely a mouthful to eat, anything that 
would satisfy the gnawings of hunger was welcome, 
and, after the most primitive preparation eaten. The 
night was j)assed a little more comfortably than the 
previous one. The whole of the night was speut in 
speculation and gloomy forebodings as to whether we 
would be paroled or sent to some rebel prison. During 
the day another ration of flour and beef was issued. In 
consideration of their good fortune our enemies treated 
us very kindly, but allowed no unusual liberties, having 
an idea, no doubt, "Yankee" must be a very slippery 
fellow and liable to play some Yankee trick upon them. 

The hearts of the men of the One Hundred and 
Fourth were gladdened on the morning of the 10th by 
the news that the Regiment was to be paroled. A little 
later we left for Murfreesboro, and when tAvo miles from 
town all were ordered to leaA^e their overcoats in a pile 
by the road. Morgan pretended that this was don<^ by 
order of General Bragg, but no one believed it. On 
arrival we were put in the court house yard, then taken 
inside by companies, and paroled, each man signing an 
agreement and taking an oath not to bear arms against 
the Confederate States until regularly exchanged. This 
exercise occupied most of the afternoon, during which 
time the One Hundred and Fourth were the observed 
of all observers. General ^Morgan's name was on all 
lips, and he was the hero of the hour among the rebels, 
who had no scruples about magnifying the importance 
of the victory, the number of killed, of prisoners, etc. 
While here the writer secured a copy of the "Rebel 
Banner," and this stated Morgan's loss to be 200. 

Colonel Hapeman and Major Widmer were not 
paroled, but sent to Atlanta and afterward to Rich- 
mond, where thej were put in Libby Prison until April 



7« THE ONE HUNDRED AND F<»rRTH 

113, lMi:{, win-n llifV Wfiv ••.V(liaii;;tul. ("uloiu-l Moure 
wa»als«Mlelaiin*d in thf(,\nifeileraty until March. 

Tlif paroling' was tinisluMl by nij;lit, and we were 
marelu'W um miu- milr ami put in a li»*Ul, when another 
half ration was uivm us, luaUiu;; in all one an«l a half 
rations of Hour an«l beef re<»'ive«l, an«l on whirh we had 
lived four days. Itut not withstanding; our hard usajje 
all w«-re in ln'ttrr spirits at the |u-ospeets id" a sprcdy 
release fnuu lapt i\ iiy and made the best of a ot)hl niLiht 
by thesianty lires. 

Karly on the llih w*- >iaii«<l iinch-r rebrl escort for 
the I'nion lines and Nashvilh-, thirty miles distant. 
Near l.averj^ne, lifteeii miles from Murfreesboro, the 
outp»tsts of the two j;r<*at armies ronfronied each other, 
nnd the Federal commander, not having been uotitied 
of our ai»proarli. mistook us for an advance of the rebels, 
and a skirmish follow rd. This caused a delay of seNcral 
hours before the mallei- could he ananued umler a tla;^ 
ef truce, 

()ur ;juai'ds fm|»lo\e(l ilie inier\;il in sirip|tiiiu our 
men of any remaining o\t'rcoals, of ihcir blankeis and 
anyihin;;else in si;^lii or i ha I struck lln'ii- fancy. Hut the 
previoiis experience hail put a number on their ;;uai'il 
who otln'rwise would ha\e sidTered. These acis afler 
(Mir capture were, imlecd, beautiful examjdes <•! the 
chivalry and civili/alion of t he Soiit h. There are amein- 
lies even in war, which all (hrisiian jMoplc. except 
thuKe of the South, have r«'coij:ni/ed, 

Lou;; afler dark the < Mie Hundred and I'ourlh 
Nle|i|Md within the I'ldon lines, free men, "I^xcept lln-se 
bonds," but a^ain under the old lla^'! 

<'onlinuin;; the march all ni;:lit, we ijid ikm lem h 
Naslnille until daylight, ainl lieie uiei with aiioilier 
delay of t w<» hours beftue bein;: Una Iiy quartered in the 
ZollicolTer buiMiii;:. (.Now the. Maxwell House. | This 
wan nnlinished, with fireplaces in every room. The jiiles 
o( tine dry lundier mad** exieljent lir«'s, and after ;,M'tt inj; 
nilions havin;; ;;one w it httiit food for t hiriy-six hours, 
the Ke;^iment be;:an to feel comfortable, ami settled 
dow n I o a w ait w li;i le\ er )li><po>ii inn mi'jht be made of it . 



CHAPTER VIII. 



Go to Parole Camp at Columbus— Taking French Furloughs— De- 
serters— Remove to Camp Douglas— Guarding Rebel Prisoners 
—Treatment of Rebel Prisoners— OfC for Nashville— Guarding 
the Capitol— Go to Brentwood— Return to Nashville— At Mur- 
freesboro— In Beatty's Brigade— Prepare to Advance— Order 
for Movement Issued. 



It liaviiig- been decided by (xeneral Rosecrjms to 
seud the Regiment to tlie parole camp at Columbns, 
Ohio, whilst awaiting an exchange of prisoners, we left 
Nashville on the 13th, nnder the command of (\iptain 
John Wadleigh, of Compa-ny I, In passing (hi-ough Gal- 
latin greetings were exchanged with a number of the 
One Hnndred and Fourth who were at the depot. We 
arrived at Louisville on the morning of the 14th, and, 
embarking on the steamer General liuell in the evening, 
reached Cincinnati the next morning. It had rained all 
night, but this had turned to snow and made things very 
dismal. 

The men of the One Hundred and Sixth and One 
Hundred and Eighth, who had come along, were re- 
joiced to reach home once more, where there was plenty 
of sauer-kraut and beer, and proceeded at once to their 
old haunts. In the evening the One Hundred and 
Fourth boarded the cars for G<dumbus, an-iving there 
at daylight on the Kith. After standing ji round some 
time, we marched out to Camp J.ew ^^'allace, three miles 
from the city. As we had no overcoats, and it was in- 
tensely cold — and the snow Avas fonr or five inches deep, 
all suffered. It was soon learned that all the tents ijud 
barracks were full, however the boys managed to find 
quarters here and there, but no doubt thought the much 
warmer climate we had left M'as preferable, even with a 
little iron hail and brimstone thrown in. The only relief 
afforded was the certainty of having ]>lenty to eat, 



78 THE ONE HrNDKEl* AN1> F<»L HTH 

tlu>ii;;li >M* liiiil h' Imiituu iln- «lislirs lo took in. 'IMiis 
ciiudition of (liiii;:s lastrd iliriM' tiavs, w Im*ii ilii* iinii- 
maiiul was iraiisffntHl l«» Camp Cliasi', oii tin* oiImt si«le 
of thf liiv. Wi'Vi' \\v had roiuforiabh' bariarUs ami 
hfll I«m! tlou II (o awaii rVfiits. 

Hut, liowfvrr, willi iioihiii;; lo tlo aii<l no pail itular 
rt»aH«m f«»r rcmaiiiiii;; liciv, most of tlu* iiumi look Fieiu'h 
Ifuvi' ami wiMit lioiiif, ritiiiiatcly tln*y all anivcd in 
8af«*ty, lull I host* who Iwul no niom-y ilid a j;ood d«'al of 
walking;. Al this liim* sonn* wciil who in'Vrr n*inrm*d 
lo I In- Ivr^iiiiH'iit, hut iMM-anu* «h'S»*rU'is. Tlu* writer has 
no «|oubt but that tln-ir frifmls (?) iKM-snadt-d iht-iii to 
«l«'Srrt. M«* iMM-alls two of these who weie absent many 
months, inie j^oiii;; to lOniojie, bnt, eonstiem«'-st rickeii, 
they n*iiirned, ami were e\er after faithfnl soMieis. 
(Mie of them was kilh^l in bat t le and i he oi her died of 
iliKiNiKe at Savannah on the "^larrh to t he Sea." 

While at <"o|iinibns the Ke;:iinent lost, by death. 
I'eiix .Met 'iiljou^ih, of ( 'oiiipaiiy I'., a luave soldier, badly 
woniide<l at liartsville, who would not jjo to the hospi- 
tal, but staid with the Company : also Lanpjon !>. Mor- 
rill, of the same t "omjtany, a not her faithful li^dner. 

The welftune iiews was lereived (Ml dan. IL' that the 
Ke;,'iiueni had Ium-ii exchanged and «U(lered lo Nashville, 
but there were s<» few at Camp Chase ihal Ca|tiain 
\\'adlei;xh opened eorresp(Uideiire \\ iih a view to havin;^ 
the destination rhan;:ed to t"am|> hou^las. 111., where 
the men roiild be more easily eo|le<ted. ( )n the l.">th, *H'\- 
tiuii ii ]ttts\l'\\i' itViU'V \ii H'\H\\\ at Nashx ille, we left that 
♦•veiiiii;; about one hiindied siidiiii. .\irivin;: in <"in 
eiiinati. Captain Wadlei^'h saw tieiieial \\iij,dil, eoni- 
maiidin;: this depariim-nt, and secure*! a «han;:e in t he 
order by whieh theKe;jiment was sent to Camp nou;rh»s, 
where it arrived the iH'Xt day, i. o., those who «lid not i;«-t 
left or fall off the ears near the Kock Island Junction. 
The writer, who had stayed by the boys in every eiiiei- 
P'liry was om- of i hosii. u )|,, f,.l| ,,(T and w as absent a few 

TlioNi- who iciiiMineil in Caiiiji I»(iu;^1ms were put on 
duty ;;uardin;; the liebel j»rlsoiu-r> Ht.(HM> in number 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 79 

who had been captured at Arkansas Post, Htone's River 
and other points. 

General Jacob Anmien was then in <(>ininan(i of 
Camp Douglas. The Sixty-fifth Illinois, Coh.ncl Cam- 
eron, and the Ninth Vermont were also on duly there at 
this time. 

The members of the One Hundred and Fourth began 
to return, until by the end of February we mustered 
over 700 men. Having no field officers," Cai)taiu Wad- 
leigh continued in command. 

The winter had been severe and was particularly 
unpleasant to our prisoners. About fifteen or twenty 
per day took the oath of allegiance and were sent home, 
but some not daring to go remained north. 

About February 15 those of the One Hundred and 
Fourth at Gallatin, Tenn., with the wounded who had 
recovered, returned to us and met with a warm wel- 
come. 

The Regiment began to look like its former self but 
did not feel exactly right without its field officers who 
were still in Libby Prison. 

The proximity of Camp Douglas to the city, though 
outside of it, made our situation more pleasant, and all 
had an opportunity to get acquainted with some of the 
mysteries of Chicago and its attractions. Attending the 
theater was a mucli sought amusement; getting a 
square meal at some favorite restaurant was seldom 
omitted. 

But no one could leave Camp Douglas without a 
I^ass and the details were so made that a number could 
obtain these each day, if desii-ed. The writer came on 
duty once a week as officer of the guard, he therefore 
had much time to himself. 

The winter months passed rapidly away and by 
March 2.5 the Regiment mustered 770 men. At this time 
Colonel Moore having been exchanged, returned, was 
serenaded, and made a characteristic speech. Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Hapeman and Major Widmer came back 
later. 

Much having been written and said about the ti-eaf- 



10 THE ONE liUNDHKD AND FOURTH 

liieiil of ilu* KflH'I luistnuTs in ('auii» l><>u;:la8 in iIm* 
wiiHriMif IMIL' :?, tin* wii(»*r«h*sir«-K to say Uvn\ iliut iii«*ii 
wiTf Ui'M'V In-nt-r tivairtl iliaii llifsr. TIm'V wwe pi»»- 
vidtnl Willi as warm ami coiiilortal»l«' tuiartiMs as our- 
Ki'lves, ffil tlu'sauu* rations -iiulinlin;; soft bn-ad, mon* 
tliaii any man rouM or iliil cat; lia«l tin* lirst miMlical 
aiirndamr u ln-n sitk; wm* ;;iM*n rloihin^' and 
blanivfts l>y a ;:«'n«'rous ;;ovrrnmcnt a;;ainsi wliirii iln*y 
had rflM'IIfil; w«'rr iillowinl the fretMiom .ii th.- ramp, 
and ronid trade at the jiost sutler's if tht-y had moni*y; 
bnl tlu*y had no '*Ni^';:i'rs" to mi their \\o(mI, which was 
fnrnislicil in j^cm-rons <|uaniiiics. Such was the iicat- 
nicni ;;ivcn ihcm. 

iMirin;^; .March, a curicl of cxchan;:!' havinu Imimi 
arran^c<l, lar;;c niimlicis of ihcni were sent olT 
iiaily. It was m»iicc;ihh- ihai I hey were in ]nime 
condition and read.v to cnicr at dikc iiiio t lie 
ser\ice of theii' master, .lelTerson havis, anil ihis ihey 
did, mnch t«» the j;rat ilication d (he lehel generals, who 

solM'ly needed I hem. 

Tile fonowinji o|lic«*rs resi;;lied after the ballh' of 
IlartHviUe and previous to our h-avin;; Camp l)ou;;his: 
<'aptain Talnier, romjiany K. I'eb. I's, ls»;:5; laeiiteiianl 
.lames Snedaker, t 'oinpaiiy 1 ). I )ec. ;;i. 1 ^tij; Lieutenant 
rharles ]•]. Weber. ( 'oiMpany I, I'eb. !•, \S{\:\\ Lieutenant 
Samuel d. liauey, ( 'oui|iauy (1, March S, jsi;:*,; Lieuten- 
ant KobeiM \'. Simpson. ( ".ini|>aiiy < I, A |iril L lSt'»:>; ('a]>- 
tain Samuel M. 1 1 eshi, ( '.un pa uy < \ Mai* h M, \Si\:\. 

As the A|uil days a|ipr<>ached ;;u;»rdiu^ prisoners 
l>ecitme inoiioioiious ami the Ke;:imenl be^^an to \\ ish 
for more active service. TIm* desired chan;;e came soon. 

i )r«lers were receivjMl on the KMh to be rea<ly to h'ave 
on April IL' for the front. (Jeneral Kosecrans hail been 
noiiiii'd that he could lune either the Ninth Xeiiunut 
or the One Hundred and Fourth. Me ie|e;:raphe<l f<u- 
the latter, thus showinj; that In* had not fiUi;oiteii the 
li;:ht in;; ipia lilies exhibit e<l at llartsville. 

( Ml Sunday, .\pril t'J. ihetiue Hundred ami I^Mlrlh 
bade a ;;lad farewell to ('amp l>ou;:las and inari hiu'j: 
to th«' earn left at i n for Louisville. Ou arri\al ai 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 81 

LaFayette, Ind., at eight in the eveniii';-, we found a big 
supper prepared by the patriotic and generous citizens^ 
awaiting us. A committee had been sent to meet the 
Regiment a few miles out. There was an abundance of 
everything that hungry men coukl desire, and wlien — 
after an hour spent in feasting, the cars bore us away^ 
all voted the people of LaFayette to be the most gener- 
ous and hospitable in the world. The officers of the Regi- 
ment gathered in one of the cars and resolved them- 
selves into a committee of the whole, for the purpose of 
considering the extraordinary courtesy shown and pass- 
ing such resolutions as seemed proper. Lieutenant 
Osman acted as secretary. Speeches were made and 
nnmerous resolutions complimenting everybody, from 
the railroad officials and the committee and people of 
LaFayette, to the waiters who served the feast, were in- 
troduced and discussed. The meeting did not break up 
until long after midnight, and all of the pent-up patriot- 
ism in the assembly had found expression, and the ef- 
fects of the excellent champagne had worked off. 

The Regiment arrived in Jeffersonville at dark on 
the 13th, and as on a former occasion bivouacked on 
some vacant lots near the depot. 

The next day, the 14th, news was received of the 
death of Lieutenant William Brush, of Company D^ 
who had been left in Chicago, very sick. Crossing o\4er 
the Ohio, we took the cars in the evening for Nashville. 

The cars ran slow all night and we did not reach. 
Bowling Green until half past nine on the 15th. Some 
soldiers of various regiments— except the One Hun- 
dred and Fourth — convicted and sentenced for misde- 
meanors, whom we had brought along, Avere left here 
to work on the fortifications. 

When about to proceed on our journey a report was 
received that the guerrillas were disturbing the track 
and trains ahead, in consequence of which Company A 
was detailed to guard the mail car. 

But nothing positive was encountered until we ar- 
rived within eight miles of Gallatin, where the telegraph.' 
poles had been cut down. Company A disembarking 



82 THE ONK UrNPRED AND FOURTH 

was (lr|tluMMl ami mairlnMl suiiif «listaiu»'. Inn fail»Ml 
to tlrvt'lop aiiv irhi-ls. 

Tlif Wfiiry riilf imhWmI at t»Mi in tlu' cveniiijj: wlieu 
Nashvillf was rearluMl. Tlini snlilirriii;: iM'jraii in car- 
lU'St. I.raviii;; lh«* «ai-s tin* Kr^iiiin'iit mairlnMl ovrr the 
CumluTlainl and l»i\(Hiark«Ml at llu* «'asi rinl uf tin* 
bri«lp*. ill iIm* siil»iirl» «»f IMjirlii-ld. Tin- iii;;lit was 
^vanii. ami w«* lay tlowii — as on many ju'evions oc- 
casions, and \\ ia|t|M'd in our Idanktt s t-n joyed sncli sl(M>p 
as kin^s mi;:lil fn\y. 

Thf next day, llir 17th, was warm ami lo\«'ly, and 
havin«; no trnts sonn* w«'i<* roust iiictrd from Idankcts, 
whii-h served to jm-oIimI ms fiom i In- heat of i lie siin. 

Tin* K«';,Mmont was assi^^m-d lo tin* Fonilli I>i\ision, 
I'onittM'ni li Coips, rnloiH'l Smith t»f tin* Sixteenth Illi- 
nois, coniniandin;^ a jiaii of ihe Division. 

\N'e now had to furnish details for pieket duty 
around Kil;:elield, ami take up the regular duties of a 
soldiei's life. ()ur Idvouar was named <'amp .Moore. 

The ( Mie llundi-ed and l-'ourth remained at ('amp 
Mot»n* until tin- iMlth and wliile here receiM-d the new 
^'shelter tenis" reeenllv inliodured into the service. 
We were disposed at liist to re;^aiil them with ilistrnst, 
and they w«Me railed "Do^" and "ruj*" tents by the hoys, 
but their advanta;;es soon heeame known. ICa<h was 
coiupose<l of two piec<>s of »anvas four l>y six feet in 
bIzo, and rahulated to sheliei* two men. (Mi the marrh 
oa<'h soldier carried one piece. They were waterproof, 
li;;lit and easily pitched, the pie<es iMiltonin;:: top'ther 
over the rid;j«* pole. The ;;ieal benefit was in the fact 
of the siddier always havin;:: his house w ilh him on his 
back. |{olh oflireis and pli\ates were destined |() hid 
u h»n^ farew ell to i he old "Sildey." 

The Kejiimeni left ('amp Moore on I lie l!(llh :Uld 
ruan-liinj; thr«ni;,'h Nashville, camped ou the south side 
near I'orl Ne;;|ey one of the (liain of earthworks 
erect«'d lo ;xuard the ap|tioa<h froiu the south. The 
cnnip was made on a steep hillside froui w hence we had 
a trnuid view of Nashville and the count rv round it. 
.TuMl lielow lay the "(imnny White Tnruiiike" ;im im- 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 83 

portaiit tlioronj^lifai-c and one used by holli arinios in 
militarj inovenieuts. The <;reat drawback to this camp 
was the difficulty experienced at nij^ht in tryino- to keep 
in bed, there was a pei'iu'tnal tenchMicy wliHe ash'ei) to 
eithei- roll or slide out, and one very s()nnd sleeper j:;et- 
tiiii-- adrift one ninht act ually Avent to the bottom of 'the 
liill, and in the morninj,^ was much puzzled on wakinj^ 
up to find himself parted from his "Pu])" tent. 

The One Hundred and T'ourth was en<;a<i-ed here 
until May 4 in drilling, ],i,-k(>t and jiuard duty, and in 
escortinji railroad su])ply trains to Murt'reesboVo where 
General Kosecrans lay with the main arm v. The 
weather continued to be of the loveliest. In iiitervals 

of duty Nashville was much visited. The ('ai>i(<)l a 

very fine buildino ,»f stone and marble was Guarded in 
turn by companies or details from the Regiment. From 
the dome of the Capitol there was visible a graml i)ano- 
rania of scenery seldom equaled. The lon<i lines of forts 
and earthworks, bristling- with cannon and garrisoned 
by Union soldiers, stood in bold contrast with the beau- 
ties of nature shown by hill and vallev, and fertile 
fields, through which the waters of the (^imbin-land 
wound their way to the Ohio; all made for peace, com- 
merce, prosperity and happiness, but now blasted by 
the desolation of war. 

^Sometimes standing or wandering around the broad 
porticos of the Capitol, and drinking in all of the beauty 
and richness of this goodly land, it seemed iini)ossible 
to realize that we were here as invaders and conquerors, 
surrounded by treason on every hand, with vast rebel 
armies but a few miles distant. 

Few will forget tlie Ackland ]dac(^ which we had 
to furnish details to guard. This was about one mile 
from our camp, and the large and princely residence 
situated in the midst of a ten acre plat'of ground 
was surrounded by elegant gardens and greenhouses, 
and an abundance of statuary. The owner was sup- 
posed to be a Union man, but tliis might not mean much. 
On the 4th of May the Regiment was ordered to 
Brentwood ten miles south of Nashville. On arrival we 



M TUi; "M: 111 M'Ul.l* aM» fourth 

Wi-ul into lainp in a ln-anlifnl j;r«tvi' uf lar^f tifcs, an«l 
near tin* Littif llarpcth river. 

Wf fouMjl luTt' a luij;a«U' of infanii v and a rej;iuieut 
of ravaliv, Colont'I Dan. .MtCook, coniniandin;;. Tlie 
li<-j;inn'nl was atta«h»Ml to ihis lui^Mtlr icnipoiaiilv. 

Tliis I'o.st wais an important one and lialdc to attack 
at any tinn*, llu-i-ffon* liravy picki-t liins wwv main- 
tained and cfasclcsK vi;;ilanre pi-evaiNd. UrijiaUc and 
battalion drill otrnpied several lionrs eadi tiay. The 
small fort alreatly l>uill nn lien we arrived was fnrther 
8iren;:thened. On lie- llili .lolm M. .Mellon, of ('«tm- 
pany li, was wonnded l»y jinerrillas while on picket. 

.Major W'idnier arrive«l on the 1m U and was \\e|- 
(•t»m«'d hy a speech, serenade, etc. While at llreiituood 
rumors of the captnre of Kichintuid an<l Nickslnn ;: \\<'r<» 
ret'eivtMl and were so wi-ll ciediied ihai i he siddi«*rs ;;[ot 
Up an im|>roni|)tn celeliraiion in the e\enin;:: liy parad- 
in;i aronnd with lighted candles |daced in the mn/./les 
of their ^nns. It was ascertained later that ihe**ldow 
out" was sli;;litly premature. The lesnll was a lar;;e 
nnmher of elon;;aled faces the ne\i i\A\. 

Lieutenant -( 'oloiiel lla|Mnian arrived on iheLMsi and 
was accorded a warm reicpiion in the usual .\nierican 
style. 

We received news on the l!Mh (»f the occupation of 
Jackson, .Miss., ami the success of ( Jrierscui's raid. 

The com|>anies hail been practicing target shooiin;; 
for some days. .M. Kirk|»at rick, itf < 'onipaiiN I >. niakin-j 
the best shot of any one in that command. 

At t a. in. of the 'JSth. the huii: r<dl called us to aims 
and we moved int(» the foi-i, evpeciin;; an attack, but 
theenemvdid iu»t materiali/e. The brii;ade reiniilned 
under arms until noiui. 

A n order <-anie on l he .'td of .Fnne for the KeL:innii( 
to rejMirt at Nashville, .\fiei- helpin;: t<» destroy tin' 
works. \\t' left in the aftei-nonn. and reached our foi-mer 
cami> at twelve that ni;:ht, w here we remained inact ive 
until .fjtiie 7th. 

In pursuance (if an oidei- recei\ i-d on ( he (ii h in join 
Hm* .\rmy of the ( 'uniberhmd at M uiTreesboin. tju' 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 85 

Kegimeiit reported there on the 7th and was assigned 
to the First Brigade, Second Division, Fourteenth 
Army Corps, coniiiianchMl respectively by (lenerals 
John Beatty, James S. Xcgh'y antl George 11. Thomas. 

The One Jhmdred and Fourth had at last found its 
proper position among veteran troops, beiug brigaded 
with the Fifteentli Kentucky, Forty-secon<l and l-^ighty- 
eightli Indiana regiments, that bore upon tlieir ban- 
ners tlie brilliant legend "Stone's Kiver," while our 
brigade commander had won his star on that bloodv 
field. 

The military preciseness and air of business that 
pervaded everything and everybody in this great armed 
camp of 60,000 men produced at once an impression 
of awe and respect never to be forgotten. . The etfects 
of strict military disci])line were visible in the clean 
and regularly laid out camps, as well as in the soldierly 
bearing of the men. It was evident that the days o*^f 
Avild and independent "Jayhawkiug" over the coun- 
try, to which we had been accustomed, were ended. 
Therefore with becoming resignation the One Hun- 
dred and Fourth settled down to get acquainted with 
the new surroundings and more exacting duties. 

From this date until the 24th of June the Regiment 
had its time fully occui)ied. Brigade drill began at 
four o'clock a. m. and lasted until six; breakfast at 
half past six; rest until nine; then company or battal- 
ion drill until eleven; when we rested until two p. m.; 
after this we had brigade or division drill until six. 
Thus there was little time for idleness, a condition that 
the increasing heat would have made agreeable, had 
not the iron hand of military authority prevented. 

A few days after our arrival. Lieutenant Osman 
and the writer fell into a piece of clover that removed 
them to a position on th(^ staff of General Beatty as 
Aides de Camp and precluded the necessity of doing 
any more walking for some time. The latter having 
been almost born on horseback found himself again 
in his natural element, but it is conjectured that Lieu- 



M 



THi: «iN"E HI NDUKF) ANI* ForUTH 



IfiiJiiii <»Mii;iii It'll iiion- ;ii ln>iin- «-ii i<ii:i liiiiia llian 
oil ilir liark of a praiiriiiji war Iioim-. 

'I'Im- wrilrr, ilin»uii iiilo iiiiimaic assoriaiioii uitli 
tin- iiriHTal ami his stall, rxiMMii-iiml at liisl iIm- dis- 
a(lvant2i;:«*s arisiii;; from his voiith ami iiaiiiiai fJilVi- 
ilriHc, but with a« t|iiaiiitaini' this fiM-liii;; \\or«* oil. As 
f«»r "Mosr" hr ha<l Immmi a s<thli«'r in the .Mexican war 
ami was iimlaiiiittMl l»y aii\ t hiii;; <'Xr«*i»i the probh-m «tf 
how to ridr pio|MMl\. TIm' flT»Mt, howrvrr, was aluavs 
strikiii;;. 

I'<»r iiiaiiv iiioiitlis (it-m-ral Koscciaiis ha«l 1»c«mi |U<'- 
pariii;; foi- a ;;it'al forward iiiovi'iiH-nt, by r('or;:aiii/iii;; 
aiui nM-niiliii;i his army — parti<nlarly Hn- (avalry; 
acciiiinilat in;: imiin'iisc supplies of rations in .MiirfriM's- 
boro; ami bnihlin;; an inipiciinabh* line of forts and 
• •art hw oiUs around the town. In ar(oni|dishin;4 the 
Ilcrrnh'an task hf liaij int't with nuinorons <d>sta«h'S 
which nciiJM'r Hh- ( iii\ crnniciii m- pcindf conld under- 
stand or ap|Ucciat<'. Like his ^^rcat Lieutenant. <Ien- 
oral Thonias, he had been accused of bein;: too sh»\\ 
and cautious. Hut about duiu' 1st all the indications 
pointed toward inoi-e active «>perations. the outlyinji 
rf;;imeiits, bri;;a«les and divisions, were ad\anced 
nearer the front. The Ifeserve ('orps, composed of the 
I'Mrst, Second and Third hi\isions, was oiuani/ed and 
put under t he command of ( i<n* ral < iiudon < ! ranker. 

<ieneral Kosecrans cnnld now mo\f <in ihe enemy 
with an elTective force uf ri.'»,mKi men well armed and 
(lisci|diiied. 

<ieneral lira;;;: wiili an arm\ of aiioui .Mi.ikmi men 
(Vide his reports, lleii. loc.. \o|. :{:{) occupied stronj;:ly 
entrenched positions in our front exieudinu to Tulla- 
lioina, sixty miles distant. Ilesides the foil ilicat ions 
his lines were well protected by nature, ilie ctuinirv 
beiii;.' rou^h ami hilly with few roa«ls, and these ran 
through the ^a|is in liie hills sometimes for seN'eral 
miles, makin;: their defense easy if attacked in fittiit. 

Kut <ieii« ral |{<»se»i;ins had tluu-ou^hlv studied the 
Hit mi t ion w it li I he mind of m sI raleMJsi, Mud .ii last, on 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 87 

the 23(1 of June, everything being in readiness, issned 
a general order for tlie Army of the ('Hnil)erland to 
move on the enemy early on the 24tli. 

However, to cover his real designs, (Jeneral <Jor- 
don Granger's Corps and the cavalry began the execu- 
tion of a movement, intended as a feint, uitt»n the 
enemy's left on the 2.'>d. 

The order for the advance was hailed with joy by 
the soldiers of the Army of the Cnmberland, who had 
unbounded confidence in their General and affection- 
ately called him "Old Tiosey." 

All a])plied themselves to the busy task of itrcjtar- 
ing for a campaign the extent, duration and resiilts of 
which the Avisest could not foretell, but which had 
for its object the defeat and destruction of Bragg's 
army and the possession of Chattano(>ga — the very 
gateway to the inmost South. 



niAPTKH IX. 



The Tulliitionia Cumpulifn— Advunce to Ho«>ver'8 Gap— Wllder'B 
CI>«rB«'— MfC<H>k at LUnTty (Jup— <X^cu|»Htlon of Mnnchoster 
— Htaity» nrlKJide 8«*nt to inil«b<.n>— Attack«Ml by Cavalry— 
ReJoliiH Nt-gk-y— HraBK HotreatM— Tullalmnui Occupied— Beat- 
tyn Advante to Elk Rivor— S«'Vfn MII.h of FlKhtlng— Stock- 
ado L*Hpiurt»d by a Detachment of the One Hundred and 
Fourth— TJie Rebels Fall Rack— Rejoicing over Oettysburg 
uikI \'i.W>.1.iii IT - In «'amp. 



Ill all tlif liiNioiv of tin- war tlnTf an' no more 
iiUfivsiiii;,' ami iiisinici ivr Irssoiis lo iln* militarv stu- 
dent than thos«* alTonhMl by tin* TiillalKHiia ami ('hi»k- 
aman;,M rampai;:iis, inaMj^iiiatctl l>y (JcmTal iJosccraiis 
a;:ainst iifiinal Uiaj:;: willi I lie iniiiiaiy olijccts in 
virw of not onl,\ rc^iainiii;: pMssfSsion of tin* vast terri- 
tory ••xtrmliii;: lo the 'rmm'ssiM' ii\»'i-, which had Imm'Ii 
ac<|iiirtMl aii«l ahandoncil by Umll ih<- inrctMlin^' yrar, 
]>ut also |>assiii;: Itryond that ^icat water harrier, ami 
»ii-aliii;^ the niuiintaiii systems that hem it in ^ain 
the covetetl prize of ( 'hattanoojxa — whi<h, indeed, 
seemed seeun- eiioiij^li from rapture, situated in the 
midst of <;reat natural defenses and protected l»y a 
viMeian army li;:lii iii;;^ on its own soil. Najioleon in 
erossin;; the Alps only had to contend with the condi- 
tioRH imposed liy nature at an unfaNoralde season. 
iJeiieral Kos«M-rans not only had to overcome mitural 
<d»sia< les as ;:real, hut also to concjuer or «lri\t' lia»k 
an opposin;; army nearly as larp' as his <;wn, and one 
A\ hich he never conletuplaled would surrender s<» ;:ieat 
and vital parts of the Ton fedc-racy with the nminl ..m- 
He<pn-mes involx.'d, without a de<isive hatih-. Tliere- 
fore. ha\ in;; I his alw ays in \ iew he conceiv cd ami he;;an 
the ^M-and slnile;jir movements cah iilaied to acconi- 
plish the idijects luelititMied. 

From the inception of the (ampai;;n iln- hisiuiv oT 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 89 

the parts borne by the One llnndred and Fonrth 
b(M'anio so blended with those of not only its Brigade 
and Division, but of the niij^hty human niarhiiu* of 
which it also formed a part, as to render an account of 
all in a concise and general way, necessary — in order 
to have an intelligent appreciation of its own actions 
in connection therewith. 

At daylight on the moi-ning of the 24th of June, the 
Army of the Cumberland, embracing, besides the 
Reserve Cori)S, those of McCook, Thomas and Critten- 
den, or the Twentieth, Fourteenth and Twenty-first 
Corps, were set in motion and marched away on three 
dilfereut roads toward the south in (juest of Bragg's 
urmy. # 

The weather was anything but ])i"oi»itious, the rain 
falling in torrents and continuously all day, luaking 
the roads very muddy and a<lding to the discouifort 
of the men, who were, however, somewhat protected 
from the inclemency of the storm by the small rubber 
ponchos which the Government had issued to every 
soldier, and which served to jjrotect their arms as well 
as persons, being uSed at night also, as the substratum 
of very humble beds in the mud. 

The spectacle of over 00,000 men, infantry, artillery 
and cavnlry, drawn up in martial array and tiling off 
in long lines over the level ]daiiis of Murfreesboro, fol- 
lowed by immense Avagon trains — which, if arranged 
in a single line would have extended forty miles, could 
never be forgotten b}' those who composed this grand 
army. 

As anticipated by General Rosecrans, the feint 
movements made by his troops on the enemy's left and 
center by our right succeeded, and the main ])art of the 
army was thrown rapidly against tlieir right in the 
direction of Manchester and Tullahoma, thus Hank- 
ing the heavy fortifications at Shelbyville, where the 
enemy expected to be attacked, and forcing Bragg to 
fight on ground of General Rosecrans' own selection 
or run. 

General McCook, after starting on the Shelbyville 



M THK ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

t iirii|iik«- ami (Iciiioiist laiiii;; li«iivil\ in iliat tliitM t iuii^ 
<l«>lltM((Ml Ills tli\i>;iuiiK to iIm* l«*ft tMwartI IJImtiv <iap, 
whitli In- fiMMnI sti-oii^ly «lrfrinlt'<l, Iml pushiii;: raj»i<llv 
lir «mi\«*|i»immI I In* fii«Mii\'s llaiik aiul iM-fMic iii^ihi. afi»*r 
««ni>ii|i'ral»l«- sUiiiiiisliiii;; ami li;:lilinj:. <lit»\«* liiiii |h'II- 
liifll lhiMii;;li iIm- <iait, a ilisiam«* of two miles. 

<V>Mt«MH|M»rain*«»Msl V. <icii»ral rimniMs, witii liic 
FoiirHMMiih .\nii\ <'orps, athamiMl oii ilic Mamlicslcr 
Tiinipikf. aiitl ( 'lit ifmlfii's ('ui-|»s lowani Iliad v\ ilk* 

ill SU|l|Ml|-t. 

\\ ilii«T*s llii;iatl«- of iiititiiin-il iiifaiiliy, wiili i1m' 
ifsi of lv«>ymt|(ls' Division, Ird ilu* a<lvam-«* of ;lir i'our- 
itM'iiili, Kossraii's ami Nr;:lfV*s IHvisi(»iis fulluwin^. 

W il«lf!- fm-MimirrtMl iIm^ii-Im'I jti«kcis sr\«*n milrs 
out aii<l imisIumI over iImmii. Ilr iImmi, with his usual 
iiii|M't iiosit \ , atlarkt'*! tin* icscivrs at Hoover's (laj) 
aii<l ilrovr tho ••iniif fono through tin* (l(*('|i <li*lilf— 
!lii«*f iiiih*s ill h*ii;;:th. to the soiitln'iii ciiiramc, where 
the th'ee rebel liiij^ades of Hates, Wharton ami Lid- 
dell lay ill a stioii;;^ position. < Mi the way Wilder t-ip- 
tnred nine wa;:ons and some prisoners. As the enemy 
proposed to fi^llt, W'ildel- disposed his ^iallaiit tlire«* 
Illinois ami two Indiana re^iiineiits with his howitzers 
and tell pounder litled Kodnian i:nns on the hills and 
awaited the onset. The enemy, after tirini:. and ro\- 
«Ted liy artillery, rliar;:ed in a spirited manner se\eral 
limes, lint eonld not resist Wildei's repeat ini: ritles. 
Tliey tiirm*il and lied, leaving their dead and wonmhd 
on the lield. It was weH that they did, as lieyiiohls 
now raim* nit with twn lni;^atles. The Nictory was 
important. ;:ained wit'i a loss to us of si.vty-om* killed 
and \\iinndi*d, while that of the enemy was l)\e hnn- 
dnMJ. iifiieral Kosei-rans on snrv«*yinj; the ;:roimd, 
remarked, "Wilder has saved ns thonsands of meii." 

Iiarkiiess roinin;j on, the operations of the day 
rloHiMJ, and the entire army hivoiiarked for the ni;;lit 
in the iiiidsi of rain and iniid. <hir Division went into 
camp at lU^ Creek Kossean's in ad\ am-e. 

The niornin;: of the 1,'otli <law tied npoti ns rainy and 
»lark with lleery rioiids of mist lian;:iii;i o\er the niiuin- 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 91 

tains. The ai-iiiy was aj^aiii set in motion and, as on 
the 24tli, steadily drove the enemy at all points. Xej;- 
ley moved at ten in supi)ort of Kosseau and Keyn(dds 
at Hoover's Gap, the latter meeting- with considerable 
opp(>sition and losiii*;- a nnniber in killed and wounded. 
Ueatty's Krii;a<le, as it drew near<'r about <tne o'clock, 
witnesse<l a i»art of the tij^ht, but was not orch'red into 
it, and later went into camp near the trap, where there 
Avas a store. Hqme of the boys made a raid on this 
and on some bee hives in the vicinity. After a time 
General Keatty sent the writer to disperse the raiders, 
but the bees contributed more effectually to that end. 

In the afternoon the enemy attempted to retake a 
portion of Liberty Gap, occupied by Jtdmson's Divi- 
sion of McOudv's ('ori)s and made a (les]>erate tiiiht, but 
was repulsed in every attack, with a loss of one hun- 
dred killed, and seven hundred and fifty wounded, while 
that of Johnson was two hundred and thirty-one killed 
and wounded. 

Thomas and Crittenden continued to advance on the 
2('tli in the midst of a continuous rain over roads almost 
im])assab]e, and in the face of considerable o])p()sition 
to the former, but at night Thomas arrived within five 
miles of Manchester and occu]>ied a strong' position 
A\Iiicli would compel Bra<^g" to j^ive up Tullahoma and 
his entire line of defenses, or fight, in which latter case 
the whole army could be massed on his left and crush it. 

Negley's Division moved in support of Kosseau and 
Keynolds, hearing caniKuiading all day ahead, and at 
night bivouacked at Beech Grove in high sijirits over 
the uninterrupted successes. 

McCook's and Grangei*'s Gorps remained inactive 
on the 2tith, awaiting tlu^ result of General Thomas' 
operations. 

Early on the 27th Wilder's advance dashed into 
Manchester, surprising and capturing some rebel 
guards. The rest of the Fourteenth (''ori)s, Keynolds 
in advance, soon followed, but the last of it did not 
arrive until midnight on account of the condition of the 
roads. The larger part of the trans])ortation Avas left 



n THK ONE HL'NDREIJ AND FOl^RTH 

iiiilrs bi'hiiul. IJralljk's J{ii;4a«l«-, l»'a\iii^ at li\f a. iii., 
;;iiariic4l the Divinion wap»u train tlin»u;;li to .Maii- 
rlifsltT aiitl (-aiMprtl. \N'«* wtic ilicii only Iwrhc milts 
from 'i'ullalioiiia. 

.Mi<'<K»k's ('or|>s, iiaviii^ iioiliiii;; to opposf it, 
iiiarcluil for MamlM'sirr. <iraii;;«*r's ror|>s tiicouiitrrtMl 
NN lui'ItT at tiiiv's (nip, tlrovr liiiii into Shrlhwilh* and, 
iiftrr liani li;:litin;;, arross Duck Kiv«r. with a h)ss to 
\N h«-«'h'r of his artilh-rv, two hiiinlir«l kilh'il and 
woiinih'il, jind live hundrt'il taken ]»risoii«'i-s. 

'I'hi* day's o|MM'ations ah>n;; the whoh* line ha«l ht-cn 
8Urc('SNfiil, and at ni;:ht the iMieniy was in hasty retreat 
from his extended aiid elaborate system of foitilira- 
tions, i'videiitly only anxious to ^^et Im-vouiI iIh- reaeh 
of his adversary. 

The fidl measure o| the smress o| <iene|;il Ko>e- 

4-rans' strate;:y hecame j^eiierally known on the L'Sl h, 
Sunday, and raised the enthusiasm of the Army of 
the ('umlteiland to the highest point, whilst their 
admiration for their leader was unhiMindetl. 

Hut mindful thai only a small part of the work 
to he areoniplished had been eompletetl, (leUel'al Kose- 
rrans ordered <ieneral TlKunas to push the enemy to 
the utmost, while lie waited for Mrru.ik aiul ("ritten- 
den. wim weie still slru;:;,din;r di'speialely in ilie lear 
jnidsl mud ami rain, to rearli Maiieheshr. 

Therefore ( 'leneial W'ildei- Nvasseiii ill da\li::iii on 
the L'Sih, with his mounted infantry to break ilie lail- 
road south of Deeherd ami I'lk river. sa\e ih.- bridues 
]iml delay the enemy. 

To SUDpoit Wilder's mo\emenl. Thomas oldeled 
< Jeiieral .lolin |{eat ly to move wii li oui r.rii^ade lo I lills- 
boio. eijjht mileH from Mamhesier. on tin- enemy's 
extreme ri^ht. Our |uospeei for a Sumlay rest was 
thus smldenlv emled and at ten the nri;:ade fell into 
line and manhed o|Tthroui:li I he w<»ods ovi-r eXt-erable 
roads, rohmel '!'. ]'. Nirholas wjis also ordered to 
n-porl with his First Hattalion of the Seeond Kentueky 
<'avalrv t.MJerieral Ih-atty at liillsboio. The Ilii^^nde 
arrived at its destination late in the afleruonu and 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 93. 

went into camp in the outskirts of the tumble down 
vilhige at a point covering tlie old Chattanooga road. 
The position was an exposed one far from support, and 
a strong picket line was established, while the com- 
mand was cautioned to be in constant readiness for 
jjossible attack. Meantime the rain continued to make 
things disagreeable. No fires Avere allowed after dark. 
The men erected what shelters they could and lay down 
to rest. About twelve in the night tiring was heard on 
the picket line held by the Cavalry. General Beatty 
arousing the writer, who was sound asleep, sent him 
to ascertain the cause. The IJi'igade was awakened 
and stood in line of battle until daylight. It was found 
that Colonel Nicholas had been attacked, but the enemy 
did not follow it up. However, there was no more sleep- 
ing done that night, Ceneral Beatty and staff standing 
with the rest — horses in waiting, ready to mount, or 
occasionally visiting the outposts. 

We remained here until noon of the 29th, when 
Ceueral Beatty was ordered to join the Division in the 
direction of Tullahoma, at Bobo's Cross-roads, eleven 
miles from us by the shortest road, which was also 
exposed to attack from the enemy's cavalry, who were 
in close proximity to us and in sight. Starting imme- 
diately by a cross-road that led through a barren, low 
country covered with a thin timber growth, Ave had 
gone four miles Avlien a dash was made by the enemy 
on our caA'alry at the head of the column. The attack 
was repulsed with a loss, to Colonel Nicholas of Lieu- 
tenant Jenkins killed, one wounded and one captured. 
AV<^ ha<l been marching in c(duniu down a narrow lane, 
but (leneral Beatty at once deployed the Brigade in 
line, Avith the artillery (Hewitt's liattery) in the center, 
and thus formed, we advanced through the fields and 
woods, but no further attack Avas uuide. About five 
p. m. AA^e Avere suddenly alarmed by tAA'o cannon shots 
and musketi'A' firing in front. The Brigade then took 
position near a log barn and fence, ready for battle. 
The scouts coming in reported the enemy advancing 
in force with artillery. Soon after the caA^alry reported' 



M THE ONK HT'NPRED AND FOURTH 

ilif Mi|i|Mi>fil i-in-m\ i<i Im- <»iir own tri>(>|>s of UcvimMs' 
I>ivisitin. 'riii* si-attniii;; sli«>is lia<l iiijin'cd iiu uiic, and 
\\f uutvtMl till to Hollo's, w ln'ii* wi* ftiuinl ilif it'si of 
Nf^lfv's I>ivisi«iii aii«i \\«mii iiiio raiii|i. 

Tiic division r«'iiiaiii«-<l in iaiii|i on iIm- iliMli, ami 
tlir One lhiiiilr«*<l and roiiiili, lifin^ on short laiions, 
nia«lr np tin* s«ani allouan«r liy ^lailinin^ iIImmumI 
wlirjit from a ti«'l<l ami Iwiilin^ ii, ami also frastnl on 
.sirav ho;;s fonnd in i In* w immIs. TIm' \n liltT was onlrrtMl 
to rrjMiri to (MMMTal Nr^ilrv «'ail\. wliirli lie (lid. and 
wais srnt l»> him with sonn- oidnlirs from I li'ad<|ii-ir- 
trrs iiark to .Mamhrstcr for forap' to feed ilw artil- 
l«*rv ho|-s«*s, also snjijilit's. \\ C startt-d and tin' roads 
ht-in;: impassabh' |»i«k«'d onr wax ihroiii:li tin* woods. 
4)11 arrival and r('|ioriinj; lo Hri<^adr (ommissary 
W'flls. In- loaded n|i a pack train of mnh's with whirh 
\\«* starii'd hark, and on t ho way rnnninu a<i*<»ss a do/.cn 
head of rat t h- diox •• i hom into tamp, w Ikic w r arris od 
at dark. .Ml of tho snjiply trains wrro ai Manrlnsii'r 
or mirili of their, nnahh- to mo\»'. 

'The mo\('in«'nts of the army on the ;'.(Mh were «on- 
tim*d maiidy'lo elosin^' up on 'ruJIalioma. Stray riti- 
Zfiis coinin;; in reported Hra;:;: as evacnalin^, there- 
fore (leneral Sieedman's hri^ade with one of Sheri- 
dan's ami Ke\ nolds' adNam-ed to within two miles of 
the town, Imi met wit h a spirited op|iosit ion fr<im reliel 
infantry and artillery, hisinLr lifteeii men. I'eariniL' :» 
niKi'jind it lieiiiL; altont dark. Sterdmaii lialied r«>r the 
nii^iit. 

I-'arlv on .hil\ I>.| he a;:ain a<l\amed and entered 
Tnllahoma at noon. .\ few prisom'is were taken, Imt 
the main army hail ^one. In confoiniity with this 
movement tin* oihei- hixisions ino\«M| forward. Ne«;- 
le\'H leadin;:, snpported liy IJossean's. 

heallx's ltri;^ade liein;.: in fioni had ^one alioiit fonr 
miles when our battalion ..f .a\alr\ was snddeiilv 
atlarked. hnt the emMnV fell hark a mile or so. when 
he opened n|Min us with a masked liaiterv of artillerv, 
onr halterx replh-d and for half an hour kept n|i a 
Ii\el\ fusil hide Theie w ,-V' three rasnaltii's in t he ( Mie 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 96 

Hiiiidred and Fourth, amon<>- them, Corporal George 
Wine of Compay K, who was killed by a solid shot. 
Meantime the infantry were sh)wly feelinjj;' their way 
through the woods and uiKhM'bnish. The wcallicr 
being very hot many were snnstruck. The enemy again 
limbered up their battery and retired half a mile to 
Spring Creek Pass, where another artillei'y dnel fol- 
lowed. Thus our r»riga(U' drove them from ])hice to 
place for seven niih^s and until dark, to a ])oint near 
Heftner's Mill. The other brigades of Negley's Divi- 
sion had followed within close supporting distance all 
da}^ Strong pickets were thrown out to the front and 
right, while Kosseau picketed the left and rear. 

The day's work had b(HMi hard but most satisfac- 
tory. The intense heat had prostrated many and Sur- 
geon Dyer with his assistants were busy all day. 

The position occupied by the One Hundred and 
Fourth in the advance was on the left of the Haltery 
and the road, with Company K thrown out as skirmish- 
ers under Captain Fitzsimmons. Under orders from 
General Beatty the writer fre<iuently vij>;ited this part 
of the line, and Colonel Moore being deaf, at the i*e<iuest 
of the Lieutenant-Colonel and Major, repeated the 
orders to them, so that no mistakes might occur. 

On the morning of the 2nd it was discovered that a 
large rebel forcc^ had bivouacked only half a mile froui 
us. The march was resumed all ahuig the line — our 
brigade in advance. After going about one mile we 
€ame suddenly to the Elk river valley, half or three- 
quarters of a mile wide, and beheld the enemy on the 
opposite bluff with a battery in position. The brigade 
was halted in the shelter of the woods and another 
battery additional to our own, ordered up by (ieneral 
Beatty. We then began to play upon them with ten 
guns, much to their surprise, and their infantry and 
cavalry at once sought a safer place. The rebel bat- 
tery replied, but the tire from ours was so effective as 
to disable one or two of their guns, when the battery 
limbered to the rear. Most of the rebel shells tlew 
high over the heads of our men, crashing among the 



>C THE ONE HUNDHKD AND FOURTH 

lrf<*s and hii-akiii}^ liiiil»s, Iml In-wiiul iwu «»r ilnvc iiicu 
wuiiikIimI l>v pitTfs of slu'lls iu» tlaina^i* was (huic. Near 
tin- lnulp* a«ioss tin* I'lk (and wliirli lihd 1hhm» linul) 
lliiTi- Wiis a small \o>^ sliM-katlr «M(iij»i«'d l»\ dIm'! sliarp- 
8luM»tt*ii<, who amiovcMl our advanrc skirmisln'i-s. The 
LM-Miin«l tlowii In the river was a «lear Icvid phiin, hut 
;:ioii;; thr hank, whi«h was h>w, fiinjjetl with liccs. 
<i«iM'ral I»«'at!v, rallin;; npt»n thr One lliindicd and 
I'Miiiih to furnish a d«'tail of ten men to raptni-e the 
stoikadf, (oloii.l Mouic sehH-ted Sei'tjeuut (ieorge 
Marsli to h-ad the jtaitv. Th«* Sn-j^canl called f«n- vol- 
untfiTs, who itronipilv rfsi»oiid<-d. TIk* iihmi who 
>^t<'p|H*d foiwafd for what was coiisidi-rctl a forlorii 
lio)M* Wfi-r, brsidfs .Marsh, John Shapland, John II. 
TowtMs, Kit-hard J. (laj^e, Oscar Slaj^le, \\'m. A. Fi;::hi, 
KoJMMt ilaii-, L<Mn. F. Ihdlaiid. Miiriav Kiikpal rick and 
]{. S. Snialh'V. The lilllc hand dc|»|n\iii^ as skirniish- 
«Ms, ami covered hv tin* liir of our halteries, donhh*- 
• liiickrd across the plain, thf ii-ImI sharj)shooters lirinj^ 
at them, and ;:ain>'d tin- rivt-r withont a casmilitv, then 
1 all\ iiiLT on t 111' h'ft, t ln*\ r us hod for t ho stocka<h'. Tin' 
do/.rn n-hols fnsidt', sei/od with a panic al tin* h(d<l 
action, hfi iu <-oiifiision, and swiuiiuing tl»e Elk, took 
to tin- woods, from which ihcy sent hack a few shots. 
The partv was soon after ordered ha<k ami received 
the pei-soiial thanks of the (Jeneral. <"aptain llowe, 
with Companv It, was tlu'ii s«*nt down with a detail to 
|nii out the tire at the bridge. 

It was tluMi ahout four, and there being no signs of 
the enemy, ami with the line of the I'lk in <om|dete 
possession of our army, we wiut iuio hivoiuu- in the 
valley n<'ar the position held all <hiy. 

The night was a joyous om* iu our camps, for it was 
certain that (iem-ral Hragg was in full retreat over 
the lofty t 'umbeilands. These lay in si^rlit and only a 
few miles distant. ,\t a late hour the w riier i-eiueuibers 
beini.' invited to a private sup|u'r in the cpiarters of tin- 
< 'n<- liumlred ami I'ourth, where fine boiled mutton 
.ind pi;:, not issued by the (Quartermaster, were on the 
hill of f;ir<- Till- loc.ilit \ wjis a bad om- fur ^^i ray game 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS V0LUNTI':ERS. 97 

of any kind, whirli somehow or oilier j;oi iiiiu tronl»l<' 
and the mess pots of the hunj^ry s(ddiei-s. Near the 
camp and road thc^re stood the house of a I*reshytei-ian 
minister, who, as somi^one had ascertained, was a j^reat 
rebel. At all events he had deserted his home on onr 
approach, ami in the intervals of duty the i)lace was 
ex])lore(l by our men, who fouml amony, oth(n' thin;;^ 
a larj;'e lilu-ary of Ixudcs — ni<>stly tln'oloj^ical woi'ks. 
Deeming;- it a proper time to develop in the line of reli- 
gious in(]uiry, some of the books were carried away, but 
probably found too old and dry to kee]). The action at 
Elk rivei- closing with the cai»ture of the stockade by 
a detail of the One Hundred and Fourth, practically 
ended the tijj;htinn' for some time, as will api)ear fur- 
ther on. 

On the morninjj:,' of the ;]d, the dilTerent divisions of 
the Fourteenth ('ori>s be<;an crossing Flk rivei- by the 
fords at several points. The bridge in front of us, which 
had been almost destroyed, was repaired by a ])ortion 
of Oeneral St. Clair Morton's Pioneer (N)r])s, so that 
by noon Xegley's Division, with Beatty's Biigade still 
in advance, crosst^d, tln^ artillery fording below. It 
began raining in the morning and continued all day, 
no Presbyterian rain either, but a genuine Ba])tist 
down-pour. But under .orders Beatty })uslied forward 
as fast as possible on the road toward the mount-iiiis 
leading to Fniversitv Place, where stood the "Univer- 
sity of the South." Having with the utmost difficulty 
gone three miles, we went into cam]) in the mud. On 
the wa\' several dead cavalrymen an<l horses were 
found in the woods. The rations of the men were not 
flavored, as last night, b}" fresh pig and mutton stews. 

The arin\' remained in bivouac during the forenoon 
of the 4th of July. At noon (xeneral Beatty received 
orders to push forward to University Place, and we 
started soon after, followed by the rest of Xegley's 
Division. The other divisions of the Fourteenth Corps 
were to move in co-operation with ours. Having gone 
four miles we reached the foot of the mountains and 
"began the ascent. It was three miles to the top, but 



It THE ONE HfNl»RED AND FOl'RTH 

iK'fwn* wv had j:oiu- half a iiiih- tli«- i<ta<l was fuiiinl 
!«» be •»bKlnirtfti l»y trtfs whirh ihe itlifls had frih'd. 
«M'iu*ral Hi-ativ al «»iuf sft \\u' (udnlirs lu work to 
rniiovr ihf «»l»sinutiMiis and mMit thf \\rii« r hack to 
briii;; \\\i a roiiipan.v of inrii to assist. Mfaiitiim* thr 
\vh«d«* IMvisioii halted, jiiid <l«'iuMals Thtniias and Nr;^ 
h'V lodf fMiwanI to iiisiiect th«' n»ad. Tht* result heiii^ 
roiiiiiniiiiralcd ii» «i»-inMal ICnsrc rans, lie uidcifd a 
I'oiiiili'f iiiovniHMii bark in ilu- Itase t»f tli»- iiKunnaiiis. 
and dinMtiil tin* Fourtfcni h (miis in ;^n iuiu iaiii|t. 
(M'lMM-al Ih-alty. who had ;j;uim' »tn ahead wiih the «a\- 
alry deiathiiieiil aiitl had leaihed the smiiinit, int\v 
returned, an<l the nri;:ade havinj: rouMtennarcheil, 
l»i\<>uarked in a s\\anii» n«*ar the base uf the Pass. 

\\ hat tlie next niM\eMieiii wuiild be was a siibjett 
of sjMMiilatinn arnund the evening; cainp tires. TIk- 
Hue ilnndi-ed and I'ourth did not for^M-t that this was 
the natal da\ uf the Naliun. and in imw dilTereni a 
inaniMM- it had Immmi spent from usual. Hut it was real- 
ized that unless the objects it was li;;htin;; for could 
be achie\ed ( lure W dU Id be no luoic use for t he Nai iitual 
Holiday, .\boui icu o'clock <ui Sunda\', the .~»ili, the 
whole army was eleciiitied by the joyous news from I 
(ieneial liosecrans' lieadtpiarters t hat <irant had lakeii 1 
\icksbui-;; ami i.e«''s army had been ilefealed at ( Jet tys- ■ 
bur;:. The writei- boie the ;:lad tidinp:s to the One 
lluinlretl and I'oiirth and oihei- re^rinients. The beam- 
in;; fact's evi'iyuhere and the cheels floui tens of thou- 
Kands of men echoed and re-ecluted alon;; the valley 
of the KIk ami annui;; the mountain ;:oiires, as if to 
tell our reirealin;: foes that at last treason and relnd- ] 
lion had met with such si;;nal defeats as lo |u»sa;:e 
their iinal overthrow. The cam|i of the < Mie Hundred 
and I'ourih was scarcely abo\c water and became ver\ 
mudd\ fiom iM'in;; tramjied n\cr by so man\ men. but 
ami*l the entliUKiasm produced by the announcement 
of the ;.'rea! vi«-tories, all discomforts. dan;:ers, hard 
inarches and s'lori rations, were entirely for;;oileii. 

The men lie;;an to clean up and ^'et rid of the edecls 
of ten da\s' campai;;niii;: in rain ami mud. It was 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 99 

also noticed that the Field and Staff came out in clean 
collars and indulged in the hixiir}' of cigars from the 
Sutler's. 

The first part of General Rosecrans' plans had been 
successful!}' executed with the comparatively small 
loss of eighty-five killed, four hundred and eighty-two 
wounded, and thirteen captured; while the losses of 
General Bragg in killed and wounded were not cer- 
tainly known; he lost as prisoners fifty-nine officers 
and fifteen hundred and seventy-five men, together 
with eleven pieces of artillerj". His loss by desertion 
amounted to several thousands. The woods and moun- 
tains were full of deserters and they came in daily. 
Negley's Division lost three killed and five wounded, 
of these three belonged to the One Hundred and Fourth. 

The present campaign had terminated at an oppor- 
tune time as co-related to military movements and suc- 
cesses elsewhere, but the expectation was that General 
Rosecrans would at once continue the advance and fol- 
low Bragg beyond the Tennessee River. Such, indeed, 
had been his purpose, and the movements of Negley 
and Beatty on July 4th, were the initiative steps in 
that direction, but one more day's consideration led 
him to a different conclusion, and the Army of the 
Cumberland went into camp for rest and recuperation 
while the further preparations which General Rose- 
crans deemed necessary were being made for the next 
forward movement. 

Extract from the report of General Thomas at the 
conclusion of the Tullahoma campaign : "Without par- 
ticularizing or referring to individual merit in any one 
division of my command, I can render willing testi- 
mony to the manly endurance and soldierh' conduct 
of both officers and men composing m^- Corps, march- 
ing day and night, through a most relentless rain, and 
over almost impassable roads, bivouacking by the road 
side, ever ready and willing to 'fall in' and pursue the 
enemy wherever ordered, with a cheerfulness and 
determination truly admirable, and no less commend- 
able when confronting the enemy; fearless and un- 



100 THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

daunted, their colmuiis n.-v.-r wavi'r«'<|, ^iviiii: iIm- lii^ili- 
4?sl prtMif of their veieran <|iialiti«'s, ami showing ^^ '.'*\\ 
4l.-I>eU(leiue rail he plaieil u\ntu them in time uf peril," 
^'i^le Kehellit.n Kecords, Voh XX ill., p. i'Xi. 



CHAPTER X. 



The Chickamauga Campaign and Battle of Chickamauga. 



The Fonrteeutli Army Corps remained substan- 
tially iu the position occupied on July 5th, until the 
7th. The Cavalry and several divisions of the other 
Corps were distributed at various points ready to push 
forward with the advent of more favorable weather, 
the incessant rain preventing any important move- 
ment. On the latter date Negley's Division moved five 
miles t(» Decherd, a station on the railroad, by which 
when repairs should be completed, supplies could be 
forwarded. The One Hundred and Fourth went into 
camp half a mile from the village on high rolling 
groun«l and as usual began at once to fix up quarters 
and go to housekeeping. The rest of the Brigade and 
Division camped near by with Brigade headquarters 
in a fine grove of oaks. Further dispatches received 
fully confirmed our first news of the great victories 
in the East and South, and General Kosecraus ordered 
a salute of thirty-five guns to be fired from every bat- 
tery in the army. As it resulted, we were destined ta 
spend a much longer time at Decherd than any one 
had anticipated, the great forward movement for the 
reduction of Chattanooga not beginniuii in force until 
August 10th. However, some preliminary steps were 
taken previous to that date by the occupation of Ste- 
venson and Bridgeport, Alabama, both on the rail- 
road. The cavalry was pushed out and kept active 
in the meantime on the flanks. It need not be inferred 
that the army because in camp was idle, or that Gen- 
eral Rosecrans had settled down to rest on laurels 
already won. Such was not the case and tliere were 
good reasons for tlie delay, although General Halleck 
from liis office in Washington urged an immediate 



102 THE ONE Hl'-NDRED AND FOURTH 

ailvaiuc. AuKMi;; uilu-r things ii was coiisiilcnMl iH'ces- 
8ar.v tUat tin* railn»a«l iipoii wliirli the army d«*iMMi«U'd 
for Kupplirs slnMil<l Im* n'jiaircil and mju-ikmI t«> l{rid«ro- 
port; that tin* rorn in tin- li.'Ms. now in silk, should 
\h' rijM* t'lioujjh for fonijif; tlu* tavalry arm of ilir s<*rv- 
ivr nMruilfd; and coordinait' mov«*m«'nts ♦•Isrwlu^re 
b<* arran;j«*d in snpjMiri of ours. Tims whilf <J<*neral 
IJosi'rrans was workin;; day an<l ni;rht lo forward all 
thosf nn*asnn*s not dc|t«'ndrnl on nanin*, hf ilid not 
desire to move until he had the resources in hand neces- 
sary t<» insure stUM-ess in a cam]»ai;j:n that presented 
more dilViculiifs and was mon- hazardous than any 
preccMlin;; ones undertaken Wy any army, lOast or West, 
not I'xceptin;: even those a;;ainst Ki«hmontl. which 
ha<l faileil lu'cause the jjeiierals who tonducted them 

>V«'re ilK oluprtfUt. 

While wait iiiji for furt Ikt (h-velojuiieni s ai 1 »»'rlifrd 
the One jjundre<l and Koiirth was «'n«:a;:t<l in tin* 
usual routine of camp life, such as ^uanl and jiicket 
duty and drillin;^:. The weather beiame settled by the 
10th, which reiidei-cd life in the shelter tents muih 
more pleasant, and in iudcr to add further to th«'ir 
comfort and pleasurt*. iIm' mmmi luiili nuniefous arbois 
over the quartets. The ^lounds Wfif thorouj^hly 
poli<*ed e\ery day and strict sanitary rulfs enforced. 
The sick were well taken care of here or sent to the 
re;;ular hospitals at Nashville. We were still on short 
rations, but as thou;rh l'rovi<len«e had ]»rovided espe- 
cially for us, blackberries u ere now ripe and the entire 
army feasted upon this healthful and lusri<»us fruii. 
whi«"h ;;rew in inexhaustible tpiantities everywhere 
around us. Details of men ueiii out every day to 
jjather Ihem. No soldier could ever for;.:et this f«'a- 
ture of our life at Ueeherd. The railroad was rei»aired 
to KIk Kiver on iIk* i;(th, and the supply trains rolled 

into Ilerherd soon afti'f. much to the joy of all, as it 
asHured full rations and re;,'ular mails froju the north. 
Also, the ltri;:ade baker, who had a contract thanks 
to the (ioverniueiil arrived on the llth. and setiiu- 

n|» his o\en. supplie<| us witl. Mifi breail. A nmr. 



REGIMENT lLLlN<jrS VOLUNTEERS. 103 

agreeable surprise <,>e<urre(l oii the 21st, wheu a United 
States Paymaster put iu an appearance, lie became 
at once a very popular man, especially after dishurs- 
in<;- four montlis' j)ay to the nuMi. The One lluiidrcd 
and Fourth siMit home several tlinusaud dolhirs hcsides 
paying- oil sundry Sutler's bills. 

While here some changes took place in the liegi- 
luent, caused by the n'signations \tf Captains Misner, 
AVadleigh and llowe, and Lieutenant Tewksbury. Their 
loss was regretted, ('aptain McKernan had resigned 
iu June; Captain Palmer, Lieutenant Simpson, Lieu- 
tenant 1 Taney, Captain. Ileslet, and Lietitenant Web- 
ber, before the Regiment h^ft Chicago, making in all 
ti^n resignations from the line oflicers since enlistment. 
These were followed by promotions. In addition, 
Assistaul Surgeon Julius A. Freeman resigned July 
13th, and Hospital Steward, John W. Cuppy, was dis- 
•chai'ged August 1st, and succeeded by i^uther F. 
Slyder, of Conn)any K. The ranks had become con- 
siderably reduced, the aggregate loss from all causes 
being nearly two hundred and seventy men within the 
year after muster-in. The effective strength of the 
Regiment had become further reduced also by sick- 
ness, and numbers of meu were lying in different hos- 
pitals from Louisville south, together with many who 
had not recovered from wounds received at Ilartsville. 

The mOvSt unpleasant experience of the One Ilun- 
•dred and Fourth at Decherd, and yet one which <lid 
not cause any undue excitement, was the Court Mar- 
tial of Colonel Moore on charges preferred by Cai)taiu 
Wm. H. Collins, of Company D. It is believed sufficient 
to say that the evidence was not considered strong 
enough to convict, therefore Colonel Moore was acquit- 
ted and continued to command the Regiment until his 
resignation in September. Captain Leighton, who had 
been sick in Nashville during the Tullahoma cami)aign, 
with some others, rejoined the command about the 
20th. The news of the capture of John Morgan and 
the defeat of his famous raiders gave eminent satis- 
faction to us all. He had found eampaigning north 



IM THE ONE HL'NDRED AND FOURTH 

of llir (»lii«» :i far tlilTrifiH in;in«'r fr<»iii liiitliii;: on his 
uativf ln«atli, w Imt«* m-arlv all of ilu* iMijnilaiion ((uihi 
b«' rrliiMl on as frirmlly i«» him. An uii|th'asant si«::ht 
uriiin-«*<l on tin- I'lsi, wln-n a sohli.r ..f tin* F»»rt y-s»*<- 
on<l Indiana, \vln» ran away at Stone's Kivrr, had his 
bi*a«l shavfil and was dinninirtl ont «»f camp to the 
miiKic t»f tin* "l{o«;n«''s Mai«h." lit* st*<Miu*d mnch cn'st- 
fallt'ii as In* marrhrd ajon^ in tin* |»n*s<*ncf t»f the Itri- 
jjade, and was sent inidfi- ;:naiil t«i Nashville \<> !•<• 
I'oiitiiied in a miliiaiy juison dniin;: the \\ai-. 

When the month of August ani\ed there was a 
general exitectai ion of niijers In iiiaiTJi, aiMJ the afmy 
was impatient to ^i». It was known that <iemTal 
Itra;i;:'s arm\ was mainly in ( 'hat tanou^ia. The pf(d»- 
l«Mn pH'senled to (Jeiieral Koseefans of ln»w in ln'st 
attark lira;;;; was a wei^rhty one, well rah ulaied to 
make him raniions, hut while still malni'in;; his jilans 
of rampaii:n. Cieiieial Halle* k, on the r>th, ordeied him 
to move, lie niana;ied, however, excrpt some minor 
inovenn-nts, to d«*lay tin* jieiieral ad\ ame a litt le huiMer. .»• 
Itonhtlf'ss he was the projter jnd;:e, and, indeed, when 
We ronsidei- the diMienlties presented, his r<'asons 
appear to have heen Jiotnl ones. 

The jtosiiioii iif Kra;:;:'s army was far dilTei< iit from 
that oiciipied at Tnllahoma, whirh it had heen tlank<Ml 
out of with roiiiparat i\ e ease. Hra;:i: deemetl himself 
safe from direet attark in front. Itesides the hroad 
Tennessee, he was protected there liy two raill^es (»f 
lii;:li mountains, the < 'nmlieilaml ami W'alden's Kid^c, 
which shut in the ii\er and ahuitini: on it pre\eiiied 
inoxin;; alon;; the north hank from Urid;:epori. His 
flank** W er«' eipially well protected not ^>\\\\ \t\ the 
Telinesse*', lilit o|| the left li\ the SaM<l and l.itokout 

Mountain ran;:es, which an invadin;: army in this 

directimi must cross. These seetned illsUjieralde (d>- 
sfa«|es III IJraj:;:. His ri;:ht tiank presenteil the sann* 
d«*f«*nNes and was nmre ditVicnlt to i-each; ipiite imw- 
c'f»«HlbI<» to our line of comniuiii< at ion with the rear, 
and d«'Mtitute 4if water ami fora;z"'. Hy any of the 
routes named, a distance nf from HIO in i:u) 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 105 

miles must be traversed by Kosecrans' army, 
and almost ccmtinuoiisly over mountains. Not only 
so, but rations to feed the army must be taken alonj^, 
while the artillery and ammunition trains were, of 
course, indisj^ensable. (ieneral Roseerans' idan of 
campaig,!! as develope<l and ]»r<>se<utod to a ((hkIii- 
sion that secured its primary (d»je<t, in the «;raiid(Mii- 
and bcddness of its conciqttion and execution, was one 
of the greatest feats of strategy, if not the greatest, 
performed during the whole course of the war. Hohl- 
ness, celerity and secrecy were the chief factors (►f suc- 
cess, and the very audacity of the scheme and of each 
successive step in it, constantly bewildered and de- 
ceived General Bragg until it was too late for him 
to retrieve his errors, (leneral Kosecrans ])r<>])(>sed in 
brief to execute a grand tiank movement by our right 
across the Cumberlands and the Tennessee River, 
thence over Sand and Lookout Mountains to Bragg's 
left and rear. This, if successful, would make Chat- 
tanooga untenable or (ddige Bragg to tight there, in 
which latter case his destruction would be certain 
beycmd all doubt; for although not gifted with much 
penetration, General Bragg knew that if the Army of 
the Cumberland once obtained a foothold on his left 
and rear, with the Tennessee below riiattanooga and 
Lookout Mountain and valley in its possession, his 
case would be hopeless. But General Bragg's fore- 
sight prove to be hindsight and therefore he did not 
provide against such a contingency, while he was 
deluded by Roseerans into the belief that he intended 
to attack his front and right flank. 

Having thus outlined briefly the situation and sa- 
lient points of the caiupaign, we will follow again the 
Army of the Cumberland on its weary marches over 
rivers and mountains, in the blazing heat of a southern 
sun, and amid the chilling fever breeding dews of night, 
half fed and half slept, until having acciniiplislicd the 
great flank movement and captured Chattanooga; 
flushed with success and perlia]»s over confident, this 
invincible armv was suddenlv checked in its vict<u'i- 



1M THE ONE HTNORKD ANI> F<>rRTH 

m»s rariM-r on ilj«- li.*l<l ''f « 'liirU.iiii;ni;:;i ! Tin- |>r<'liiii- 
inary si^jiis that iiiili(*at(Mi am atlvaine exi«ii<l«Ml all 
altiii;: fiom tin* .'tli i«i tin* Hit h. Soiin- hri^^adrs iii.»\ f.l ; 
fXlia raUMiis xmm'c issuimI; iIh* sitU s«mH Im tin- itai'; 
arms ami ammiiiiiiittn wnr ins|MTi«tl. Ai lial! past 
four oil ilio moniiii;;; of ilu* Hiih, tin- taini) lirrs <»( i In* 
Om* lhiii<lr«Ml ami Fourtli aii«l iIiom* of tin* iMitin* aiiiiy 
\v«'n' li^'lil»*tl ami iIh* mumi I»iisv in ronkiii^ tin* last 
iiMNil |in*>ioiis to (Icpart iiif. TIm* proinpi icspoiis*' to 
roll-call ami othrr «lini«*s sliowcW how fjipT a II wtif 
t<» Im* olT. TIh'Im* was a ri;;i«l iiis|MMt ion of aims aii<l 
rartri«l«:o l»o\rs. Tin* kiia|»saiks w«*!»' |»a< ktil ami \u'V- 
misviuii ^i\fii to lua*l tlnMii on iIm* waLions. as th«* 
>\fatlnM- \\as vor> ln»t. WIm-ii all was i«'a<lv ami tin' 
J{«';^itm'iil, Hi-i;;a«lo aihl IMvision. in lim-. a loii<:: dolav 
ocriirnHl. At half-past oh*\oii wr mo\o(l olT in tin* 
♦ lirortjon of ('owaii. a station at tin* l»aso of tlw moun- 
laiiis. Sonii after a rainstorm ai roni]>aiii<'il l>y a furi- 
ous wimi hrokc upon us. tin* thun<l«i- ami li<;ht iiiu;; 
\v«*n« trrritii- ami all of tin- immI ariilN'ry (»f lH*av«*u 
k«mmu«m1 to hav«* horn conrontratod in ono sin^h* loral- 
ity dirrrtly ovor our heads. This roiiiinucd one luuir, 
iiflor whirh tho sun raim- out aiul shom- \<i-\ hoi. 
A;:ain tin- **At tt-niion" and "I'mw aiil" sMinidnl, and 
moving' on Wf it-arhoil ('owan ai liin-t-, w In-ii a liali 
was inadr foi- an Immii-. Tho advance was then resumed 
with the <Mi«- Hundred and l^uirth leadin;:, and soon 
aft«*r we bepin to as<-end the < 'umherlamls. ].<»okin;; 
up far ahove us a]>peared the summit with rhuids tloat- 
in;: around. Itv the |-<iad it was iwn miles there, hut 
when we arrixed it seenieil ten. The stoiin ha<l ilam 
«p*d tin* road and made it exi icniely rou;:h. so that 
the liorKes and mules wer<- unalde to move tin- artil- 
lery ami way;ons. The ( Mie Hundred and I'ourth had 
to asHiht, hut it was twehi- i»'( |«m k when the io|i was 
attained, and wi- wi-ni ini<> lti\<)ua< fur !h«> ifst of the 
niiflit. 

The fn;; « huidN w<ii- deusi- all around on the morn- 
iuii of the ITlh. when tin- mar. h was resumed, this 
tiiiH* down hill for some disiame. As the sun rose 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 107 

higher ainl tli(» clouds cleared away the si)h'n<lid sccii- 
-ery of iiiouiitain and A'alley was revealed in all its 
beauty. Having descended to a little valley a halt was 
made for breakfast. This did not occupy much time and 
Ave moved on — the Tliiid I'jigade in a<lvance. Winding- 
ni> an<l around the summit of another mountain by a 
road easier than the last, at three in the afternoon we 
reached Tantallon in the valley, and went into camp to 
await the arrival of the AA'agon train, which had broken 
down and Avas far Ixdiind. The train not arrivinu, during 
the niii'lit the One Hundred ami Fourth Avas sent at 
three on the morning of the IcSth to look it up and pro- 
cure rations. The march back almost to the top of the 
range was a hard one, but Avas completed soon after day- 
light. The Regiment having secured three days' rations 
and also taking the knapsacks in order to reduce the 
loads of the Avagons, countermarched and arrived in 
camp at ten, pretty well worn out. After a hasty and 
luxurious breakfast of hardtack and bacon, the Regi- 
ment fell in and taking the adAance, resumed tln^ march. 
The day was intensely hot, the road dusty and many suf- 
fered greatly, causing frequent halts for rest. We moved 
along the ('row Creek A^alley and Avere i)leased to see 
plenty of corn fields, apple and peach orchards. Hav- 
ing marched some four miles Ave came to a plantation 
where stood a A'ery good bouse, and near by was a large 
spring of pure mountain Avater, an article we wanted 
constantly, one, too, far superior to any ''Mountain dew" 
known, though the latter was never throAvn away Avhen 
it could be had. After an hour's rest we moA^ed on and 
winding around the spur of a mountain could see down 
the A'alleA' for miles. There were Aast corn fields, Avhich 
had been jdanted by JetT Davis' orders for the future use 
of rebel armies, he never anticipating, that the hated 
"Yankees" Avere to haiwest those fields, yet such Avas to 
be the fact, and the Scripture fulfilled, "One shall sow 
and another reap." Passing by a laige, fine mansion on 
the road, a darky Avas asked about his master. He re- 
plied, "Gone Avid de rebels," Toward night w-e arrived 
at Anderson, having marched eighteen miles under a 



lOS THE ONE HIWDRKD ANT* FOURTH 

liiMiliii;^ Mill. AIk'UI <in«' iliii<l <>f i In- |{ii^:ni<* li;i<l fallrii 
lit iitlt'ilv i*\liaust«Ml. Colttinl MiM.ic, uhn had roiii- 
inainltMl tin* Hri;;a«l«* siiirf \v«' s(aii«Ml. ihou^rh iiiulcr 
• •itl« IS III ^«i six inilfs fiirilMT. if |ira<-t i* altlc. tlcciilrd lo 
ramp In-n* for tin* iii;:lii. AfhT a n-si. aiiiph* supjtlirs 
\v«Tf drawn fiom tin* atliuiniii;^ !i«dds fur mcii, li«»rsfs 
and iiiiiirs, iiMirli t«i tlicir satisfartiun, if nut that of 'Jeff 
I ►axis Mild ( 'oiiipaiiN ." 

< Ml t h»' iiioriiiii;: of (hi- IIM h. ii-\ i-il !•• son mh-d a I lialf 
j»a»( I hiiM*. and orders wm' issiiiMJ to niaiih ai half past 
four. WhiMi I hi* "At t«*iit ion" soiiiidi-d l hr i aid<s of i ho 
nil.- Iluiidioil and I'oiirih won* iioiiroahlx ihiii. as, in- 
d«*«*il, wiio ihosi* of thi* othi'f r«';;iiiii'nls. Loaviii^ all 
who \M*ri- iiiiahh* to walk to ^o on hy ainlmlanri*, tin* 
l{ri;;aih' iiio\iii;,' on down tin* valli*y r«*at'he<l (-'ave 
Spriii;: thii'i* iiiih*s from St»*M'iison. Alahama, at t«*ii in 
till- foii'iiooii. I'ordin^i ( 'row ("ii'i-k tin- Ki'uiiM»*nt wi'Ht 
into rain]> m*ar tin* sprinu:, and also iii*ar a lorn tii'id, 
whirh was wdl li;nvi*sti'd in a fi'W hours l»y t In* soldins. 
W'l* had now passod om* ran;:i* of tin* < iimhciland and 
nnild si*i* Im'Ioii* ns a fi'W niih'S distant tin* oiilliiii's of 
t III* 'ri'iini-ssi*!' IviM*r. a st ri*am that had ln'iom«* historir. 
HivoiHJ till' riM*r losi* in maji'slir ;ri"JHnh*nr tin* Sand 
Moiiiiiaiii iani:i*. standin;; liki* a wall hi*tw<*i*n ns and 
t hi* i*iii*m\ , and w liirli wi* must rioss. Around tin* t amp 
and on i*arli sidi* of ('row i "n*i*k |M*r|MMiiliriilar inassi*s 
of lo. k om* thousand fi*i*t hi;;h shut in tin* valh-v and 
madi- till* loiaiioii \i*r\ lirantifni. It was aniioiimrd 
that a halt of a fi*w days w oil Id Im* inaih* hi'i"** in orih*r to 
pr«-par«* for t In* in*xi iiio\ 1*1111*11 1. also to await t In* irsnlt 
of othi*r roiiihinaiioiis ami inam*nM*rs tln*ii hi'in^ i*\i*- 
riitfd i*lsi-w ln*ri* as a part of rn'in'ial Kosi-crans' darini;" 
plans. .Mi*aii wliih* tin- < Mn- 1 1 inidn-d anil I'oini h losti-d 
(pii«**ly in ramp awaiiin;: tin* ordi*r to man h. It was 
rumored ihai si*\i*ral of tin* oOiii'is inli'inird to ri*si;;n 
HiMiM. Two of oiir wa;:ons hroKcii dow n on ihi* monn- 
talMK, wci'i* ri'srtn*il l»y \\ illiam II. (Onaid and a ddail 
of iiii'ii si*nl hark for I In* pnrposi'. Sii^i'-aiii WiHianM". 
I{«*am, of < 'oiiipany II. ri*ri*iM*il his i ommission as Tiist 
Iai*ntiiiant in a 1 o|ori*il ri*;.'iiiniii. lli* had passi-d a 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTKERS. 109 

creditable exaiiiiniiti<m before tli«' board of wliicli (leu- 
eral Beatty was President. The weather eoiitiimiug 
very liot nnuli sickness — ty])hoid in (haracter, ]>re- 
yailed, thus rediuinj; tlie elTeetive force of the Kej;inieut 
ready to go into line of battle to about 330 men. 

Between the 25th and 29th all of the signs indicated 
that our right and center woul<l soon advance. The 
pontoons had been laid across the river at four different 
places Avith very little opposition. This was due to the 
bold strategic movements and maneuvers of the left in 
front of Chattanooga, which liad begun simultaneously 
with those of the Fourteenth aud McCook's cori)s. At 
that time General Kosecrans had directed ('ritten<len 
to march with Palmer's and Wood's Divisions, General 
Wilder's Brigade of Keynolds' Division, Fourteenth 
Corps, with Colonel Minty's Brigade of Cavalry, over 
the mountains into the 8e<iuatchie Valley. This move- 
ment was promptly executed, aud Hazen's aud Wag- 
ner's Brigades of Infantry were at ouce thrown over 
Walden's Ridge in front of Chattanooga, where Wilder 
and Minty joined them. The entire force of eight thous- 
and men was then judiciously deployed from Williams 
Island — a few miles below the city, to Kingston above, 
but much pains was taken to make a large display iu 
front and up the river. The hills and woods effectually 
concealed our troops and enabled the commanders to 
move them from poiut to point and thus give the im- 
pression that a large army was there. To add further 
to the enemy's delusion, Wilder shelled the city most 
vigorously from Walden's Ridge and the luMghts op])o- 
site. The effect of all this on the rebels was as desired; 
the greatest alarm prevailed annmg the citizens aud 
had a retroflex influence on Bragg and his army. But 
not divining the true meaning of this show Bragg con- 
cluded that Rosecrans' whole army was on his front and 
right, and hastened to call to him Buckner's ( 'orps from 
Tennessee, paying no attention to his left. Meantime, 
while Wilder was amusing and deceiving Bragg, the 
main army had i>roceeded as heretofore indicated aud 
concentrated on the Tennessee readv to cross. The Re- 



119 THE ONE Hl'NI>KKl> ANI» F<ll'RTH 

Kfrvt* t 'orpN umlrr « iciirral < Ji>i<l<«ii « ir;iii;^«'r, haul moved 
\u tUv n*ar to lu»hl our liiu* of cMimiiuiiMaliuus aiul kept 
Hnfliiii'inlv closi* to In* «if snvicr w Ihmi ihmmIimI. < Jeiieral 
KosiMiaiis. \vlios«* lifa<l«|iiar!»*i-s wru- ;ii iln- fnait^ 
Icarut'it farlv of ilw surtrssfiil r.\«Miiiioij uf his «>rd«'rs 
ou the h'ft hv ('iiti«'iuh*irs("<ni»s, ami diivclinj; < liiU'U- 
deii to iiuiVf hJK main foivi* down the Sc(|ualohit' N'alley 
and luros.s ihi* ii\«M' at Hrid;:f|»ort ami al»ovr, he j^ave 
thf oi-diT f»»r ihf riuhl ami » i-iiin- to atl\am«\ The 
inoviMm-iil was coiinm'ncod hy (oMn-ral Havis' Division 
on tli«* l.M»th. which rrosst'd at ( 'ain-i'ion's Frny, opposite 
St»'V«*nson, and with ih«* t'avaliy movt'd on (»vj*r Sand 
Mountain. 

Tin* < Mi«- liiindicd and I'oiirih iiio\cd from < 'ave 
Spring: on Sunday, tho JitMh, into Sit'\(ns«»n ami went 
into ramp. At iImmm* in iho afifiiioun uf Scpu-mlMT 1st, 
N«'^rh'y's I>ivisi«ui, with Hratiy's Hi-i;;a<lf in ailvance, 
took uj» tin* lin<' of marrh for < "aiM-itou's INmtv, and 
crossin;; on i he |»oniooii luid^** at livo, (ontinm'd on up 
the«*ast hank of ihr livrr until midni^dit, wht*n it went 
into hivouar hy tin* ictadsi^h*. At «*i;;ht on tin* mornin«; 
of tin- Ifnd, \\i- moved on to Mooic'.s Spring;, aiiivin^ at 
oiH', just as SJM'ridan's I ^vision <aino up. < oMirral Nej;- 
]t'\ h-arnin;: that water was v«*ry scai'<»' ahead, ordered 
th«* IMvisioM to lemaiii heii' for the ni^hi. dohnson's 
and ha\ is* Divisions ami t he caN airy had reached Look- 
«Mit \'alley, where the lar^'t'i- part of the army was di- 
r<*el«Ml to ron<-oiii rate ;is fjist as t he i'i\ er and m«Mi mains 
could he crossed. 

We marched early on t he .'.rd, ami hei^aii t he ascent 
of the Sand .Mountain ran;;e. Hut it was seen at once 
that t his N\ as to he no easy task. The road had h«'en un- 
iihimI and was nni^h and stee|i. The delays ami repairs 
wen* constant, 'i'he ( Mie Hundred ami i'<uirtli was in 
advance and cont rihuied materially to t he work of ludp- 
in;.r the transportation up. The advance reache«l the 
Huinniit at no«in and remained there unl il the It h, await- 
iiitr the passap' of the trains. There was no water to 
he hail and the sufTerin;: of hot h men and animals was 
H4'Vere. The view from the top of Sand .Mountain well 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. Ill 

repaid all the toil in f»ettiii<;' there. The borders of five 
States could be seen, three iiuiiiediately near. Far be- 
yond mortal vision extended one vast panorama of 
mountains, forests and rivers. The broad Tennessee 
below us seemed like a ribbon of silver; beyond rose the 
(""umberlands, which we had crossed. The valley on both 
sides was alive with the movinjj; armies <if the Ijiiion, 
while almost the entire trjinsjiortation of the army filled 
the roads and fields along the Tennessee. No one could 
survey the grand scene on that bright autumn day un- 
moved, unimpressed with its grandeur, and of tiie mean- 
ing conveyed by the presence of that mighty host. Some- 
time after dark the last of Negley's Division and trains 
reached the summit without loss except to the Division 
Sutler, whose wagon tumbled over at a narrow place 
scattering his goods along the mountain si(h'. Sutlers. 
as a general thing were not regarded with especial favor 
by the army, and yet seemed to be a kind of necessary 
nuisance. This one api)ealed to the boys to help him 
carry up his broken goods. Many of them readily re- 
sponded and no doubt paid themselves well for the ad- 
ditional labor involved, at least quite a number were 
seen afterward smoking very good cigars and regal- 
ing themselves on canned hdister, oysters, etc. During 
the day Sirwell's Brigade had been sent on to build a 
bridge across a canon; this was completed at eleven 
p. m., and was one hundred and eleven feet long and 
twenty feet high. Other bridges were repaired and the 
roads made passable. 

The whole of the 4th was occupied in crossing and 
descending the mountain. At night but little of the 
transportation was down and but two regiments of our 
Brigade. The day's march had been hard on men and 
animals. When night came all were glad to rest where 
they halted. 

The 5th was spent in bringing up the transportation 
and moving the Division a few miles to Brown's Spring- 
in the valley. Sirwell's Brigade^ went on a short recon- 
noissance toward Lookout and brought back some 
flour captured at a mill. 



Ill THE ONE HL'NDHED AND FOURTH 

On ill*' f;ili tlif ••iiiiir IMxisiMii iiiii\«'(l lip JoliiisiHi's 
<*nH»k (valli'V) Ifaiviiij; niiiip al hii. TIm- Lo.ikoiit i:»ii«;e 
apiM-aiiMl on* om- Irfi. IW-aU.v's Hrii^ad*- in aMvancc, 
nsu ln-«| Ml Kav's Spring al livf. Tin- l»alaii< •• <»f tin* I >i- 
viHinii raiiiptil nil L4iok«MH ( 'i«M«k in iIh- n-ar. Wf now 
lay Ufar tin- foi.i nf SirvmV (liip (pass) ot l.tmkout 
MiMintain. Afn-r aiiival ilial I'vrniii*: tin* Ftniy-siMund 
Iiiiliaiia was srni <»n a i»Ti»nnMissain«* ii|» tin* <iap. and 
ha<! •»nlv iinin- a sliuii disiantr w li«*n ii was iir«M| iip<»ii 
l»v !li«* »MH*ni\ . w Ini SIMM I HM I to In- r«>nri'al<'»l in hi mi i n^'S. 
Duv man was si-vi-ri'ly woiimli'il. Tin- ithjtM t Immu;.^ a«- 
(•om|»lisljiMl. that is, to «i»-\»lu|i i In- rii.iii\ . i In- K<-;^ini»'nt 
wit Ik III* w . Tin* w riti'f aiiom|ia!ii«'«l i lii^ rcn.Miiuissam <*. 
Thi- ••vi-nin;; of tin* tltli «|usi*il wiiii almost tin* i*!itire 
army ronrt*ntrat«*«l in Lookout vall«*y, «*xt«*n«liii^ fioiu 
u iM>int at tin* norili md only si*vi*n mil«*s fiom (liatta- 
noo;;:i. to Xalli'V lli*a«l on tin* south, tliirt.v livr inii(*rt 
(listani. Tin- i*m-my still ln*lil Lookout Mountain, 
whi<h towiTi'il two thoiisami f»'«*t al»ovi* us ami was in- 
ar<*<'HKil»li* i*\ri-pt lt\ I Wo or thn*«* passi*s. 'rin*s«* aH 
ovrnts piommI hail ln-i-n h-fi piact irall \ umli'f«*ml«*d, 
t iiiis sliow in;: how lilth* Ura^;; looki'd for Ko>i'rfa!is in 
that <liifrtion. 'I'o '^n/.r upon tliosi* iii;4l'<*<1 ln'ii;hts om» 
would siipposi* that a f<*w thousand, or i-Vfii a f«'W 
linmli't'ds. of nn-ii roiild hav<* rasily )M-ai<i> liaik an 
army. No om* on t In* i*vi*iiiii;; of t In* tit h ant i( ipati'd Imt 
what tin* |»ossi*ssion of tin* jiassi's would Ik* di^putotl to 
the last rxti'i'iiiity. Smh was tin* situation, and all 
l<H>k<'d forwaid to tin* nioiidw as full of promise for 
Koim* very li\i*ly ti;:ht in;:. I " • ;»pi iin* ('Ikii iinoo;:a Ir.iui 
our l«*fi l»> passing; around tin- point of Lookoui was 
thou^^hl impract iraM*', as it ahiittcd so rlosi-ly on tin* 
rivrr HH hari*l,\ to h-;i\i> room for ihf iailro;i(|. ;iii<l. in- 
dtMMJ, for a part of tin* way i In- ro;idlti «1 liad In-i-n m;idi* 
by Ida St in;: aw ay tin* solid linn- stom- r.n U i In-ri- form- 
ing palisad**s oni- humln-d fi-ot hi;:h. Tin- point 2.10(1 
fiH't ahovi* and tin* int<-r\«*niiiu spai •• 'mIow wi-ii- held 
by lln* «*in'iny. <tiMn*ral Kowi'irans ih-i<-iiiiim-<l to li-avi* 

(Yill«*ndi*n to ihri*]iti*n ('liatlai ^a on tin* Irfi, and 

man hi n;: with I In* ri>nt«*r and ri;:ht ovi>r Lookout bv * In* 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VuLUNTEERS. 113 

passes in their frout, seize Chattaii(M»i;ji \'alley dirertly 
in Bragg's rear. Tliis moveiuenl, if succcssrul, would 
force matters to a decisive issue. Accordingly orders 
were issued for tlie Ttb, having these objects in view. 
Early that morning Beatty's Brigade began the ad- 
vance in line of battle up the mountain by Steven's 
Pass. It was some three miles to the top, and advanc- 
ing by the front was a different and more difficult task 
than moving in column along the road. We had ex- 
pected opposition, but beyond a few stray shots none 
was made. At eleven we stood on the summit witli our 
artillery, which the men helped to get up, without the 
loss of a man. It was learned from some cracker resi- 
dents on the mountain that only cavalry had been on 
guard at the pass, and they took good care to leave in 
time. The other brigades following closel}' arrived on 
top at twelve and three o'clock. The transportation oc- 
cupied that day and the next in getting up, the Brigade 
marching half way across Lookout, bivouacked for the 
night. After the arduous labors of the last three weeks 
the command was well tired, but in high spirits over 
the success thus far achieved, regarding Chattanooga as 
within our grasp and the defeat of Bragg certain slutuld 
he choose to fight. While we had thus gained a foot- 
hold so easily on the key to Bragg's position, Harker's 
Brigade had spent the day in demonstrating on the left 
around the point of Lookout and discovered the enemy 
in strong force. The Twentieth Army Corps did not 
move on the 7th. 

Pursuant to General Bosecrans' orders an advance 
was made along the whole line on the 8th. Beatty's Bri- 
gade leaving at four a. m. marched to Coopei*'s (lap. The 
rest of the division moved to Steven's Gap. (Also called 
Prick's Gap.) Genei'al Rosecrans having information 
from various sources, such as deserters, citizens, and 
scouts, that Bragg was evacuating Chattanooga, di- 
rected the movements of the day accordingly. General 
DaA'is, of McCook's Corps, on the right, crossed Lookout 
with two brigades in support of the cavalry then ope- 
rating toward LaFayette on Bragg's probable line of 



114 THE ONE HUNDHED AND FOL'HTH 

ifin-at. <MMMi:il N«-^I«'V airiviii;^ lu-ar Sh-vtii's (iap 
s|HMit I III' Way ill nMimviii;; tin* nnks and lif«*s iliat ol» 
siriu-t«Ml ilic mail, and :it iii^lil liivoiiackiMl in tlic viriii 
it.v. Tlif I'iisi !{ii;:ad«* (Ikraiiv's) r«*atli«*d r«M»|M*i's (Jajt 
almul ri;:lii a. III. and irslcd a slioil liinc I'rum this 
|Hiiiii ur had a j^raiid \ h'W td I In* ( Mial taiiu(»;i:a vall»*v. 
wliitli lay iwii tliMiisaiid li»i Im-Iuw us. \\ «• were in 
<MMirijia. and ImoUiuj; nnrtli «uiild aliiio.st scm- (Miatta 
iHM»;;a altMUl t w riiiyl wo mi Irs distant. Hn the ojiposih- 
side of till' \alle\ ilie iiioiiniains uf (iroij^ia, Teniiesse** 
and Nortli ('andina rosr bcfoit' imr cyrs in \ast surees- 
simis of ran^re n|n>n ranj^r, jM*aU ii|miii |m ak. ilnir si<lrs 
trrrarrd willi tin* \ei'dni*e of aiiiiiiiin. Two tu- iIumm' 
mill's t-asi w «• discovered meandciin^ i liion^li t In- \ alley 
< hit kaiiiaii^'a < 'icrk, t lial nanif liavinj; been ^d\ en it l>,\ 
till* indians. and iin-anin;: in oiir lan;;iiaj;«'. "The v'im-v of 
d«-atli." Siicli, indrrd, it pioNrd tt» Im* a few days later. 
.Inst l)«*yond, l*i;;«'oii .Moiiinain was in si^lii. 

W'liih' \\»' stood in ad mi rat ion ^azin;: iiimhi f h-- nt-w 
and Mif|iassiii;i heanlies of nature on ev«*!*y iiand, 
allot In •!• si;; III (»f vital iinpoit an»'st»*d attention. ( "hmds 
of «lust wi'ir notirrd ill the \alliy a frw mih"^ in our 
front. ( Ml •'xaminiii;; t hrs*' rlosrly wit h fi«'ld ^ilasses, we 
saw loii;i lim-s of soldiiMs and trains of wagons inov- 
iii;; s<nil hward. It was Hra^^'s ai'iiiy in ret r«Mi. ('our 
i«Ms wiTe at omc disjiatrlu'd to N»*;;lcy with tin* infor- 
iiialioii. Thf itri^^adr was thru srt in motion down the 
lliolllltaill. Thrpf wept' some ohst fllct ions. Imh IIicsi 
Wire soon r«*mov«M|. ( >n ariix in; at t In* lias.. ( 'om|».iii\ 
II had a skinnish with rt'ltcl ravaliy and, ha\iii;i tlu- 
ad\anta;:<'. Immh;^ ahovc and well |iiot('rt«'d, soon dro\t' 
it ofT, tie* r«-lM*ls lfa\ in;: om* man scxcifly w oumh'd ; two 
iiIh«», were «ai»l iii«-d. io;:ri her w it h some sal»i«'s and 
othi-f :inns 'I'lir Kfuine'iit and Uriiradf followed 
rl«»Hi'ly rrady to su|i|tort t In- skinuislnTs. Itiit t he i-i'Im-Is 
had dis<-o\«*i'«-d our strength and had no iloulii Kmi 
P«ihI*mI ihrn* lo ohsrrv*' and rrpoit our approa< h. As 
HeallyV nri;;adf was tin* llrst and only fon-e yn in th • 
valh'x ami Ilic imhmiin lay within thrci* miles disiam-r. 
Ofiirnil llcaily nnidi'iitly halted and, tlirowiii;.^ out a 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 115 

strong picket line, went into bivouac. For twenty four 
hours following we were isolated from siijtport, should 
an attack he uiade. But Though uuuiheiiug only s(uue 
twelve hundred men and a section of a battery, our ad- 
vantage of position would have enabled us to repel any 
attack bv far superior numbers. Vide Reb. Rec, Vol. 
XXX., pj). 32()-3(;7. 

( Jeneral Kosecrans was notified at half past three on 
the morning of the 0th that Chattanooga had been 
evacuated. (Jeneral Wagner, whose troops lay on the 
north bank op])osite, became convinced on the Sth tliat 
the rebel army was leaving. ( leneral \\'ilder, who, with 
his mounted infantry, had patroled the river for thirty 
miles abov€% dnring tlie campaign, and was then seven 
miles from the town, was also satisfied of the fact. 
Therefore, on the morning of the Otli, Wagner crossed 
his trooi)s over and took possession, the colors of the 
Ninety-seventh Ohio being the first planted on the rebel 
defenses. At a later hour the rest of Crittenden's Corps 
marched around Lookout Point andintothecityandval- 
le}'. And thus fell without a battle — the rebel strong- 
hold, the key to Georgia and the inner South; the object 
of the National thoughts, efforts and solicitude for one 
l<»ng year. This had been the goal for which Buell had 
feebly r(^ached, and which (Jeneral Kosecrans by the ex- 
ercise^ of superior generalship, had obtained in the face 
of difficulties and discouragements, before which a 
feebler genius would have recoiled in dismay. 

The effect produced on the army by the fall of Chat- 
taTiooga was electrical. The retreat of Bragg was con- 
sidered such evidence of weakness that the luirsuit and 
defeat or capture of his army, now occupied the 
thoughts of all. The authorities in AVashiugton who 
had been trembling with anxiety for the safety of the 
Army of the Cumberland, and watching for the de- 
nouement of what was considered a bold and perilous 
undertaking and one, too, which they had not properly 
supported, elated be^'ond measure, urged a further ad- 
vance. If General Rosecrans had been averse to this he 
would have had no discretion. At all events, the move- 



116 THE ONi: HrxIiUKD AND FOURTH 

iiMiit> «■! tin- '.Mil \Ni-n- <-i«l«n«l lo bf piishrd \\\lU \ i^t>r 
a;;aiiis! thfciifuiy (mm ri<:lil to h'fl,a distaini* of forty 
to finiy-livt* iiiiU'S. 

The First IJri^atU' passiMl tin- iii^lii of tin* Mli wiili- 
oiit any alarm, ami on the IHli marcluHl south three 
miles to the foul of Steven's (Jap, where at four p. m. 
Nr^ley's l>i\ision havinj^ rome <lo\\u, the winth* f»u'<<* 
nioveil hy ai ron;:h nairow roa«l through a lane, one mih- 
to Itailey's Cross Koa«ls. This was foun«l to be a men- 
hamlet of a few loj; houses, situated in the midst of 
delist' Woods and surrouudrd by rorky kiudls, ()u a 
lar;:e oak ire<* was noticed a si|;n board with the lej^end, 
"To ('hattanoo«;a 2."{ miles." Thirty y«'ars later, tin* 
writer revisite(l this, and other [daces in the vicinity, 
and saw what were eviilently the same lo<^ houses and 
si;:n board, I here seeuietl to hav«' been no chan;xe. ( leu- 
eral Ne{4;ley, hallinj; the main command U<v the ni;;hi, 
sent forward Stanley's Iirij;a<le at five p. m. ou ji r«* 
coiinoissaiice eastward in the direction of \U\*^ (Jaji. 
Stanley uiarclu'd m*arly tln-re, a «listance of three miles, 
but lonsiantly met and skirmished with ndud «avalry. 
of which two were captured in a char^^e by Ne«;ley's 
mounted cscuii. SiaiiJcN ilim withdrew. Ihirin^ the 
day, < 'rilieiiden's ( 'orps on the left, except W'aiiiiei's 
Itri^iade, had marched rapidly up the valley toward 
Uinj;;;old, in IJraj^j^'s rear. .M(( 'ook on the ri^rht had ad- 
vanced in the direction of Alpine to intei«ept Hra'ii:. 
X<»ne of ihe thi-ee corps w cic within supporting dis 
lance of each other, Mc< 'otdi's beinj; t w cnly miles from 
the j'onrteenlh and separated also by hi;:h niouniains. 
If .Mc<'ook had Miienipt<-d lo jujn by ilie from lie woidd 
have met Hra^^^'s whole army and have been crushed, 
In* «ould only effeii a junclion with TluMuas by re- 
croKsinj: the mountains twice, and this is what he <lid :i 
few days later. Critlendeu was as far away as Mcrook. 
but had thea<lvantap' of bein^ in the valley with belter 
roads to travt-r'^e. The {•'oni-ieeiit h < "orps (he cenier, 
wan the key in the arch, and the reliance of all. Such 
wnH the* Hituaition nn the eveiiin}; of tlio Olh. (Jeneral 
I'o'iecrans evidently believed that Ttrairt: wonid on- 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 117 

tinue to retreat aud based his orders for the 10th oii that 
assiiniptioii. Had he known what was transpiriun 
around the cam]) tire of General Bragg, I'e wouhl liavc 
issued orders of a dilTerent l^ind. Another day was re- 
quired to reveal the intentions of the rebel commander. 
On Thursday, the 10th, in pursuance of orders, Neg- 
ley's Division resumed the march toward LaFayette 
via Davis Cross Roads, two miles or more southeast 
from Bailey's. >v o other troops of the Fourteenth On-ps 
had as yet come into the valley — here called McLe- 
More's Cove. Sirwell's Brigade (the Third) led the ad- 
vance, and from the first did more or less skirmishing 
with the rebel cavalry. The road was through dense 
woods, over several hills, and was rocky and rough part 
of the way. Beatty's Brigade guarded the train of four 
hundred wagons, through to Davis'. On arriving at the 
latter point the train was parked. From Dm vis' to 
Chickamauga Creek (below called river) the road led 
throiigh a narrow lane with stone walls on either side, 
the distance to the creek being about sixty rods, and 
thence across the stream to Dug Cap; the entrance to 
this gorge in Pigeon Mountain was not over a quarter 
of a mile from the creek. Parallel with the latter, 
which at this point ran northward, a solid stone ^^ all 
guarded the .John Davis ])lantation of five huiKlri'l 
acres. During the advance so much opposition had 
been shown that Negley became cautious on approach- 
ing Dug Gap, and disposed his command in the best \)o- 
sitions to be found. He learned from a Union citizen at 
one-thirty p.-m. that his suspicions were correct, and 
that Buckner's Corps with cavalry and artillery was ad- 
vancing from Catlett's Gap of Pigeon Mountain, three 
miles below, with the intention of coming in on our left 
and rear. Dispositions were made at once to defeat this 
attempt. It was now late in the afternoon, and to im- 
press the enemy a strong demonstration was made 
against Dug Gap, driving back the rebel skirmishers 
and disclosing heavy forces behind. One object was to 
establish the picket line well up to that of the rebels in 
the Gap, and this was done. The troops were then 



lis THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

biviiiiiU'kiMl iiinliT anus mm iIw 1(m k\ ri«l;;t's aioinnl 
l>aviK* lioiiM* lu tlif li^lii, fn»nt ami Iffi. SiibstMiiiriit ly 
at a lati* hour, llu* pirki-l lim* was quirtly drawn hark 
to a new posiiioii. TIk* One iiiiiidriMl and I uiirtli lay 
lU'iW l>a\is' liMusf. iMjiiii^ lln* nij^dil Nr^d«*y itM<'iv«Ml 
additional iwwn from liiion iiini and his scouts, to tho 
I'fftHl that oiH'-hiilf of thf \vln»h* ifbrl army lay wi'iiiu 
two milrs of our «amp, conrralfd by IMjjjrou Mountain, 
and intiMnlin;: to attack and destroy Nc«;lfy's l>ivisi«»n 
in llir mornin;;. Thry stated that immrdiatfly in front 
was IliU's Turps of thn-i' divisions iwrlvr l>ri;iad«'s; 
to tin- Ifft HufkuiT's Corps tif i u <• divisions, an«l For- 
n*st's cavalry — two divisions; while Tolk antl Hrecken- 
ridp;»*'K ( 'or|is were within su|»iMirlin;j: distance. Such 
was the sit uatiiMi in fiMtnt of Ne;;h'y on tin* ni^dit of the 
null, and it may he conjectured thai the (Jeneral and 
his siafT liid not sle«'p very soundly, if at all. 

On the moiiiinj; of the 11th, about ei^dit, all w»-re 
much relii'Ved by the arrival of (leiieral liaird with th»» 
Kirst iiiid StMond l?rijiades of the First Division (Stark- 
weather's ami S« libiier'si. These t roojts were put in po- 
sition at once, .\bout this lini*- <i<-neral Thomas, 
w hosr head«|uarieis were at Steven's < Jap, made his ap- 
pearsiiice with his stalT and escort f«u- the puijiose uf 
looking; over the j^roiind. Fnciv std<lier knew that we 
Were in a critical posit ion. but t he pieseiic*' of t he loved 
and t rusted < onimaiuhf of i he I'ourteeiit h Army ( 'oips 
^ave confidence to all. tieiieral Thomas had some tent 
flvM pitched in Davis' meadow and sat down to business 
as undisturbed and impassive as the ci:i::;:y mountains 
ariuind. These tt-mpoiary head<piaiiers were not i • 
moved for some hours and until shot and shell w«'re fly- 
ing; tlii«-k aind fast. The wiitei- havin«; seen no nicu 
tion of (ieiieral Thoiuas' piesencr there in any report or 
history, and bein;; sent to tJeiu'ral Thouias' headtpi ir- 
teix. nioreoxcr, liaxin^ been impressed with his appear- 
ance at thai time, records the facts stated as a part of 
thi» hiMtory of tin* dayV events. About nine there w«ie 
hI^mh of the enemy's advanci*. .\ scout couiin;: in. re- 
p«u-ied that the obstructions in Dii^, T.lue llird and ( 'at- 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 119 

lett's (ijips, wliicli lirnLin luul itlaccd tlici-c, Imd been rc- 
iiiovcd jiiid the rchcl a<lvaiic<' bc^uii. 

(Toueral Nei»ley (no doubt iiiuler onh'is liom ( Jciicial 
Thomas), decidiiiji' that (nir position was untenable wit h 
The forces in hand, i>i-e])are(l toreti-eat to IJaihw's Cross 
Ivoads and Steven's Ga}). Meantime, durinj; tiie fore- 
noon, heavy columns of the rebels couhl be seen aj*- 
|n-oachiu<i-, the nearest beinj>' those from l)u«>- Oap. Their 
sliari»sliooters soon struclc Sirwell's Hriijade, but Miis 
occupied an excellent ])osition well i>rotected, and as the 
rebel main line came nearer, poured in an effective tire 
that caused them to halt. Sirwell lost here, three killed 
and twenty wounded. Then, b(Mn^' relieved by Stark- 
weather's Bri<iad<% Sirwell (piietly withdrew to the 
ridji<' at Davis; Bridij;(''s Jiattery of lieatty's l)rij;ade, 
stationed in Davis' orchard or «>ardeu, did some effective 
work at that time. It was then twelve, and there was a 
lull in the o])erations for a short time. A rebel battery 
had been idayini;' on our lines at Davis, but without 
d(»in_n much damaj^e, excei)t to the residence, which was 
a very good one of the better class seen on Southern 
jdantations, and to the fe(diniis of Mrs, John Davis, who 
was an excellent rebel, and vowed she would never leave 
the ])reniises. P>ut after endurinu,- the crash and roar of 
the shells for a while, takiiij»- her two small boys by the 
hand she decided to evacuate the house. The writer 
chancinsi' just then to be passing- was a])])ealed to and 
advised her in warm terms to get behind the hills. She 
stood not on the order of her going, but went at once. 
The vision of those two bright, young boys conies before 
me now. About one p. m. heavy columns of cavalry 
were visible niar<-hing through the fields to our left. A 
battery was turned upon them. The immense ti-ain of 
four hundred wagons containing all of our aininunition 
ami su])plies was by this time got ready, and es<-orted 
by lieatty's and Scribner's Ilrigades, moved toAvard 
Bailey's Cross Roads. Their i)i'eservation was as im- 
portant as that of the divisions in front. On the road 
the cavalry endeavored to break in, but were unable to 



I.'') THE ONE HrXDHED AND FOURTH 

do SO, t»N\ in;; |m I In- arii\ it \ :iii«l skill of ( o'licial Ileal iv, 
\\ ho roiiiiiiaiitlril. Tin* rolu'ls, liowfvi'r, had thrown oin* 
rf;;iiiMMil forward to Hailfv's, whirh ivtivaicMl on «hm- 
a|iitroa(li. This iiiovciucut was verv 8U)W and made 
with raiitioii. I'l-oiii l!aih'\'s it was tout iinic.l afi«'i- 
tiark to St»'V»'ii's iJap. Whih* I ho trains wero hciii*; 
staito<l and «*n ronto, lively work was {ioinjr "'H i>» front, 
!lu' oihiT hri-iados of No;rloy'sand those of Haird hein^ 
hotly en;;ap*d around Ihivis. Ne^rley plantinj; ten ^nns 

on the lidi;e shelled t he enemy with ;;ood elTect. ( 'olonel 
Stanley eoniinandin;: the Second ]?rij;ade look posiiion 
to tin* rij^hl ami «lrove back i li<- rebels with mnskei ry as 
they ait|Ho;i(hed the rierk. Starkweather was on the 
left. I'oiir companies i>f ihe Nineteenth Illinois, and 
one of t he T\\ eiity-foiirt h Illinois, lay behind the stone 

\\ all by t he creek, and as 1 1 iieniy ad \ a need almost to 

tin- find, rose snddeidy, as from the iiroimd. and j ion red 
in a v<dley that sj-nt them reeling: to the i-ear. Thirty 
rebels fell dead at the lirsi tile. jlow inaiiN weir 
W'oiimled is nnkimw II. ( )nr batteries on t he ridp* tiring 
<tver the infantry did iearfnl execution. The rebel ad- 
\aiici' was then thoroii;ihl\ checked for a liiiie and 
Stanley's command withdraw n nearer to havis. Stin- 
le\ *s loss was li\ e kilh'd, t w eiity-niiie wounded, and four 
missinj;. The joss of i he enemy was never kimw n pttsi- 
tively, bnt must ha\e bei'ii heavy as they exposed thein- 
selxcs with reckless coiitidelice, kliowiiiii the stlelll^tll 
opposed to them, li was then after three o'chtck ami 
thon;:h re|Milsed <iii ihc ri^hi. Ilnckin'i's < 'oips wis 
sleailily nio\in;: in nn ijn- jcfi wiihiii •<\\iiv\ lanije, when 
terrific lirin^i be^an on both sides, in which ••iir troops 
had I he ad\ anta;:«' of position, bnt Neiiley know iiii; that 
they would s«»on «liar;^e in n\ i-rpow eriii^ nnmbers, w ith- 
drew slowly fr<iin one hill i«> another. co\criii^ exi-ry 
nioN ell lent, until after dark In- i «-acli.-d llaih-x 's. 1 in hi- 
flirt In -r orders l he t rains had ;;one on to tin- foot uf i he 
< iap and w eie jiarked in rear «)f :i line of hills in t he \ al 
b'\. The entire I M\ isitui, also Haird's, was then placed 
in-ar tin- (iap in a** L'oud pisiiions as tonld be ubiaiin-d 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 121 

in the darkness. There we were joined by tlie divisions 
of Brannau and Reynolds, wliitli had just arrived, and 
General Thomas look coniniand in ]>orsoii. 

Tlio ()n<' lliindrcd and Fourth dui'iui: the (hiy had 
one man woun<led, and one, NVilliym K. Kyster, of Com- 
pany D, missing-; lie was i)r(>bably kilhMl in the thick 
woods, as he was a sharpshooter. M. Kirkpatrick had 
his collar shot away by a minie ball. Durinu the ni<:,lit 
the Reii'iment and l>rii;ade jdaced alonj^- the hills, threw 
up ,some slip,ht defenses of timber and rails, which were 
further strengthened at early dawn of the 12th. Gen- 
eral Beatty and staff spent almost the entire nioht in 
the saddle postino' picket lines and preparino- for attack, 
which was deeiiKMl certain to be made in the morning. 
Not a moment Avas spent in sleep. At three a. m., Com- 
missary Orr surprised our headquarters by producing a 
bottle of wine. General Beatty remarked, "\Yell, let's 
drink ; Ave may not be able to a few hours later." 

Sunday, the 12th, dawned bright and warm, but con- 
trary to expectation, no enemy appeared, and the cav- 
alry soon after reported that they had withdrawn to 
Dug Gap. This unlooked-for event, though a surprise, 
was not unwelcome as all were thoroughly worn out and 
needed rest. General Rosecrans received a telegram 
from General Halleck at Washington, dated September 
11, Avhich stated among other things that rebel desert- 
ers had come in and reported Bragg as sending rein- 
forcements to Lee. Vide Reb. Rec, Vol. XXX, p. 34. 
This was only a rebel ruse, but Halleck did not seem to 
discredit it. 

The writer has dwelt at considerable length on the 
action at Daids Cross Roads, for the reason that in all 
the general histories the affair has been hardly more 
than mentioned, and only in a general way, without giv- 
ing details of what was a formidable fight, while the 
skill with which General Negley, aided by Baird, his 
junior, commanded and extricated the division from 
their perilous position, and the steady valor of the 
soldiers, who could see that they were facing over- 



122 THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOL'KTH 

wlifliiiiiij!; nuinlK'i's, havr Im«ii liairlv alliulr<l to. rinn* 
is, also, another i-rason. This was th** turniii^ |Miini in 
thf ciinipai;;;!! Im';;uii .hnu* «4tli, iit-ailv ilirt-f months 
pri'viouK, thr lU'fliniinai'v o|KMiin;; of tht* IJatth* of 

< 'hi(-kaniaii;:a, foM;;hi ;^ fi'W «hivs hit«M-. 

Tlu' ail ion uin-oVfitMl Hiaj;«;'s «h*si«::ns. It was 
h*arn»M| soon afl«'i- that hi* ha«l issiiril onh*is for an a<l- 
\ anr«' in forrt* on i he lot h. a«zainsi N«';ih*_v, bnt owinj; to 
ji niisninlcrstamlin^ on tin* part of his (iriirrals — Hill 
an«l lliinlnian, ami the hcaxv olisirmt ions he ha<l 
ItlamI ill t Im- ;:a|»s, t ln*i«' w as a «la,v*s (h'la\. ThissavtMl 
N«*;:h*v, as no otlu*r forces wen* ilirn «lo\vn tlu* inonn- 
tain. It, also. ]irolial)ly sav<*«l ( 'rittrmlrn, who. on tlie 
11th. a«lvam(Ml to Kin^;,'ol»l in thr valh-v. |»r«M«Ml«Ml 1>\ 
\\ ihh*r ami Mint\, who ilrovr out tin* em-mv ami th«*n 
wt'iit as far as Tnnm*l Hill. Thcst* fonrs. in fart, i»as^«'<l 
tin* ri;^ht tiank of a part of Hra^'j^'s arin\ , ami saw the 
irhi'ls on rvrry roa«l. Hnt tin* attention of tin* rebel 
eomiiiaml«*r bein^i absorbt'il w ith the movement a;;aii!si 
Ne«;ley, he m*«;le<t«*<l < 'fit t«*mle!l. 

iMirin;; tin* «lay the inovenu*nts on tin* ri^ht con- 
\ime<l .M<rook that he eonhl m>t reach Lal'-ayette, nor 

coiiinMt with Thomas east of I k«int. Tin* ex)>erieme 

of the I'onrteeni h < "orjts w as almost comlnsive e\ itl-p. ■ 
that Hrajii: hail b«N*n reinforced, ha«l »|oiie retrt*atin;:. 
ami was <letermim*<l to brin«;oii a bat I h*. < iem*ral Kose- 

< laiis ;:raspin;^' tin* sitnation ami coiisnltiiiji with 
Thomas, at onc«*. on tin* iii^iht of the lltli. ti»ok im*as- 
nres for tin* coin-eiitrat ion of t he t hrce corpx. ( 'onriers 
sent to .Mc< \)ok, w ho reniaiin*<l inact i\<* on i lie iL't h. did 
not reach him niitil midnight of thai ilale. Heat once 
set his < 'orps in nntt ion, ami bein;; oblij;t*d to ret nrn by 
way of N'alley Head, had to rross ami rccross the inonn- 
lain twi«e in or«ler to reach Thomas. T';is nn»\ ennui 
reipiiretl four days for its execntion. ('ritteinleii was 
leached easier, but bein^' then beyond l{in;;^'idd with 
\\ ihb-r ami infantry in adxame, had to wait for their 
r«*lnrii. This delayinl his inovin;; mn't Invest. m*arer 
Thonias. ami on tin* I'Jlh, when In marched, he 
was confronted with two rebel corps s«*nt by Bra;:;;, 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 123 

Avlio, having failed to criisli Xegley, resolved U) deslroy 
Critteiiden. 

The safety of the army and Chattanooga was in- 
volved in this movement, lint snr])risi)ig as it may 
seem, no battle ensned, thongh skirmishing was carried 
on all day, and \Vilder had a severe? engagement at 
Leet's Tankard, with a loss of thirty killed and wonnded. 
The enemy lost fifty. The Corps reached Lee and (J<n-- 
don's Mills ou the (Tiickamanga in safety, where Wood 
lay with his division. The Fonrteenth Corps lay qniet 
on the 12th, awaiting developments and movements 
elsewhere. It was necessary also to wait for McCook. 

General Kosecrans aware of Crittenden's critical ])o- 
sition gave him orders accordingly. General Crittenden 
expecting an attack on the morning of the 13th, fortn- 
nately so disposed his forces as completely to deceive 
< reneral I*olk, who commanded tlie two rebel corps sent 
to crush liim. He began aggressive movements on his 
front and left, and sent (Jeneral Van Cleve out on tlie 
LaFayette road with one brigade. General Van Cleve 
soon meeting the rebel advance di-ove it back three and 
a half miles. General Tolk, happily for Crittenden, 
halted and sent to Bragg for reinforcements. The lat- 
ter, perplexed and vacillating, tlien, to the surprise and 
joy of Crittenden, withdrew Polk's Corps and gave new 
orders for the concentration of his army on the Chicka- 
maiiga. General Kosecrans was kept informed by cour- 
iers as to McCook's movements and it may be supposed, 
awaited his approach with as mncli anxiety as did Wel- 
lington that of Blucher at the Battle of Waterloo. 

It was still possible for Bragg to crush or drive off 
Crittenden and seize the roads to Chattanooga, when 
nothing would intervene north but three brigades of 
the Beserve Corps, then sup])osed to be at Rossville, five 
miles fi'om the city, ^^'ith these threatening possibili- 
ties in view. General Kosecrans ordered Crittend(Mi with 
two divisions to move w^est on the 14th, so as to cover 
the roads in the A-alley, leaving Wood at the Mills. 
There Wood was isolated frcun any near support, but he 
could be relied upon to take pretty good care of his part 



I-« TUK ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

• •f ihe liiir. Wihlrr wjis calle<l uu it» «tt\ci- iln- ^nuiinl 
l«» Tlnmias with constant niovonnMils an<l tliMiKtnsira- 
liuus ailing llu'Cliiikaniau'ia, tliert* rapid an»l deep with 
few fords, auother favorable eirciinistauee for Kose- 
< rans. 

The Fourte«Mitli Coi-ps nio\«Ml t»iie niil»' iiorihcasl on 
I he 14th. (Ml th<> ir>th,<Vilonel A. H. Moori*, and ('ha]>hiin 
lit in|isicad, both of whom had resigned not h»n;; iM-fori', 
weif ni>litu*d «»f the arreptaiice of their resij;natious, on 
aetMiiiM of dis;il>ili! \ , and h'ft for jionie. 

Cidoiirl l>oii;;|;is llai»cnian now assumed (-onniiniid 
of the One llnndrrd and I'onrth. 

It hein;; evidrnt that a battle must be fouiiht, tin- n ■ 
nnitinir '»f tin* Aniiv of tlu* ( 'unib«M-laml became a mat- 
ter of life and death and all tin* efTorts of the command- 
in;: ;r«-ni-ral and lii< subi>i diiiaii'^ ut'i-c din-cifij to that 
end. 

<icm*ral Thomas advanced i he I'tmiteein h « oips a 
mile or two each clay until the ITth, this slow pro^f«'ss 
beinj; ne<essaiv on account of Mti'ooU. 

Colonels Minty ami Wilder were kejtt constant ly le- 
coniioiterin^ on the front alon^ the (Miickaman^a, and 
from I hem and <»t her sources, it was learned t hat Iba^jj; 
was movin;: alon^ t he «'ast bank, and concent rat iiii; his 
heaviest forces on lheri«:ht. with the evident intention 
of tryin;: his favorite tactics of massing on one think, in 
this instance, our left. Hut l»ra«ii:, l»rilliant eiiouLrh in 
cuncei\in;i |»lans, was slow in ••xe«titin^ them, lie had 
intended lo citisli Kosecrans' army, "ICxposed in detail," 
as he expresKe«l it. Tiie pddeii opportunities had been 
lost, as he afterward claimed, by the failure of his gen- 
erals to carr\ «nit his orders. \'et, the remedy was in 
his own hands. Learning; nothin;: finni the jevsnn nf 
Havis Cross Koads, and «ha;;rined at the lesiili. lie 
I uriied in desperai ion a;;ainsl ( 'rit leiiihii with t he >aiiie 
L'enerajs, and lln>u;^di liaxini,' f"r ti\e da\s the oppoiiu- 
iiity to «rush him. weakly abandoned ainmst ceitain suc- 
c(*HK and w it hdrew. 

While Kosecrans and Thomas weit- waichini: the 
left w it h nni«d«l an.xiety, sendin;: courier after courier to 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 125 

liuiTV up McCook, to their great joy and relief, his heads 
of column appeared on the 17th, on the heights of Stev- 
en's Gap and were soon in MeLemore's Cove. 

The Fourteenth Army Corps had no fears for itself, 
llosecrans and Thomas enjoyed its full confidence, but 
knowing that there is a limit to human endurance, and 
aware of the vast combinations of rebel armies called 
from the east, west and south, to help Bragg annihilate 
the Army of the Cumberland, 3[cCook's arrival was 
greeted with shouts and thanksgivings. The cavalry, 
which had been with ilcCook, followed his infantry and 
were placed on the right, front and rear, to guard the 
flank and MeCook's immense trains under the conduct 
of the gallant General Lytle, then on the way over Look- 
out. 

The Fourteenth Corps on McCook's arrival was 
moved beyond Pond Spring, six miles, and bivouacked 
near the Chickamauga. Johnson's, Sheridan's and 
Davis' Divisions occupied the ground left by General 
Thomas, with outposts thrown forward towards Dug 
and Catlett's Gaps of Pigeon Mountain. Crittenden's 
Corps was then within reach in case of attack, and Gen- 
eral Ilosecrans suspecting Bragg's ])lan kept a watchful 
eye on the left. 

During the day. General Steedmau, <tii recon- 
noissance toward Ringgokl, saw heavy clouds of dust 
toward Dalton, whence reinforcements would arrive 
for Bragg; our signal officers on the mountains also ob- 
served the same thing. These tell tale lines tended 
toward our left. Rosecrans was infornuMl. From 
scouts and spies and various sources. General Rosecrans 
had learned beyond the possibility of doubt that Bragg 
had been reinforced by Longstreet's Cori)s from Vir- 
ginia; by Johnston's forces from Mississippi, including 
paroled prisoners from Vicksburg; by Buckner's Corps, 
and by Walker's Corps, from Georgia; constituting an 
army of over 70,000 men, marshaled on the banks of the 
Chickamauga, for the purpose of not only annihilating 
the Army of the Cumberland, but retaking Chatta- 
nooga. To opx)ose this vast aggregation, Rosecrans had 



IM THE ONE HL'NDHKD AND FOURTH 

imt n\rr ."»r»,(MM» iiicli, litll lirilluT lie imr his SulduMS 

diiiihtiMi tlit'ii' )il>ilil V to cuitc Willi Hia^;; and defeat his 
aniiv. All kiU'W that a j:if*at batth* iinisl Itc f<»n;;ht 
HuoiiiT or later, and ueii- anxious to have it o\ri . 

Some military rrilirs, also soiim* j^eiierals, haNe as- 
herti'd that K»tsiTrai»s should have wit Inlrawii his whoh' 
ariiiv lit <'hattaiioo;.'a on tlieni^dit of the ITthaml iMli. 
iiisicati of siojipini: to li^iiii at ( 'hicUamaii^a. This rould 
ha\c Ween doni- jtiohaldy with some loss, hut in such 
<ase tlie ultimate results wouhl have betMJ had, ha/.ai'il- 
iii;; iu»t oiil\ the possession of the piimary ohjrct of th<' 
(-aini>ai;;n, but mI! I he \ast territory ^aiiifd imiih 
to the Ohio KiNtjf, as lira;:;:, with an uniirokni 
army, rould not only have liesie;;ed ("hatta- 
Ii«Ki^a sur«essfully. Iiut eould lia\e nossed iIh- Ten- 
nessee ami marched a^ain into Kentucky. There 
sei'ins to have been on both sides wisdom in iIh- coh- 
rlusioii thai a ;^reat battle, both for military and polit- 
i«al reasons, was an absolute neccssiiy. In \ lew of 
the im)iendinu contest all of the trains, «'\(f|ii ninmii- 
nition and a few supjdy wagons, were sent on to that- 
tanoo^ja by the roads nearest Lookout and lyin^ west 
of Mission Itidp*. 

< hi the morniuLr of tli" jsth. tin- coi-ps of M(("oid< 
and Tliouias were |Mit in iii<>iiou U>v ilif l»tt. Neu- 
|e\'s ni\ision «lid not march until ihiec ji. m., when 
we left our bivouac near (>w«ii's I'oid, liM- miles from 
CrawJish Sprinj^s, ami prot ((Mhij toujud the latter 
phu-e. I'roni Hweii's I'ord t hei-c was tiidy one prac- 
ticable road and this was blockaded with troops, ariil 
jery and trains, makin;; the movement very slow. The 
nat are of ihr country was such as to :idmit of im nio\ < - 
ments tlirou;;h the tields, except toi- infaiiiiy. and then 
onl\ at interNals. Dense cedar brakes ^lowin^on and 
anioii^ broken limestone rocks abounded eNcivwheie 
iiliil prevented a |»assa;;e. Durinj; the day more or 
lesK cannonading' was heard away (Ui the left where 
Crittenden lay. Heally's |{ri;:ade. after consuming' six- 
hours and makin<^ three nnles, halted at nine in the 

eVenin;; in «o||se<|Uence of nrders to liiKc ;i r<»:id to ihe 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 127 

right and relieve Colonel Grose, who was confronting 
the enemy at a ford of the Chickaniauga, three miles 
from Crawtish. Bnt the One Hundred and Fourth, 
being still in the rear guarding a train, it was neces- 
sary to wait for its arrival. Not having reported at 
twelve, General Beatty moved off with the three regi- 
ments and Bridge's Jiattery, leaving the writer to con- 
duct the Kegiment to position. About (me a. m. the 
One Ilundr(Ml and Fourth arrived and the order was 
given to Golonel llapemau. The men were greatly 
fatigued and needed sleep, but we must go. Falling 
in, the march was begun and though not very long, 
there were circumstances that made it seem so. The 
night was intensely dark, the road a mere trace 
through the woods with underbrush on each side. 
There was no talking, not a sound disturbed the still- 
ness wdiicli became painful in view of possibilities, pain- 
ful to the writer, charged with the responsibility of 
finding the Brigade. After marching for a distance 
that seemed miles, a halt was made and all listened 
for sounds indicating our proximity to the command. 
Nothing was heard. Golonel Hapeman and the writer 
then lighted matches and examined the road for tracks. 
But having passed no laterals it was certain that no 
mistake could have been made. We then moved on, 
and after another age, suddenly stumbled upon some 
pickets— our own; the balance of the Brigade were 
sound asleep in the dark foi-est. It was then two a. m. 
Reporting to General Beatty, who was greatly relieved 
by our arrival, such sleep as could be had on this 
cold night, was sought. No fires Avere allowed. 

The 18th had been em])loyed by Bragg in massing 
his heaviest forces east of the Ghicakamauga in front 
of and beyond Crittenden, who held position from Le(» 
anrl Gordon's Mills northward, with \Yilder and Minty 
to his left, respectively at Alexander's and Reed's 
bridges, situated two and five miles from the mills. 
Tedford's, Dalton's ami Byron's Fords were between. 

General Bragg had issued orders for attack on the 
18th, but had been delaved bv the same obstacles as 



128 THE ONE HUNDUED AND FOURTH 

l{u8«M rails, iuimk-In, ft*\v ami IkhI loads, aiul ou iliis 
uccuuut loHt the advantage of u liay. The beuelit had 
act-nud lo the hilier, who was the belter piipantl 
fur halth* on the TJih. 1 kMnonsiraiions wen* made in 
the niorninji l»v the enmiv a^Minsl I'ahner, \vhi> was 
posted lo I lie rij^hl of Crawhsli Si)rinj;s. AI>o aj^ainbt 
Wootl bv I'olk's Corps, bnt these were «>uly iniended 
to divert attention from the left. About ten Minty 
and \\ ihh-r at tht- bridj;rs, wt-re altackt-d by portions 
of Hood's and N\ alker's Corps. ;in<l \\»ri* abh* to keep 
them from crossin*; until live p. m., inlliciinj^ a lieavy 
loss. They thfu joined Wood. Toward t'V«'nin|:, Ct>l- 
«»n«'l l>anirl .M((\»ok, eomniaiidin^' the Se(«tnd Hri;:ade, 
f>efond Division, of tin* Kcsiixt- Corps, attark»*d and 
burneil Heed's bridjje in ili<- lair of ihc enemy, and 
disiovrred that a rebel brij^ade had crossed. The 
bearing; of Mct'ook's iliscovery on i Ik- e\ents of the 
r.Mli, as will appear, wer«' importani. 

When the shades of niy;ht fell upon Clii«kaiiiaii;^a 
valley two ;;reat armies, nunibt liii;: noi less tlian one 
hundred and twenty-live thousand men, were march- 
in;; to take positions for the <ouibal, iheir movements 
eonceale«l from each other by ihe Chi«kamau;ia ami 
deep forests. (leiieral Iba^^'s ir<»..|»s spent the ni^ht 
in crossin^^ the river and in tin- iiioiuiu^ they were 
jirraniied with Walker's ( "oips ou the riulil, lloud in 
the center, I'.uckner on the left, with ("heatliam in 
reHerve. Walker was west of Ale.xamler's bri<l^e, 
Hucklier's left one mile lioitli of Lee and (oU'don's 
.Mills. INdk's and Hill's Corps wen- furliicr up the 
river, the cavalry i>\\ both llanks. (Jeiu'ral Tluuuas 
spi'iit the ni^lit in mo\in^f his divisi<»ns to the left, 
opposite those of I'.i'a;;^, and ai dawn of ilie I'.Mli lit- 
had tive divisions in line while others were «in the 
way. Cieiieral Crittenden still held the line at Lee 
and <iordon'K Mills as a mailer of necessity, to <'ovei" 
Tln»mas' movements, but I'alinci- and \'an <'leve were 
move<l in the ni;;ht near Thomas. Central Xe'jh'V, 
with two bri'^Mdfs. filled the space \acaicd by l*alnier. 
;:el(in^ into position at <lavli;^dit. 



j REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 12» 

Soon after daylight ou the 19th, there was occa- 
sional tiring on the picket line in front of Beatty's 
Brigade, then occupying the extreme right of our army 
and three miles from any support. We occupied a 
ridge covered with a thin growth of timber and before 
US was a cleared tield of some twenty acres; just 
beyond this was a narrow tract of timbered land 
which bordered the Chickamauga. Heavy woods and 
underbrush were <»n each side of the tield. The dis- 
tance to the creek was a (juarter of a mile or more. 
The Fifteenth Kentucky was thrown out in front as 
skirmishers and took position in the woods below the 
field ; skirmishers were also sent to the right and left. 
These dispositions were made before dawn. The enemy 
soon showed themselves on the opposite bank and 
advancing skirmishers across the creek, engaged ours, 
but did not advance in force. A desultory firing now 
followed for several hours when suddenly about ten, 
two rebel batteries opened upon Beatty's position. 
Captain Bridges replied with good effect. The duel 
lasted nearly three hours and was intensely interest- 
ing. The reserve regiments during the fight were 
concealed partly in the woods, and protected to some 
extent. About twelve General Beatty ordered two 
guns to be moved to the right a little, to another hill. 
Captain Bridges misunderstiinding the order, moved 
the whole battery. The rebels seeing it fired faster 
/ than ever. General Beatty observing this, having 
/4^been^ent elsewhere, sent Bridges back to the old 
position in haste. About this time three pieces of 
Schultz's First Ohio Battery and the Eighteenth Ohio, 
arrived from the left. The firing then became fiercer 
than ever. The enemy also began to advance infantry, 
but halted on discovering our new battery. In half 
an hour so effective was the fire of our batteries, hav- 
ing dismounted two rebel guns, that the enemy lim- 
bered up and withdrew. 

Bridges' Battery lost in this action two men killed, 
nine wounded, and had twelve horses killed or dis- 
abled. The One Hundred and Fourth lost one man. 



IM THE ONE HrXDRED AND Fol'RTH 

inoiiall.v NVtMMHlrd. ami ci;:!!! woiiihI«m1. on ili»* skir- 
iiiisli liin- :iii<l at llu- IkHHtv. .laroh Ham-. .>f t'.Mii- 
|miiv 1. losi ln-n« his ^.mmI ii;:lil arm. Ai tliriM- p. m. 
(ii'iicral Hraii.v n-rriviMl ..r.lt'is Im join llu- maiji ariuy 
to tlif Ifft, Imt tin* fiH'iMV Immii;; still in «»iii- froiil anoss 
tlif rr«fk, \v«* uiJlulifw sl«»\vly an*l ran-fullv. WImmi 
tin- n*h»'ls •lisruv«M(Ml imr wit luliawal. thrir ravaliv at 
«un-f rn»ss»Ml tin* «-nM>k ii» «nir n-ar, Imt ili<l ii<»i aitark. 
ami wr n-arluMl Crawlisli S|iiin;:s at tiv«-. 

Wr had hranl «aiiii«»iia«liii;; all <lay itii tin- l<n ami 
kiH'W that Ihsiv.v li^ihtiii;: was ^oiii;: nii lii.-rr. Ai 
tlu* Springs wr sa\N s«<ifrs of woiiml***! «-t»miii;; liack, 
gome on foot ami maii.v in aiiilmlamrs. Aftt-ra halt t<» 
till thr ••aiit«'«Mis, th»' l»fi«ia«l«' imommI on noith towaid 
tin* sound of thr "rnns, for ihrrr mih-s. ami it tln'ii l)eiu«; 
•lark, wfiit into hivonac on a ii<l;:»' near < >sliorm*'s farm 
housr, ami m>t fai- fiom i ln' Widow ( Ih-nn's, Kosrcians' 
h<*ad«niJirt«'is. TIm- imii iii<-d and hnn;;iv |ini»ar«Ml 
tlndr s«ant> m«*al of haidta« k. Iiaron and rolT«M', and 
whjh* this was lu-in^ «-at«Mi, witm-ss«'d in tin* twili^dit 
a rhar;;«' <>f N<'jxh«y's Ilfijzadc and \\ ihh-i-'s mounted 
iiifantrv, h*ss than a «|nart«*i' of a niih- i-ast, w hiih was 
Hm'c«»ssfnl, driving' hark tln-iMn-mv half a milf. 

TIm- lH'a\ V ti;:liiin^^ of the I'.Mh had Imm-ii on tiir h-fi ; 
|M"''ininn;x:it 10a.m.. Ivosccians ami Tin una s had idaictl 
the divisions »»f Haii-d. Ittannan and Krymdds with 
l*alim*f's and Nan ( 'h'vr's. in positions m-ai- to tin* 
I.al'avrttr loail. at Kdlv's honsr ami Ix-yond. st* as to 
«-i»vrr any advamr ffom Kim-jI's ami A l<\and»'i*s 
hridp-s. TIn'y ha<l ri;:htly jndjicd that llia^^;; wo\ild 
mass his lmavi«*st font's on onf h-fi and i-rai-. If snr- 
ri'ssfnl in drstroyin;: that win^' of otir army ami s<'rnr- 
iiijj tln' l,al'ay«-tt»' Koad. his way was rlrar to Kossvilh' 
and <'liattanoo;:a. r»-sp«'rtiv«dy fivr ami t<Mi inih's tlis- 
tant. with m> army m»rth i'X««'pt ("iran^'rr's small «om- 
niand at tin* form«*r phnr. to opposi* him. It was not 
vi't known that nearly all tin- rrhrl army was wrst of 
flu* ('hirkamauLM :iinl rapidly approaihin;:. y«'t smh 
was tin* fart. 

r.don<*l han M.< ook ridin;^ up io (icui'ial Thomas 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 131 

early on llic 19th, iiifoi-iiicd liim of liis ;i(lv(Mitiii-«* the 
night hcfoiv and of a rebel l)i-i.i;;Hle heiii;; isohited iH'iir 
the bii<l«;e. Thi^^ iiifoniiatioii ied to the «>i)(Miiiio- of the 
battle, and was opixn-tunely given. (Jeneral Thomas 
desirous of eai)turing the brigade, directed (Jeneral 
Brannan to take mvo biiga<h's and advance on the 
bridge road, lirannan h-aving Croxton's brigade on tiie 
left of Baird, moved off with (.'oiineH's and Vander- 
Teer's. He had not gone far Avlien he suddenly (Mi- 
countered three briga^h's of cavalry under Forrest, with 
iiifautry on his left. The latter struck Croxton and 
severe tightiiig began, (leiieral Thomas now advanced 
Baird. The two divisions soon drove the enemy back 
and captured 200 prisoners. Meantime Baird saw rebel 
forces on his right and faced King's lirigade toward 
them, but Lid<leirs wlnde Division ])ouring in, swept 
King's and Scribner's Brigades away, capturing ten 
guns. Starkweather's Brigade coming uj) met a similar 
fate. But the tide was to turn. Brannan set it in 
motion by charging witii two brigades, one of his regi- 
ments, the Ninth Ohio, recapturing (lunther's Battery, 
Fifth U. S. Artillery, at the point of the bayonet. (Jreat 
difficulty was experienced here as elsewhere in moving 
artillery or men on account of woods and underl)rush, 
there being only now and then cleared fields. Thomas 
and Rosecraus having divined the meaning of these 
attacks, had taken care to provide for them. Reynolds', 
Palmer's and Johnson's Divisions immediately arrived 
and Aver(^ sent into the contlict near the Kelly house 
and southeast. (leneral Bragg had made his attack 
on the supposition that the major part of Rosecrans' 
army was yet in the vicinity of Crawfish Springs, three 
miles further south. He intended to swing round his 
right so as to envelop Crittenden, and then he woiild 
also be able to occupy the roads to Chattanooga and 
stand across the line of marcli of Rosecrans' center and 
right. Being confused at the unexi)ected opposition on 
his right, his center and left were withheld and rein- 
forcements sent to his right. On this account a large un- 
occupied space between Thomas and Crittenden was not 



! :• THK "NK "• V'KKI) ANI» ForHTH 

1iII«m| I»\ Hia^ji fur >oiii»' tiiiu*, wlii«li also alloucil 
ICoMM rails i«" iiiakr in*w «lis|M»siiioiis. 

<J««iirial Sam. l{«-allv*s ami l>i«k's Hri<;a«U's wnv 
hiirri«M| forward bv ( 'riitfml«Mi, ami (Jnn-ral Davis ar- 
rived with Carlin's and llrj^'s I{rij;a«l«*s. TlK'se wero 
]ila««'d on ihr ri^lit of N'an ('l«'\«', ami none loo soon. 
I»a\is was siipi(ori«*<l on his rij;hl by \\'ihh*r's inoiinird 
infantrv with th«*ir repratin;; ritirs, which the rebels 
had h-arned to resjirtt. In front of \'an Th'V**, Davis 

and NN ibh-r. iIh- rebrls jtoured thi'oti^h the w Is in 

ovt-rw Iwliiiin;; masses. A «h*speral«' <ontli»t iImmi en- 
sued last in;: f"i" scvnal hours, the advaina;^*' Immii;.: lirst 
with one sid«' and ih«*ii with the other. Hra^^^'s obje«t 
b»'in<^ i(» divid«* our army th«' most frantic cfTorts w«*re 
made at this point, the N'iiieyard farm, to swccji away 
the f«»r««'s iiaim-d. I'iiially. Dirk's I?ri;:ad«' i^avc way 
and also portions of the oijici-s. At this siiprcim' nio- 
iiH-iit r»'infortcments nrii\<d. TIh-sc \\t*r<* llarker's 
r.ii;:ad«' of Wood's Division, and l.aiboMt's and Brad- 
li'\'s Hri^adcs from Shnidan. Soon after (Iciicral 

\\ I als«i arrived with Hindi's and Harm-s' nri;:ad«*s. 

Tiirir timely arrival restored the fortunes of the day 
for oiir army. The llankin^^ i-olnmns of the rebels were 
deft-Micd and dri\en back alon;: the entire line and the 
< oiitliii erased at that ))oiiit for a time. 

M)'antiiii«' iSrannan. Haiid and .lulm-^on. also K«>yn- 
ojds, ha\in;: defcjited and dri\en back the rebel ri^rht 
uiiii: iNNalki-r's < 'oipsi a lull followed. wlii«li lasted 
until r> p. m. when the eneiii> made a furious attack 
on dohnson and IJaird. whose di\isions were bein^ 
|Mist«*<l in a new position near the Dyer house. «'ast of 
^flenn's. Theaitack failed and t he »neniy ret ired. The 
tide of battle hail bei-n driftin;^ all da\ toward the 
Widow iileiin's house. This stood on the Dry N'allev 
Koad to ( '|iattanoo;:a. w hich one half mile iioii h t uriied 
slii;htl\ to the b'ft throu;:h a pass in .Mission Kid^^e. 
Two hi^h iid;;«-s extended ahui;: both sides of the road 
from <ilenn*s. .\i the pass ineiitiiuied a spur of Mission 
Kevenil hundred f«ei hiiili. heavily wooded, ran east. 
'•urvint: north, for a half mile or more This b< « nne 



REGIMENT ILLIN<:>IS VOLUNTEERS. 133 

known as "Morse SIkk' Kidiic" (Jn its noitlKMstorn 
slope was the ''Suodgrass Faiin." A hall" niih? tiii-tliei- 
east was the LaFayette Koad and the Kelly Farm, with 
McDaniel's (McDonaM's) house a little north of K«dly's. 
From here tin' road trended southeast t<» Lee and ( lor- 
don's Mills. Toward evening the enemy made another 
attack in front of (Henn's, wiiieh was rejmlsed by Ne«^- 
ley and Wilder who drove them half a mile. Darkness 
had then settled down on the battlefield and both 
armies rested where they halted, i;la<l of a res])ite which 
all knew wonld be brief, for tierce as had been the con- 
tiict, no decisive victory had been ^ained, and th«' morn- 
ing wonld bring a renewal of the battle. 

The losses on both sides had been very heavy in 
killed and wounded. The latter on our side, were taken 
to the field hosi)itals at Crawfish and in onr rear, bnt 
hnndreds remained on the field to endure the tortures 
of hnnger, cold and thirst — perha])s to die. What 
tongne can tell, what pen can describe, the suffering 
and agon}' of those tlins left helpless! Added to all was 
the snspense felt as to the final result. The day's fight- 
ing had revealed the fact that Bragg's forces far out- 
numbered our own. He had not only overla])i>ed ours 
on everv occasion, but it was now known that several 
of his divisions had not been engaged at all, also that 
Long-street's Corps had arrived from Virginia. On the 
other hand, all of Kosecrans' army excei)t one or tAVO 
brigades, had been in action. There was a general feel- 
ing that the chances were against ns. It was true that 
Bragg had been defeated in his objects and his forces 
driven back, but he still had the advantage of su])erior 
numbers and of the inner and shorter lim»s of attack. 
General Rosecrans held a better position on the even- 
ing of the 19th than in the morning, when his army was 
scattered along for a distan<'e of six miles, and in 
consequence of which the combats of the day had been 
a series of distinct engagements, first at one point, 
then at another. Fortunately Ceneral Bragg had been 
prevented by various causes from making the united 
and general attack he intended. The unity of our three 



lU THE ONE HUNURED AND FOURTH 

«oi|is had luMMi <lfsliov«Ml, lio\VfV(*r, l»v tlir iHMi'»;siti<*s <»f 
tli«' (lav ami iIm* «livisi«»iis from rath iiiicniiixcil. This 
iiltiiiialflv irsuliiMl ill a<ivaiiia;:<- as ii ;:av«' 'rintmas i Im' 
I hit'f i-iiiiiinaii(l ainl fMiri's cimmi^Ii to siciii tin- li*l«' uf 
.lisasi«-r lliat uMTtuok tln'ri;:lii iiiulfr Mt ( 'ooU .-aily 
oil ilii' L'Oili aiitl wliirli hilt fur Thomas woiihl ha\«' 

• ii;:iilf«'tl t hi* w lioh* aniiN. 

'IMh* moiiiiii;; of I lie 2(M h. Siimhiv . foinni i li«- < liicUa- 
maii^ia \'ali«'V w ia|>|Mi| ill a th-iisc fo^i, which |»rr\fiii(<l 

• arlv movrmmts. IJostMiaiis orrii|Mt'(l a liiu* rxtt'iuliii;; 
troiii ih«- imrthi-asi roiinTof Krilx's I'arm across tht* 
l.al'aN «•! tc Ivtiatl. tln-ncr southwest to the \\'i(ht\v 
<il«'iiirs. Hainl, Johnson, ralmcr. Kc\ iiohls and llran- 
naii were in this or«h'r on the hft. Alti r iniilni'^hl, 
llosoi la IIS in conference, ;^a\e orders for Mc<'ooU lo 
form a line with Sherithin's and havis' Divisions, ex- 
leiidiii;: from (ih-nn's to the h*ft and •■oiiiiectin^^ with 

Thomas; ("ritteiideii was directed to hohl Wood's and 
\'aii < "h'Ne's I Jivisioiis in reser\e. in t lie rear of Thomas' 
riiiht. read.N to reli«'\e .Mc("otdx or Thomas w lien re- 
<|iiiied. Nej;le\ who was then on the rii^ht of llrannan, 
with two Ini^ades. was to he sent to the left of r,air«l, 
as ( leiieial Thomas ex J lected t In- reliels would rem-w the 
SI ni<;;ile I here to ;;ct in oil r left and rear just Ih-vond t he 
Lal'avette IJoad. With this understanding; the ni'W 
ali;.Mime||ts Wele he;;lin iM'fole davMi^lit, except as to 

Ne;:lev w ho had not Imm-ii relie\ed and remained where 
hewasniiiij 1(» a. ni. < leiieial Th'Miias not understand- 
in;: liie cause sent to int|uire. 

<ieneral .lolin Ih-atiy's i'.ri^^ade heinj^ unassi;:ned 
was at s a. in. sent to t he left. .March in;: a Ion;: t he rid;:e 
lie\«ind W idow (lleiin's, and descendini: into the \alley 

e;|>t of "I jolseslMM-,** \\ ( • cailie to the La I'a \ et t e lioad 

mai Kellx's house and the narrow cleared lield, w In-re 
the liri;:adi> was formed on the left of Ilaird, who fa«ed 
east. TIm' haller\ was idac«'d near the road. (leiieial 

rhoiiias, then on tie- hft, di*si;:nated the |Misitioii. It 

vv as a \ery ;: I one, |»ut on t he ex t feme left of t he army. 

.1 ml should ha \ e heeii occu|)ied Ity a di\ ision as < leiieral 

Tlioiiiiis intended ;iiid had lieen promised. Ilridp-s' 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 136 

Battery was placed near the rojul and a line (»f skir- 
mishers thrown (Mit to the woods in front. Haird's 
Division on the right was Ix'hind sliglit bi-casl works 
of rails and timber. 

General Kragg had siicnt the night in crossing the 
balance of his troo]»s to the west side of the Chicka- 
manga. lie had divided his army into two wings — the 
right and left, commanded respectively by Generals 
Polk and Longstreet. Orders had been given the 
former to attack at daylight on onr left, and this was to 
be followed at the sonml of JNdk's guns, by the rest of 
that wing. General Longstreet was to await develop- 
ments and attacdv when expedient. Hnt as nsnal, Polk 
delayed an<l did not inove to the assatdt until nearly 
9, ami after P>ragg had huntiMl him ii]) and commanded 
an immediate advance. 

Meantime, (Jeneral Rosecrans had ridden the lines 
and fonnd McGook in bad position with a long, attenu- 
ated line, which resnlted from covering too mncli 
gronnd in trying to connect with 'I'homas. (Mianges 
were ordered, bnt before the lines could be rectified, 
it was too late to be effective. 

Soon after Beatty had taken position on the left, as 
before stated, an order from General Thomas directed 
him to move his Brigade northeast and toward Mc- 
Donald's house a quarter of a mile distant. The con- 
sequence of this would be to leave a large unoccupied 
space on our right toward Baird, bnt the order, though 
unwise, was im])erative as stated by ("'ai)tain Gaw of 
General Thomas' St>iff, Avho added that Negley was on 
the way to our support. At that time General Thomas 
supposed this to be so. We locdvcd in vain for him to 
arrive as the Brigade mov(^l across the tield in the 
direction ordered. It Avas then half i)ast nine, the fog 
had cleared away but clouds of snndve Imng over the 
valley, through which the sun, red, as if ^^ith anger, 
shone down liot and sultry. ]\Iore or less skirmishing 
had been going on for an hotir in front of Paird, the 
j)remonitory signs of attack. Beatty's Brigade ad- 
vanced northeast with two com]»anies of skirmishers 



13* THE UNE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

ill lioiii i»l' i;uli ifj^iiiiL-ui. Tin- 10i;4lil v«M<;liili ludiaiui, 
(Colouei lliniij»hri»*8) wan on tin* Ifft, the Forly-secoud 
In«li;iiia, (Lifiiit'iiaiit-roloin'l MrliiTynM in'.\t on the 
ri^ihl ; ihvu raiiM* ih«- ( Mn* 1 1 iiiitlird ami I'lturih llliimis, 
(Coluiu-1 IlaiMMiiani and thr Fifimith K»*iiliuk\, (< 'ol- 
ttiU'l Tavhui; Hri«l;,'r.s' Uallrrv follow etl. The entire 
bri^iade nunibeieil l«-ss than twelve hiiiidnMl men. 'I'he 
skiniiishers un** inniu*diat«d\ <Mi;ia;i«Ml and hea\ily. 
Such a stronj; op|»usii ii»ii was nianif«'st«Ml Ihat <irn<*ial 
Ih-aliy ordtTrd ilir«'f imui- cunipanii-s. unc aftn- the 
othrr, to h«* s«*nt to tin* skii-misii lim-. w liirh uas about 
t«*n rods in advantr. Tliis hit niil\ ii\.- < niupairu's of 
tin* < Mif 1 1 undit'd and I'oiiit h in ifst'ivc. 

.Mi-aniinn-. ilir IMfl-t-ni li Kt-nturky was hi-avily at- 
tacked in fioiii and on ilu* ii)^lii flank, as also tin* two 
r«';:iiM»-nis on iIk- l.-li. Ai i his jnn«i nn*. < oMn-ral liratt y 
>»Mit au Aitlf lo Kaiid lo rc(|in*si that a lorcf be thrown 
into I h»* nno(Tn|»i«*d s|»;ii »• .m mii- imliIii, Im* also sent 
Captain Wilson to hurry up Nf;^lcy w houi w«* fondly 
believetl to be al•proa^•hin;,^ The advan««' had been 
slow and was throuj^h timber and underbrush makin;; 
it iinpossiide to see nioi-e than the len;;th of one small 
re;^iuieu!. This had laused irregularity and uneveu- 
ness in our lines, as well as that of the skirmishers. 
Atlvancinj; northeast and under onlers from <Jeneral 
'I'liouias to bear to the left as nnnh as possible tt»ward 
.M<1 Donald's, whii h insiiurtion the wiiter lieaid ^iven, 
th«* two left re;iiuienls became separated from those 
on the ri^ht, leaNin;: a u:ap rtuisiantly betoiuin;; wider. 
The tirin;; had then become liv«d\ and bullets were 
Kin;;in;: tlieii- swfet lullabies in the air and anion;: th«' 
tre«-s and brush, announcing' the s|»eedy arrival t»f the 
enemy. At this tiiui- tlie writef was st-ui liy (leueral 
{{eatty to luovr the I'oftN second |o the fj^dlt s«) as to 

conned with the ( Mie iiundretl and i'ourtli. (Mi ar- 
riving a few moments after he found the reijiment t-n- 
^a^ed. To move at that time was impossible, raptain 
Lel'evie, of thr stall, comiii;: tip then, was kille<l in a 

few luoinellt s. 

I>uriii<: this time the I-^fteelilh KeiituckN had been 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 137 

slowly in'csscd back by superior iiuiuIxms on the trout 
and riyht. I'lie oikmu}' were also <lisrov(M'ed poiii-ing 
en masse, four columns deep, into the interval between 
the right and left winj^s of the brigade and wheeling, 
with the purpose of taking our left in Hank, but Captain 
Bridges opening Avith grajx' and canistn- brought them 
to a halt and they fell ba<k into the timber. The 
Forty-second and Eighty-eighth were vSlowly pressed 
back and being outflanked on both sides retrcnited to 
the ridges in the rear, with a loss of over one Jiundred 
men. 

Colonel llapeman, by order of Beatty, formed the 
'One Hundred and Fourth closely aligned with the 
Fifteenth Kentuck}-, when the two regiments made a 
galla»t stand against overpowering numbers, (leneral 
Beatty personally directing the movements, but they 
were obliged to fall back to the road, and did so con- 
testing every inch of the ground. The rebels were then 
near the battery, and firing into it killed or wounded 
every man in it and all of the horses; they also captured 
two guns. Captain Bridges almost surrounded, saved 
the remainder of the battery with the help of men from 
the One Hundred and Fourth, and withdrew it to the 
road, where that Regiment an<l the Fifteenth Kentucky 
made another stand, which was rendered moie elTective 
by help from Captain Goodspeed's Battery. The enemy 
were temporarily checked. In the charge on the bat- 
tery, the writer then passing, narrowly escaped. 

General Beatty seeing the rebels in every dinM-tion 
and leaving Colonel Taylor, (senior officer,) in command 
of the two regiments, started to the rear to find Negley 
or Thomas and urge the necessity for more forces on the 
left. As it appeared. General Negley had just b<'fore 
reached "Horseshoe" with Stanley's Brigade and had 
sent it forward. This was formed^ facing the enemy 
by General Beatty, with Colonel Taylor's command on 
its left. But the rebels began pressing back the skir- 
mish lines and coming within range were met with a 
volley that made them halt. The brigade then charged 
and drove the enemy a quarter of a mile, capturing over 



us 



Tin-: oNK urN'Tdjii . wii roi-itrif 



"•111- liiimit •-<i jiiiNoiit IS, aiiM'ii;^ ilnMii < iciifial A<l;iiiis 
\vlnt was \M)iiii(l«'il. |{iii no i-fiiiforriMiiciiis arriving, 
tin* n*ln'ls a^aiii advaiuril aii<l Siaiil«*\*s lim* wit li.ln*\v 
slowlv i«» ilir ri«l;;«' aii«i iMok |Misin<»ii in*ar tin* SikkI- 
j;rjiss lioiisi*. Staiilv in liis r«'|»>i't savs. "<;»MH'ral 
H«*atty was wil li nir aiiti l»v his mtij an<l uallaiit Ixariii^j 
a«Mf«l lu tin* cnt Imsiasin <»f my unin-is anti uhmi, dr." 
<ii*in*ral N«'j:l»*v lia«l i-rniaiiUMJ on iln- ri(l;;i' iu which 
iiiaiiN of oin- hfaH'h troops hail irt ifatt-d and was i*ii- 
^'aj:«M| in foiniini; thnn th«M-«' with sonn* l»att»*ri«'S in 
snpport. 

<i«MH'i-al llfaliy was then piart irally wiihoiii a »oni- 
inan*l as Majoi* Lowri<' of N«*«;h*y's Stall, hati Itrcii s(»nt 
Ity N«*;:h'y ami withdfawn th«* rift«M-iiih Ktuimky ami 
iU\f 1 1 until* •« I ami I'ourl li to t In* ri«l;:<'. ( 'ohmcKraylor 
ohfviMl tin* oi<lrf witlnMit ronsnltinir Hcaity, foi- which 
In* was aft«Twai-<l soiry, f<ir he was a lna\<' man and 
had simply •tivmI, thinking he must oIm \ ihi- .Maj(»r 
<i«'m*ial t<"mmamlinj;. Soon aft«'i'. for i«*as«»ns r.\- 
plaim-tl, ItMt wholly unsatisfactory, (Icncial Ncj^lcy 
takin;: the tiottjis ah<mt him. imlmlin;; Hcatty's nii;;a«l(' 
ami some ai'tilh'f>. moved lowaid Kossxillc. a mistake 
he aftefwaid ie;;ietted. Tlnis the < »ne llumlied and 
I'oiii'ih. with t he exc«*pt i«>n <»f a few men, was jife\ »MittMl 
\t\ a Idundei- fiom fuitliei- paii ieipat ion iu lln- hattle 
of the LMlih. 

The l!e;^iiueui lost in killed and mortally woun<le«l 
on the P.Mh and L'Oth, seventeen men: wounded some 
wvei'ely. on those dat«*s and tin- 'Jlsi. forty-nine 
nien. Anion;: the latter were <'apiaiu Ludin^ton, 
Lieiiienants Sonthwell, Sapp, r<uii-r aud Talkins. 
the latti-r of Hrattv's stafT. The entire loss of 
the Itiij^adc was thiee hundred and ten. As 
]ill the i-i'« ords show, ami as all know, it 
did all that inoiial men could <lo to hurl hark the 
division hi-on;:lit a;:ainst it, ami under a less hraxe and 
skillful < ommander mi;:ht lune dom* less. 

The relu'ls had ;iained at last the l.al'a \ .1 1<- Koad 
and eould have marched into our rear, hut failed to 
do so, t he i«'ason liein;: as show u hy I Ira l:l;*s report that 



' REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 1S9 

his ri^lit had suffered so severely and been so nearly 
iis(m1 lip that he could not send tluMii uoi- sicirc any 
ti'(»(>i»s fnmi his left. \'idc Heh. Kcc, Vol. XXX, IM. 2. 

Keatty's liiiiijKh* h;ul loujiiit t«'U times its own num- 
bers and (ontiibuted materially to that r<*siilt. It had 
also relieved Baird on our right from what mi;;lit have 
proved disastrous to him and the forces to his ri^ht. 

The tide of battle bej^uu first on the left against 
Beatty r<dled in successive waves to the right, striking 
Baird next, and soon after extending along the entire 
front to McCook at the Widow (Ilenn's. Baird well 
protected lield his ])osition as did the divisions to his 
right, and after rei>eated assaults, the rebels ceased 
to attack for some hours at any point on this ]»art of 
the line. 

Folh»wing the retirement of Stanley on the left, 
General Beatty, ('a]>tain Wilson, A. A. (x., and the 
writer, repaired to the "Horseshoe" ridge, lying im- 
mediately west, sui^posing the Brigade must be there, 
but Xegley and all had gone. This hasty withdrawal 
for which he was subsequently brought bef(»re a Coui-t 
of In(]uiry, and which lie ingenuously explained, was 
uncalled for by the circumstances, and had not (ieneral 
Negley heretofore proved himself a brave and skillful 
commander on many battlefields, the statement Avould 
hardly have been accei>ted. 

There were numbers (►f troops on the ridge, the 
scattered fragments of a dozen commands, but no 
artillery. It had either been captured or taken to the 
rear. Baird, lirannan, Beyiudds and Wood also, still 
held firm, but disaster had overwhelmed the right, and 
the evidence of it became apparent to Thomas and the 
center between eleven and twelve, when streams of 
panic-stricken soldiers began to pcuir tllrough the woods 
in the rear of the ridge held by Thomas, all going U(»rth 
as by instinct. Many of them seemed to have very little 
else left. Some were induced to join the line on the 
ridge. All attem]>ts to rally any large numbers were 
futile. They were in part the fragiiKMits of McCook's 
command. 



!*•) THK ONE HUNDRKD AND FOURTH 

Tin* «li.s;i>l«'r itn ihc lij^hi waN <lu«' not ><• iiiu« li to 
scarcily nf sol«lit*rs ami |rii;iih <»f iln' lim* to b«* <U*feii«l<'l. 
iiK to ba«l ^iMifialsliip aiiil I In* (h»;;;;«Mhirss of (M*ii«*ral 
W'ooil. \\ Ih'Ii riioiiias lia<l st-ui to Kos«Mi-aiis for r**- 
iiifonriiH'iiis ami rj'|M'at«*<l tin* i-r(|m'sts. all was qiii«*t 
on our ri;;lit. wliirh simmihmI to imlicatr that Mfa;;;; wa^ 
making; his sii)>nMm' attack on Tiioiiias ami iIm* Ifft. 
liostMiaiis t lifirfuii' |ii-«*|>ai-«M| lo N\ ii lnlra\\ .Mt< "ook's 
lim* ahoiii 10 o'rjui k. iiioic to ijir jrfi, m-airr 'i'lionias. 
()r«h*i*H \v«*n» «ji;ivt'ii lor i w o of SlnM-idan's l)i-i;ia«li*s aii<I 
two of \'aii( 'I«*v«*'s to iiioM- low aitl Tlioiiias. 'riii'ic was, 
tin Ml. no rrs«Tv«* ••xr»*|(t W ildfi's. Af t hat t inn-, an Ai<le 
i«-|ioii«m1 iliai Tliomas was In-avily |(I'«'ss(m1 and timnal 
Jtrannan's l»i\ision out of lin«*. rxiMtsini; K«'\ iioMs' 
ri;;lit. Tln'i-cii|ton •ii-ni'ial KosiMians stMii an oi'tii'i- to 
Wood lo ••( "|os»' up on Ivfvnolds as fast as |»ossild«', and 
snj»i»oit liiin." Wood kinw that IJcynolds was not cx- 
jMisi'd nof jliannan out of lini-. tin- laiii-f Iti-in^ in >il(>- 
hill in irai- of II»-\ nojds, and to clost- \\\t on ilit- latter. 
Wood ninst ]>ass in rrarof lira n nan. lta\ inu a L;a|i. Htit 
^^'ood r«*;.Mrdin;: llif oidff as iinpriat i\ •• |tro»<M'dt*d 
to ««x«Mni«' it. t lion^li as a skill fid roniinandt*r td" known 
abiiilN, In* must lia\»' forcsiMMi tin* «ons«M|m'mrs ami 
it \\a> in liis powrr to avert thrni l>.v delavinir tlir imon*-- 
nuMit and ridin;: to ln'adt|naiii'is. Aftt-r inovln;; and 
\N li»-n too latt'. In- nn'i Tlionias who plan-d hiin m'af 
Haii'd. TIii-oiimIi i|,,. w;,|, madt- iIm- llflicls who had 
«|nirtl\ a|>|noarhfd. rnslnMJ ••n inassc. Tart of litndlV 
nii^'adr was st link in i he w hirl and dii\en l»at k. I'ran- 
iiian was taken in flank Inii i|iii( kly rhan;:ed front and 
held his ;:roninl. Lylle's and Walworth's lni^ades. also 
Lailtoldl's of Sheiidans di\ision. rushed toward tin- 
enemy lint were soon repulsed, < leneial Lyile, the ;jifted 
soldiej- |»oet. Iteinu killed. These with portions of 
<teneral Sam. |{eatiy*s and l>irk*s hriijades. Itein;: iin- 

ahl<* to n'Sisf the tlense masses of t he < (III federates, fell 

liark over the rid;^e extending mtrih from the Widow 
^ileiin's. Manx pieres of art iller\ w ere aNo lost . 

Thus li>e l»ri;iades had lieeu swept away from the 
lield ;i«* l»\ the besom of desi rutl iou. While a few men 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 141 

found their Avav to Thomas, the majorit.v (Mtlier drifted 
throuj^h the woods in rear of liis i»(»siti<>n or foUowcd 
Sheridan and Davis down the Dry N'allcy lioad here- 
tofore mentioned as passinj^ throuj^h Mission iiidge 
about one mile north of Glenn's at the very point 
where Horseshoe ridjie be<j;ins, on wliich and its ont- 
lyin<; spurs, facin*^' east, southeast, and soutli, (leneral 
Thomas with portions of seven divisions and many 
small detachments from a hundred commands, stood 
firm as the everlasting hills about them from noon till 
nijiht and hurled back the ever advancinj^ hosts of the 
enemy led by Lonjistreet and his veteran legions, who 
kad been accustomed to walk triumphant over the 
Army of the Potomac, and had come south as some of 
those who were captured remarked, ''To show Kra<ij»- 
how to fioht." 

There was nothing to preve^it Sheridan and Davis 
with their brigades, yet partially intact, from joining 
Thomas by deflecting to the right at the debouchure of 
the Dry N'alley Koad near Villetoe's — except the panic 
which temporarily seized the majority from generals 
to privates. That this could have been done was 
proven by the arrival on the ridge of the Forty-fourth 
Indiana and Seventeenth Kentucky and other detach- 
ments. Also, further proven by the i)assage of hun- 
dreds of fugitives over the right of the ridge in rear 
of Thomas, whom many officers, among them the writer, 
tried to stop by persuasion and a guard line. Failing 
in this Sheridan and Davis could have gained Thomas 
by way of McFarland's Gap tAvo and a half miles north, 
with the greatest ease. But instead of this they went 
on to Rossville, and as all the histories say, which 
seems farcical to the writer, effected a junction with 
Thomas by the La Fayette and Dry A'alley Roads! 
They met his withdrawing troops after dark, too late 
to be of any service. Had they gone to the ridge 
Thfnnas most' probably would not have Avithdrawn 
at all. 

In the disaster that swept the right wing from the 
field. Generals Rosecrans, McCook and Crittenden 



l« THE ONE Hl'NDRKD AND FtU'RTH 

l)«'<;iini- iii\ii|\c«| and si-fiiiiii;:! \ lost iln-ii- Im-jhIs. Tlirv 
all ui'in Itt < "lianauuti;^;! iiinItT ! JM" iinjnrssioii thai tin- 

wliojf \r{\ mi!«M- lia<l Ihm'ii iMiitrtj. a faial iiiisiakc for 
tliiMii iii«liviiluallv, whicli im aiiiMiini of fMplaiiaiions, 
t'siMMJaliv as ir;:ai«ls tin* iwm lall«*r, roiilil f\cr icihI**!' 
sat isfai Imix. Tin* w iit«T. an ailiniirr of Uosrciaii.s now 
aii«l ('\<'r, saw lin* ruiiiniainliii;; <i«Mii'ial pass hark with 
sttriH- nf his SiatT aii<l »'sr»»it. ami VNas m-ai- •'iiou;^h to 
Im' inipi'fssiMl wiih the ith-a thai somd liin;; had ;;oiie 
wnm;: \\ilh*M>hl Kosv." w hat. hr kiit-w not at iliftiinf. 
As this o.Tiiiictl on oin' of the spnis of I |t»i stsinu*, it is 
♦•vitliMirr that t InTr was no dillirnlty altoiii joiniiiu; 
Thomas wln-n tln'v fell hark. TIm' siaicnieni is ^iven 
to rrmoM' one of the manv myths of enrieiii history. 

Meanwhile. Kim;:;: had auJim altarked on omi- left 
with r»i-e«kiniid;:e's hi\ision and W'alkei's ( "oij>s. sn|»- 
jMified hy ti;:hlini: I'ai. ("lelniiiie. r.iii liie liist was 
utterly i-oiited and dli\en flom the tieM hy the hfi- 
^ades of Will if 1 1. < ; iii>e. a in! N'andei-s ee|-. w liije Walker 
and ('jehnriie met with tin* same fate at the hands of 
Kairtl. Hrannan ami Keynolds. These re|inlses were 

K() romplete that hltef ill the ilay. when LollUSt feet 

Kent to lira;:;: for leinfoit enients from the ri;:hi. he 
was informed thai "The li^ht iiad heeii heateii hark 
so hadly as to 1m- of no servire to me." \'ide Lon;:- 
stn'et's KeiM.rt. K<h. Kei .. Series I. \o|. WX. Tart L*. 

(leiieral Thomas from headi|uartei s at the Snod- 
^I'ass lions*' was watehin;: the |iro;:ress of alTairs on 
till' left all unaware of the <lefeai on our riLiht until 
the driftin;: wreeka;:e from that »|uarter arrested his 
attention heiween ele\en and iwehc. .\ pprehendin'.j 
the silualitin. the Titanir fon-e of the man rose eipial 
to the orrasiou. Theie was then no attark on the left 
to riaim attention, and ridin;: to the nest aho\«- the 
Snod;:rass house. Tlionias at oine he;:an ronreni rai inu 
all of the foices on the rid;:e and its outliers, in front 

«>f l.on;:st reel. lie had left for the hallle lilies pef 

haps Iweiilx thitiisand men. hut iio aiiillei\. The 

iMIKitioMH Were admiiahle fo|- defense, the lid'^e pro|ter. 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 143 

au(l the s])iiis, sl«>j>in}; olT (owjird tlic ciicmy in jill 
directions, forty-five (lejj;rees, and were con*'!!'!! with 
oak and other trees. Up those ruiii;('d lieii;jits the 
eueiny must ciiai-j^c. 

Lonjistreet aii(l his sohliers, exultant with victory, 
having rested ami re-formed th^ lines, soon appeared 
on the slopes. As they came into musket ranjj^e, our 
lines opened with deadly volleys from whi<'li tlie enemy 
recoiled, only to <'hari;t' ajL^ain. The heaviest first 
attacks fell on Wood and Hrannan, but tlx'ir ranks 
remained unbroken. 

During a i)art of the time the writer was employed 
in cai*ryinii' ammunition to the crest b}' order of (Jen- 
eral Beatty, who was everywhere? present, and carried 
ammunition himself. There were few Generals there 
with commissions, but man^' men who would not have 
disj'Taced one. On one ])art of the ridi^e there were 
soldiers of a score of rej»iments, and all bent to the 
work as with an energy born of despair, none wavered. 
But there was one General present worth then 
10,000 men! ralm, cool and impassive, with such a 
look on his face at times as the fabled Imperial Jove 
might be imagined to have possessed, bearing the 
stamp of genius and God-like attributes, (Jeorge H. 
Thomas stood unmoved and immovable, holding in his 
hand that day the fate of the Army of the Cumber- 
land and of the Nation! Well did he earn the title, 
"Rock of Chickamauga." In the long list of generals 
and heroes Thomas stands as far above all as the 
towering mountain top above the hill of the valley! 
Every soldier knew that Thomas Avas there an<l turned 
instinctively as he rode from one point to another in 
the lull that was only a ])relude to another and fiercer 
attack. It was coming. Bragg and Longstreet were 
preparing heavy columns to be hurled against the right 
and rear on that tlank by way of a gorge or ravine 
having its entrance at the west end of Horseshoe ridge, 
ti few rods only from the Dry Valley Road. The time 
was about one, and it was a serious question how long 
the attenuated lines could resist the next assaults. 



H4 THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

Aiiiiiiuiiiiioii wjis niiiiiiii*: l<t\\. Sniuc fool lunl oi(1»m«'(1 
or laikt'ii away tin* oi'diiaiiif i rains lo Ivossvillr. All 
f«*ll as if soiiif crisis was alioiii lo ariivr for wral or 
wof. Thomas aii<l oiIhms \\«'I«* watrliiii*; ilic approach 
of a ImmIv of troiips friuii thi* icar. 'IMm-v ini;;h! In* 
fricmls or fo»'s. ('aptaiii .lohiison, of Nc^ih'v's SiafT, 
who was pr«*s«Mil, roih- iloun lo sfc. 'I'hcv iiiarchcil in 
tjiiick tinifasihcv caim- m-arcr, ihc<M«l IMaj:; lluttcrc<l 
ill th«' l»r«*<*zo al>o\«' th*- ;:lin«'riii;i havoiicis of (Iran- 
^••r's iiu'ii, four ihoiisaiiil strong. ( "Ikm-is hniM mimI Ion;; 
imIummI ill \]^^^ foics! ij:hiilfs mikI aloii^ ilic liills ami 
jj«»r;;«*s h<*l<l l»\ riioiiias' iiH-ii, ami a <l»'\oui praNfr went 
up fi'om maiiv a heart in i hankfnlncss. 'i'hc <hiv was 
saved. 'I'hcsr tioojts wcif Whiiiakcr's ami .Mitchell's 
IJrijiados, of the Keservr ( 'orps. In the f«)r«'noon thev 
had heard away otT at Kossville the low and sullen 
lioom (if the lirst i:nns, and had hccunie uneasy. No 
orders wcic received to «.n> to the front, Imt fe('liii«; 
that they on;:ht to he there, orders or iio ord<'rs, the 
march l»e;:aii. At their head nxle (ieneral Steedmaii, 
who had assumed the rcsponsihility of ;roiii«; (o the 
relief of Thomas. 

l.on;:street had aeain ad\anced with the forces of 
.Johnson. Ilindman and Kershaw, and had gained a 
part of the lid^e on the ri;_dit, and was pr<'ssin^ U]> 
the ^or;:e when the two l»iii;ades led l>\ Steedtuaii 
appeared on the lield and (piickly deployiii;; in line, 
charged with cheers an<l yells. It was a stru<r;:le of 
Titans and the slau;.'ht«*r was fearful. Steedman's 
horse l»eiii«r shot he advam*ed on foot. One of the 
re;:iments waverin;:. Steedman, seizinir the llaL^ 
shouted. "Hovs, you may j:o hack, this fhiLT iie\eil'* 
TIm'V rliar;;ed ovei- tin- « test driving all Itefore them; 
the wave rolling; up the i:oi-;xe was pressed hack. There 
were more char;;es and counter charires l>y ilie rehels 
when the hayonet was used, 1ml the victory was StiM'd- 
maii's, and the rebels fallin;: sud«leidv hack, lirinj: 
ciMiHed for a titne. It was then that l.onjrstreet called 
for reinforii'ineiits and received the answer already 
ijuoted. Me then or;rani/.ed another atta<k, which 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. I45. 

began .at four and lasted until dark. In tliis Unt 
assault were the ten brigades of 11 indman and ilie 
sTiSuv '''''''' ""^ ^''^'*'''' """^ ^^^""'^^ engaged, or only 

rohh.^i'T^ ^^Tf ^'""'^ ^^^'^' reorganized bis lines,, 
robbed tie dead Of amu.nnitiou, both ours and the 
lebel dead, Ijmg by hundreds on the slopes, and was 

o/'foJ^n^ ^ '^"'"'^ *.^'^'' ^^'^- It '''^^^ repetition 
ot former charges and furiously made. Onlv as ni-jit 

approached did the angry waves of rebellion reccnle 
having beaten themselves out against the "liock of 
Uiickamauga," and the gallant defenders of the liao- 
Ihe slaughter on both sides in the afternoon in sonr^ 
regiments was as high as forty-five per cent and acres 
were covered with the dead and wounded. At one 
point on the ridge lay sixty dead rebels close together 
General Beatty, who was everywhere a conspicuous 
hgure, at one time commanding, at another carrvin- 
ammunition says, "However much we mav say of 
those who held comiuand, justice compels the acknowl- 
edgment that no o«ic<^r exhibited more courage on 
that occasion thaiUhe humblest private in the ranks.- 
Ihe battle was over at dark except a few slio-ht 
outbreaks here and there, and Thomas held secure 
possession of the ridge, but in obedience to an or er 
fiom Rosecrans received soon after four, directing him 
tune ZT ^,?^^^^"?' ^^ ^^^r>nvea to do ^o at an o^po". 
tune time. General liosecraus says in his report "lie 
was to use his discretion." Evervthing havinrbecome 
quiet, Reynolds began the movement and in lloin^o 

left '^""''tl^e'T'"'^''T"^°' -<^— -.- to attS>ur 
iett near the La Fayette Road. Revnolds nuicklv 
formed m line facing the enemy, and Turch n's S le 

apSo";^' 'Y^^^f ^ ;^^"^'^ t^^ ^^bels half a S^lie . 
The wifi^i '''? l;"nclerd prisoners and two cannon: 
Ind . wif^T^. ^.^''^ continued without interruption, 
nic^L r.i 'V't?'''"'/^''^"^^^'^ Rossville before mid- 
rofn^ ^f-Ti ^.^"^ ^^^C^>^1^'« brigade of the Reserve 
Goips, which had covered the rear during Oran-ei-'s 
advance, also assisted in protecting the line of retreat 



146 THE ONE HI'NDRKH AND FOURTH 

PnMMHliii^r tl>«- arrival ..f (m-ii.tuI Tli..iii:is. Nr.ul«'V hiu\ 
Immmi Imisv in foiniin;: a lu-w lin»- »»f «l»'feiiKt» at the 
s.M.ih.Tn".MHianr.' of Ifossvill.' r.ap. two mil.'s fn.in 
thi' villa;;t'. Artill«'i> aiul tli«- tn.ops lir lia.l lakfn bark 
or onit-nMl Uark, also .lisoi ;:aniz«Ml fia-iiM-nts, w.-n- 
j)lar«Ml ill ]M>sitiou. 

(MMirral Kos.Mi-aiis. wh.-ii In- l.-fi ih.- ti.-M ainl 
arrived iln-i'«-, ronsiili in;: with (;aili«'l<l ana otlins, 
aixl on th.' supposition of a total .Irf.-at, was a.lvis.Ml 
to i:u on to riiattanoojra an.l pirpiH'* ^'» itMM-iv.' llio 
ai-inv if il.'f.'att'd an.l to I1..I.I tin* town if p(»ssibU'. 
\Vliilr hr i\'u\ so, <;arti.l.l was s.nt t.. tin* ff^nt f«»r «lrtt- 
iiilr inf.uination wlii.li In- at .>nr.' ..l.taiiHMl an.l for- 
war.l.Ml to U..s.Mians. (J.Mirral lios.Mians aiiiviMl m 
Chattanoo^ra a lnokt-n-lH'artrd man, bnt the n.ws fioni 
th.-fiont lons.'.l him toa.tion. Mr at once s.-nt M«('«M.k 
ami Critirnih-n lo ih.-ir .-..mmands. What a spectarh* 
for two corps .omman.lcrs! lie also sent sn].pli.'s of 
rations forward to jjossvillc for the nearly starved sol- 
diers, and thereafter was himsidf a^Min. r.cneral 
KosiM-rans' mistake was in not joining; Thomas. Had 
he done so Hra<:;.^ ni)t Thomas, would hav.- retreated. 
There can be no «lonbt about this, ami hundreds of 
hi;:h authorities have so expressed themselves. 

^The ni;:ht ..f the'JOth was spent by T.eneral Thomas 
in r«MM-;:airi/in;: th.- army ami .lisposin- ii in iM.sith.ns 
for .lefT-ns.- slH.nhl th.- .-n.-my advan..-. To a. 1.1 t.. Us 
8tren;,Mh Minty's mount. -.1 infantry, whi.h ha.l n.»t Immmi 

in tlm ti;:ht, but w.-r 1 the h'ft, was .all. -d in an.l 

several r.';;im.'nis fr.uu th.* r.*ar arriv.'.l. 

Cen.'ral Ih-atty. wh.» says that at .lark h.- ha.l no 
iib-a that the armv w.ml.l r.*tir«-, and wlm cam.- m-ar 
ri.liii;: int.» a r.-b.-l bri^ra.Ie after dark, snpp.»sin;r them 
t.) b.' our own m.-n. arriv.-.l at K..ssvilh' in th.' ni^rht an.l 
liunt.Ml up tin* nri;;a.l.'. Th.- writ.-r was w.um.l.'.l and 
ra|»tnnMl .m ll.»rs.*sh.»e ri.l;;e. 

.\t .lavli^'ht .»n the *Jlst H.'an,\'s i'.ri-ad.- was imi 
ill posili.tn in the front Iin»' on th.- ri.l;:.' n.ar K.»s- 
vilje. The reb.-l a.lvati..* .lid not app.'ar uniil n.-arlv 
no.tn, wh.-n I'tatty .'iii:a'-'«*<l them (hibn-lTs Uiii^a.l.i 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 147 

in skiriiiishinji, and ttnjill.v iiiadc a cliaruc, diivin;*- the 
enemy from the tiehl, k'avino- a number of kille(rjind 
wounded. Captain J.eij;hton, of the One Jlundred and 
Fourth, was severely wounded, and two otliers sliolitly 
wounded. Other forces of tlie enemy ai)i)eare(l on the 
left and on tlu^ rij^iit in ( Miattanoo^'a N'aHey, but did 
not attack. Their mcjvcments were merely tentative and, 
as afterward known, Kraoo's army hadbeen too badly 
shattered to do more at that time tlian demonstrate. 
He also believed that Kos(Mrans had beoii strongly 
reinforced by Biirnside ami other troops. Stran«»e 
but Brajij;' first learned of his victory throuj;li 
northern sources, and then advanced. 

Rossville beino- in every way unsuitabh* for attack 
or defense excei)t in front, (xeneral Thomas advised 
General Kosecrans to withdraw the army to (Miatta- 
noooa. The movement began at nine on'the eveninjT 
of the 21st, slowly and carefully, and at daylight on 
the 22d the shattered but reunited Army of the Cum- 
berland stood defiant behind the defenses of Chatta- 
nooga, which three months before it had set out to 
capture. 

Thus closed the battle of Chickamauga, the blood- 
iest of the war in ])roportion to the numbers engaged, 
the loss on both si<les approximating 34,000 men in 
killed, wounded and missing. The aggregate loss of 
the Army of the (Cumberland was 10,330, specifically 
as follows: 132 officers killed, 592 wounded, 270 miss- 
ing; 1,.555 enlisted men killed, 8,820 wounded, 4,985 
missing. Bragg lost 2,073 killed, 10,274 wounded, 2,003 
missing, making a total of 20,950. As a large number 
of the missing were killed, they must be considered in 
the estimate. Our loss in material was immense, being 
30 cannon, 15,000 small arms, large quantities of am- 
munition, besides wagons and supplies of all kinds. 
Captain Porter, of the Ordnance Bureau, estimated 
that our troops expended 2,050,000 rounds of musket 
cartridges and 7,325 rounds of cannon ammunition. 

The fighting qimlities dis])layed on both sides were 
of a character to reflect credit on American valor, while 



14« THE ONE HUNI>KED AND FOURTH 

llif ;ilori«'s uf ( "liirkam;Mi;:a Im-Ioh;; «mjiijiII\ to all jiaiis 
of the Army t»f tlu* <'uiiilM'rlaiul, for all wnr n-pn-- 
s<*nt«*<l in it, cvoii tlu* ln'i;:a«l<*s thai wtMr mvjtw Ih'IiiumI 
• •II tin- ii;:lit, lia\iij^ pifVJtMis to that rvciit done tirs- 
|i)ial«* ti;:litiii^ and lost liravilv in kill«M| and wiMindrd. 
l»nt tin* hattlc was a ihti'ssIi y, ami wliilf al liisi dis- 
appointin;; to tin* iioit li, w In-n ii ranic lo he ninU'i- 
stood in its full nicanin*;, was rcco^ni/i'd as <nn* of t lie 
diM-isivr batlh's of t lie war. Swrh an on«* »anin»t lu* 
jiiodnrrd liy tin* nn*r«* drfrai <»f an army. Ii is tin* 
<-ons<M|ncm-(*s, military and poliiiral, that llow from 
it in surh a way as to fon*sliadow and ;:ovfrn tlu* nlti- 
matc result to the <«»nt«*ndin^ parlies or nation. These 
were far reaehinj; as soon appeared. X'iewed in this 
li;;;hl, t 'hiekaman<;a provetl to he a j;reai iinnin;^ jtolni 
in I he history of I he war on hot h sides. 

The ( 'onfederales who had ma<le ihe niosi tremen- 
dous pri'parai ions ami romenlraled larj;e armies to 
annihilate that of KosjMians, exhausiin;; in the elTorl 
the resoiirres of the south, failed in all their ohjecis, 
which they a\<»w«'d lo he not only toiu|ilete xiciory 
in liallle, hut also ihc repossession of ( "hat lanoti^ri, 
and the re-comjuesi td" Kentucky and Tenm'sse<', they 
contideiitly j»r<'dict in;; thai those results hein;; accom- 
plished, the reco;;nition <d" the < "onfe«lerate Stal«*s and 
the termination of the war must follow. Hut iiune 
of their fond expectations were to he realized. Their 
\ict<»rv was a harren one. w Imlly disappointing; to .lelT. 
l>avis and his people, who e\|»ecied lar;;«'r results after 
su«li tremendous sa<riti«es. Itut few su«h victories 
could he alToided. Therefore afh'f a hrief period of 
self ;;h.rilicai ion, they he;;an lo find fatilt with <Jem'ral 
Itia;:;: and his conduct of a campai;;!) that offered 
opjiurl unit ies seldom ;;iven to any <ommamler. I?ra;;i; 
in tui'n, to defemi his tiwn faiiiie as a <ienei-al, found 
faidt with his suliordinales. .Meanwhile iinahle to 
attack Kosecrans in his stron;:hold. he siMtled down 
with his army to |>esie;;e his imumiiv and endea\oi- to 
accomplish hy st ar\ at ion w hat he had no hope of do iu;^ 
hv haltle. 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 149 

IXriDEXTS AT (MIlCKAMAT^dA. 
Namitiv(' of First Serjeant (later Lioiiteuaiit) IM.i- 
lander Talbot, of Company B: 

'^It the time of our re])ulse on the left ;it (Miicka- 
mauga, in fallino' back frcMii the skiniiisli line, I 
became sei)ai-ate(l liom tlu^ Ke<j;inH.,it and fell back 
with others to llorsesiioe ridge. When I arrived I 
found several officers there uroincr the men to mak«^ 
a stand. They representcMl that reinforcements were 
comiiio- and that we would yet Avin the dav. Lieu- 
tenant (^alkins, of Beatty's Staff, was there among 
others. Most of the men were willing to stav, though 
some having lost their regiments, went to \he rear. 
We immediatcdy went to Avcu-k to s(r<'ugthen our posi- 
tion, but had done scarcely anytliiug wlieii the rebels 
attacked and tried to di-ive us fi-oui the ridge, but 
were re?»ulsed by the steady hr<' of oui- men. We'then 
bnilt slight barricades with what loose material we 
could find. While doiug this the rebels made another 
attack and were again driven down the hill. Uy this 
time our ammnnition was nearly gone and the dead 
and wounded were searclu^l and what they had left in 
their cartridge boxes was distributed. Keiuforcemeuts 
<Steednian's Division) had arrived and borne the brunt 
of the last attack. About sundown the enemy made 
a third desperate attempt to take the ridge, when tliev 
were driven as before an<l charged with the bayonet 
T3eyond their own former ])ositions. Our boys then 
struck up the ''Katth^ Cry of Freedom," the wliole line 
taking up the strain, and when they came to the words, 
"Down with the traitors, up with the Stars," every 
fellow emphasized them with a vim that made the 
Tvoods and rocky hills ring. It was one instance where 
"Music hath charms to soothe a savage breast," for 
although the firing continued for some time there was 
no further effort made to drive us from the ridge, and 
about 7:30 we mov(Ml towai-d Kossville." 

James C. Deegan, of (\>mpany G, says: "After our 
flght at Chicka manga on the 20th, P. A. Hawke, J. F. 
Diehl, 11. Campbell, F. L. Pound and myself assisted 



IM THF. ONE lirNDRED ANM) FOl'ItTH 

in liauliii- «»il >iiim- ..I till- jiuiis of Kiid^ics* Itantiv 
as I In- rrln'ls \v«*n« al»uiM i<» tak«* llirm. Hawk spikril 
«»ur «»f I In* ;:uiis raiHiinMl by lln* n-luls aii*l u liilr «loini,r 
it was sinitk liv a s|M-ni ball \vlii« li l<fi a scar over 
his v\i\ \\ •' <li<l ii«»t ii*'\ l>:i<k l«» iIk- K<'.t:iin»-iii imiil 
I lit- L'LM, and Immc with us a rumplinimiaiv noli- fn»in 
("apiain l?iitl;:«s lo rxplain «>nr al»s«'n««-." 

W illiain .M. Wilson, of ( "nin|.any K, says: "On Tii- 
tlay ni;:lit of Srpn'nibcr isili. w lim iln- Kri^aib- Wad 
n-arlirtl I In- position assijiiUMJ lo it. I was oin- of six 
drtailfd to <4(t on picki't duty down nt-ai- r|ii.kanian;^a 
( r«M'k. \\'«* rxpfttcd to Ix- iclicvi-d in tin* inoinin;:^, 
ItMi Wfi-f not. and irniainrd tliric all day, tin- ai'tilln-y 
tiiinjr tiv«'i- oiii- in-ads. 'riicrc wfir n)inilM'rs on this 
|»irk«'t lint- and loward ni^lil soni.' of tin* olVncrs 
iMTomin;: nnt-asy went l»a« k lo tin- hill for oidns. hnl 
i-.-IniiM-<l ami said tin- liii^Mdc had i^mn' and that tliry 
saw several new made ^M-aves. Il was ilnii alionl 
snmlown and foiMnnalely some of our tavalry »ame 
al.Mi;: and l«dd ns we had hetlei- -ei oui .|nirU. w lii«li 
we did. and by keepin;^ under covei- of the iind>er 
and brush al last reached Crawtish Sprin;:s. when oar 
snr;:eons uanied us for nufses in the tield hospital 
there, but we declined ami left in a liunv. and linally 
Joe W ilson and myself reached llie t ;ienn Mouse. K«»se- 
rrans' head«piaiieis. w lieie we la\ down ami tried lo 
sleep. In the movuiu:: we found liie lle^imenl and 
marciie.l wiiii il to the jefi. when I weui on llie skir- 
mish line with the rest and did what I could to keep 
back the foul- oi- live lines of rebels advancing; on us. 
TlnM-e were just acres of I hem and we tired and linally 
fell back. slop|»in;: a^'ain to lire as we went and makint: 
a not her stand at l he i-oad. l'r<Mu i inre we w eui lo i he 
ridp* about half a mile, and al niiiiil airi\ed ai Koss- 
vilh-." 

I'irsi Sei-;;eani < ieor^c Marsh, of r.iiiipau\ I », says 
in re;iard to < 'hickamau;:a : "< Mi I he I!M h we la.\ around 
our batleiy oil a hill m-ar rhickamau;:a Tre.d; and lis- 
teiietj half a day to the roar of the rebel ;:uns and 
ours. Taplain |{rid;:<-s. losint: a number of his men. 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 151 

a detail from tlic One IluiulnMl and Foui'tli 1h'1]>(m1 to 
work the battery, and here several were badly wounded. 
About one p. m. our batteries succeeded in silencing 
the rebel guns and soon after they seemed to be with- 
drawing down the creek. The roar of battle all day 
had been tremendous on the left and we soon moved 
in that direction. As we approached Crawfish Si)rings 
the movement of our armies for concentration was a 
grand sight. As we drew nejir the battlefiehl on the 
left the roar of the artillery increased and we socmj dis- 
tinguished the crashing- sound of musketry, and met 
long lines of ambulances with blood dripping from 
nearly all, and from some very fast; these were going 
to the field hospitals. We arrived on the ti<'hl about 
dark and in time to see a most magniticent charge by 
Wilder's mounted infantry, which formed on our right 
and rode forw?ird into the thick woods, where we 
saw no more of them, but heard from their Spencer 
repeating rifles the most continucnis and ra]>id fire 1 
had ever listened to, accompanied by the sharp crack 
of their light howitzers. The rebels were equally in 
earnest, for they had immense masses of infantry there 
in the dark woods waiting for them. Thc\v also had a 
heavy gun that gave a deep growl about once a min- 
ute and shook the ground where we stood formed in 
squares ready to show what we were there for if ^^'ilder 
should be driven back, but he was not. We then 
went back behind a, little ridge to sleep — perchance to 
dream of home. 

"On the morning of the 20tli we were sent to the 
extreme left and soon a tremendous battle was raging 
all along the line. We were formed in some timber on 
level ground and our skirmishers were sent out when 
we advanced, but we soon met the rebels four lines 
deep and were driven back. We were attacked by 
Adams' Brigade, of Breckinridge's Division. At the 
order of Colonel Hapeman we fired by vfdley into their 
ranks, but without stopping them in the least. They 
came on steadily with their light wool hats pulled 
down over their eyes, like men breasting a storm. Our 



152 THE ONE Hl'NDRED AND FOURTH 

li^'lil liin- Ns.i- X...II oMi^.-.l lo fall bark lo a roatl in 
our rt*ar if In* La Faivnti' K»»a«l), \vh«*n' w«' a«:aiii f«»nii«Ml 
iM-ar our l»ait«Mv aii<l iiwuU* furtli«'r i«*sisiaii(«*, Imt 
wen* iinablf to stop thiMii. 1 lia«l Immmi wtniinltMl in ilie 
flrnt attack and f»*lt as thou<;h strtirk by a whip; thoi<» 
"was no tiuM" tlion to cxaininr thr woninl and I assisted 
in irnioxjii;;: on«' of tln' ;;iins, when \v«* rniird to th»* 
rid;;i'. A I tin* load then* was luon* or b«ss fxrilrnnMit. 
■I'olonrl llaitcnian was dtdn;; his b«'St, as also Major 
ANidnuM- to liold tin* I{oj^iinrnt linn. LirnttMiant Kood, 
of roiii|iany <i, said, 'TIn'V air just as tir«Ml of this as 
you afr.' i/KMit«Miant t'lark was disj^'ustcd brrausi* his 
n'Volv«*r would not ^nt otT. Li<'Ut«'nant Win. ( '. Koss, 
of Coiupany H. who was a ;riant in statun', had hold 
of a sapling; with his h*fi hand, and waving; his sword 
with his ri^dil, shouted, M'onu' on: I ;ini niou^ih f<»r a 
whole r(';;im«'iit of you luysi'lf.' 1 liaTf no douiit but 
that ho fflt so. St'r«;«'ant \\'. II. II. 1 1 iitton, of Com- 
pany I), who had b<M*n iironioicd lo ( ulor Ser^joant on 
tin* ti«*ld in pla««* of danu's <!. Seward, of <\uu|>any 1*>, 
mortally wounded, shouted, '.hisi as well, boys, to dio 
ri;;ht hen* as any whcif.' ( olonel iiapt'inan was not 
exritiMl and I will say that I never kn«*w him to seek 
<-over undrr lire, thouuh In* lecpiii-cd tin' nn-n to lie 
down unless a rhar;:** was ordered. .Majrn- W'idiner 
was very art iv<* and enicieut all t hrouj^h t he bai i le and 
brave as a lion, all said." 



CHAPTER XI. 



The Siege of Chattanooga. 



General Kosecrans, immediately after his arrival 
from the front on the 20th, rode over the ground around 
Chattanoooa, and witli the eye of an enj^ineei-, seh'ct- 
ini"' the jioints of vantage, set the forces in the town 
to work on ritle pits. These and some earthwcn-ks 
left by the rebels, formed a partial line of defense by 
dawn of the 22d, which was further strengtluMied 
during- the day and night by the united labors of the 
army under the direction of (Jeneral St. Clair Mor- 
ton, Chief Engineer of the Army of the Cumberland. 

The line extended from the river on the north to 
the river on the south, in a crescent-like form of about 
three miles in length, and within the Avorks the Army 
of the Cumberland took position. McCook's Corps 
being placed on the right, the P^ourteenth in the center, 
and Crittenden on the left, Granger's Corps in sup- 
port. Beatty's Rriga(h' Avas ])laced on the left of Fort 
Negley looking south. The three cavalry brigades of 
General R B. Mitchell, which, during the 19th and 
20th, were on the right of McCook at Crawfish Springs 
and along the Chickamauga, and through a misun- 
derstanding of an order to report to McCook on the 
20th, nevertheless doing valuable service, falling back 
slowly at five p. m. of the 20th, on the Chattanooga 
Road and bivouacking, spent the 21st, as also Wilder, 
on Mission Ridge and in the valley, resisting tlie 
advance of the rebels and covering the withdrawal of 
the scattered trains, artillery and stragglers, by the 
way of roads nearest Lookout. These and also Post's 
Brigade of infantry which had not been in the battle, 
came in safely on the 22d, though not without consid- 
•erable fighting. 



CHAPTER XI. 



The Siege of Chattanooga. 



General Rosecrans, immediately after Iiis airival 
from the front on tlie 20tli, rode over tlie around around 
Chattanooga, and with the eye of an engineei-, select- 
ing tlie points of vantage, set the forces in the town 
to work on ritle pits. These and some eartliworks 
left by the rebels, formed a partial line of defense by 
dawn of the 22d, wliicli was further stroiigth'oueil 
duriug tlie day and night by the united labors of the 
army under the direction of General St. Clair Mor- 
ton, ( 'liief Engineer of the Army of the Cumberland. 

The line extended from the river on the north to 
the river on the south, in a cr«^sc(Mit-like form of about 
three miles in length, and within the works the Army 
of the Cumberland took position. McCook's Corps 
being placed on the right, the Fourteenth in tlie center, 
and Crittenden on the left. Granger's Corps in sup- 
port. Beatty's Brigade was placed on the left of Fort 
Negley looking south. The three cavalry brigades of 
General R. B. Mitchell, which, during the 19th and 
20th, were on the right of McCook at Crawfish Springs 
and along the Chickamanga, and through a misun- 
derstanding of an order to report to McCook on the 
20th, nevertheless doing valuable service, falling back 
slowly at five p. m. of the 20th, on the Chattanooga 
Road and bivouacking, spent the 21st, as also Wilder, 
on Mission Ridge and in the valley, resisting the 
advance of the rebels and covering the withdrawal of 
the scattered trains, artillery and stragglers, by the 
way of roads nearest Lookout. These and also Post's 
Brigade of infantry which had not been in the battle, 
came in safely on the 22d, though not Avithout cousid- 
'Grable fiuhting. 



IM 



THK «>NK III M»UKI» .\N1» FmIUTH 



Tin* I'fln'ls d'hl in»i ailvaiKi* in fuiT«' iinii) tin- 'JlM, 
wIhmi tlifV lM*;;nii lakiii;; |Misiii«tii fium Missiuii Kiih^r 
oil tlu* <*aKt to Loiikotit MiMiiitaiii mi tli<* wrst. sontli- 
\\«*si from ( Mi:in:iii«Mt;;a. Imm ilirir lMavi«*st fnirrs wrre 
plat »m| in tin* Viillrv «l«is«'l\ rMiifiMiii iii^ our I'iih's tlim*, 
rMNrriii;: on iln-ir Irft llaiiU tin* l>as«* uf |.4»okMMt lo 
< 'liatlaiMMi;:a <'nH'k. wliirli nrar bv runs into tin* Tiii- 
ii«*sK«i'. TlifV als<» (Mrtijiirtl Lookout Mountain on tin* 
L'.'M. (our small foni's w iilnliaw in;: iif^ tln*v a|i|Moat|i«*<l) 
ami lM-;ian «*r«Miin;i wiuks |Ui|»aratorv to jiianiin;; a 
l»att»*rv with wliitli to sjitii iIm- town, ihirr mil«*s dis- 
tant, also Moccasin l't»ini. o|(|Misitc an«l across t he river. 

The Tciim'sscc tlowin;: lt\ the north side of the 
city makes a smhleii cur\e at the uestern extremity 
soulhwai'ii, until striking; the base of l.o«»koui it runs 
wt'st for a short dislancj*, ami then tlous northward 
a^iain, ffuinin;: a )»eninsula of the exact shape of a 
moccasin. (oMieral Lou^si rt et was sent to occujty 
Lookout N'aliey west of the .Mountain. These disposi- 
tions eiialdeil Hra;;^ to cut oiT all communications 
hetw'tiMi < Miat lanoo;;a and nridi;«*iKUi hy way of the 
ri\er and railroad on which the l(elea;;uered army was 
dependent foi* food for mail and beast, ex»ept by the 
wa;;on road on the imiih side of the ri\er sixty miles 
Ion;;, o\e»- Walden's Kid;:e, ami thence d<»wn the 
Se«|uatclii«' \alley to r,iid;;eport . This remlered sii|>- 
plies uncertain e\en in ;;oud weather, and as the laiiis 
KtMiii set in tin* road be<-ame almost impassable, and, 
liioi-eovef, wjis «'.\ posed to raids should r.rat:;:'s ( "axalry 
cross the ri\ er. 

(>ii the L'L'd Kosccraus' army numiiered .I."..! mil nicu 
and he had on hand tifleeii da\s' rations, so the pros- 
pect for starvation not far in the future was \<rv 
;:ood. Later ( Jeijeral lira;;;; sent word thai he iiiiemjid 
to keep our army there until it a|ipre( iated mule meat 
and horse flesh. The lirst work of the army was to 
make the town impre<;iiable to attack, and workin;; 
da\ and ni;;ht this was done in a few days, but elab- 
orate f<ii t iticat ions weie planned and carried to rcuii- 

pleliiin mole |eisuii-|\. < Ml till- •Jlih <ie!|eral KoS«"- 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 155 

craTis tclciii'MplKMl the rrcsidciit that Ik* could not be 
dislo(l«;ed. Many (liaiiks were due to Hnij;<^ for liav- 
iii*»- left some partial defenses when he retreated and 
Brajiii' afterward expressed his regret for doing so. 
As it appears tli<' rebel coniniander expected Rosecrans 
would not attenii»t to hold Chattanooga, and his signal 
officers and scouts rei)orted on the 22d, Uod and 24th 
that Rosecrans was moving his trains and much 
infantry across the Tennessee, which ini]di(Ml retreat. 
On the 24th Bragg demonstrated along onr 
front and in the skirmishing, which lasted all day, 
the One Hundred and Fourth was engaged, Fort Neg- 
ley taking a part by shelling the rebels over the heads 
of onr troo])s. But it became evident to Bragg very 
soon that no retreat was intended and he began for- 
tifying his lines with rifle pits and forts across the 
valley, and on the slopes of Mission Ridge, there being 
no less than two or three lines of rifle pits along the 
base of the latter and one on the top with earthworks 
for batteries, extending at least three miles. Lookout 
Mountain fortified by nature on every hand, was fur- 
ther guarded on top by rifle pits along the north and 
west sides, and two miles south, by an(>tlier line 
extending east and west across the mountain. Large 
portions of these as well as those along Mission Ridge 
can still be seen. Away up on the northeast side of 
Lookout, eighteen hundred feet above the valley below, 
are the i)alisades of perpendicular sandstone three hun- 
dred feet high, and beneath these the Craven house 
and farm of forty acres, the ground sloping off steeply, 
but cleared. Here the rebels took great pains to for- 
tify the front looking toward Chattanooga, but they 
left the back door open toward Lookout Valley, and 
through this Hooker afterward walked in while the 
One Hundred and Fourth knocked at the front. On 
the 26th the enemy attacked our picket lines on the 
left early in the morning, but after sharp firing was 
driven back. General Rainier received a severe flesh 
wound. Under a flag of truce arrangements were made 
for the paroling and removal of our wounded from the 



lU THE ONK HVNDHEI* AND Kol'RTH 

Iu>s|)itiils oil tilt' )ia(ll«'li«-l(l lu ( liaitaiiuo^a, <-.\(t|n a 
iiuiuLci* t»f rawK loo si*\<'i<- lo iiciinii <»f il. Mcdual 
ortirtTs iiiid siijtplifs hail Imm-ii l«'fl willi tlit'iii wIkmi 
iIm* army fell l»ark. 'I'akiii;;^ «arr of iln- iIkmismiuIs i»f 
WoUIhUhI taXrd I III- n'solilrrs of (lie Mcliijil ('or|is to 

tlu* utmost ami Immii^^ niiahlc to «|iiart<'i- all in Imilil- 
iii^s, a lai'p* (cut rapaltlt- of JioMin^r tiftci'ii liiiii<li'f<|, 
was tTtMiiMJ. Hospitals \v«m»' csiahlislMMl also at otlu*r 
points. I'oit unaU'l.N t\\«» linntli<'<l lialrs of »ot ton wtTo 
fonml in tin- town ami nearly t\\<> liiinihr*! nn-n wore 
iI('tail<Ml to maUc it up into mat i irssfs, so that in a 
f«'W Ways all tlio nnoiuhIcM ha<l tomfortahir ImmIs. If 
Hra;;;: hail imt rontcmidatnl altacUin;; it was tln*ii 
too lali'. It was rviilciit that mat tors hail sett Inl ilown 
to ;i n-^iular sir;;*', in wliirh starvation was to ih* i 1m' 
Work that l»ra;;;;'s army couhl not arconiplish. Loiilt- 
strrt't hail sii^'^rstcil a movommt norlhwaiil, ho|iiiii; 
to iil»li;^f liosrrrans it> n-in-ai. Ion IJra^i; iliil iio( 
fa\iir il. 

.Mi-antimr tin- iM-sirm-ij army si-iih-il ijnwii in await 
••viMits ami with that ailapiahility to rii riimstamcs 
whirh rvi'fy sohlicr soon aripiiri's, proiciMh'il to make 
itself at home l>y the ronsi rm I iim of i|iiarters from 
the (ielnis of houses in the town. Theii' was an alom- 
<lam-e of hriek ami rla\ ami these were ulili/ed in the 
walls ami <himneys; tin* shelter tents serveil for roofs. 
The si rmt iires w ere very small, Imt romfoit aMe. These 
tjiiarters «Io|teil the hillsiiles ami \alle\s in iln- town, 
ami i-arrieil om* hark to the time when the imlians 
oeeiipieil hi-i-e Ncry similar ahoih-s, whirh the early 
pioneers tan;;ht I hem to loiilil. It is related by ( Jeneral 
Heatty, of two soldiers, that while in their ki'iuiel one 
day a rehel shell from Lookout dropped inside, when 
one t u riling' to t he ot her said : "Theii', ymi Manked t<nd, 
w hat did \ou leaM' t he do(»i- o|ieu for?" 

\'ery souii aflei- ^iettin;; seiilcd dow u with no li^ht- 
in^' to do in the tield, the ihou^^hts of all and the 
ton;;iies of all w ere Imsy in disrnssin;; t he reeent hat t le 
and the art ions of .Mr( 'ook, < 'lit tenden and Ne^^ley. Imt 
• •-I"' iaih the two foniicr. This was to ln-ar fiuit soon 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. IST 

after in the removal of those gentlemeii to await the 
slow proceedinjjis of courts of iiiquiiy. As to General 
Ivosccraiis he still liad tiic coiifith-uce of the army and 
it would have eoutiiiiK'd to fijj^ht under him so ion*;- as 
Thomas was his great Lieutenant, for they, consider- 
iii*;- the past, looked upon the two as a combination 
j)oss(*ssed of all the elements necessary to success. 
They saw no reason wliy he should be shelved for one 
mistake any more than Grant for P^tsburg Landing, 
saved by Buell's army, and superseded by Halleck for 
a. time. 

Matters in Chattanooga remained comparatively 
(|ni<'t until October 5th, when the rebels at one p. m. 
ojK'ued with their battery on Lookout and two guns 
from Mission Kidge, but the range was too great and 
little damage beyond wounding one soldier, foll(>w(*d. 

On the Otli in accordance with orders froui the War 
Department, the Twentieth and Twenty-hrst Corps 
were consolidated and became ^he Fourth Corps with 
General Gordon Granger as commander. This retired 
McCook and ('ritt(Mi<1en, There was also a new organ- 
ization of brigades and divisions consequent on the 
consolidation. The One Hundred and Fourth was 
assigned to the First Brigade, First Division, Four- 
teenth Corps, General W. P. Carlin commanding the 
lirigade, and Posseau, afterward General P. W. Jolin- 
son, the DiA'ision. The other regiments of the Brigade 
were the Second, ThirtA^-third and Ninety-fourth Ohio, 
the Tenth Wisconsin, the Fifteenth Kentucky, the 
Thirty-eighth, Forty-second and Eighty-eighth Indiana,, 
nine in all, with an aggregate of 2,072 men, or about 
230 to the regiment. In the Department General Peyn- 
olds was made Chief of Staff, General W. F. Smith 
Chief Engineer, and General Brannan Chief of Artil- 
lery. All of these changes had become necessary au<l 
were regarded favorably by the army, which realized 
that the present inactivity could not continue for any 
long period. The rations were daily becoming shorter 
and forage for the animals impossible to obtain. They 
began dying rapidly, and many were turned loose 



IM THK oNK Ml NI'ICI-I' AN1> KlUKTH 

aiiitMt;^ tilt* Itills ;iii«l uiiMiiiiaiiis un ihr inti'ih side to 
|»irk lip a liviii;i hftt t'Vriit iiallv tt» dir of slow starva- 
tion. 

Tin* irlu'l (M'iM-ral \\ iu(l« r, having; siu« immUmI in 
iToHKiuj; tin* TriiiH'SstM* with a lar^t* ravali'.v foirt* on 
UrioiMM- 1st, iiia<l«' a laid on our line uf sii])pl\ to 
|{riil;^rlM»it, aiitl at A inl«'i's«>irs ( 'i«»ssioa<ls, drst lovrd 
a train «if tliici* liiiiidrtMl wagons Ittadcd with supjdics. 
<'«doln«| Mcronk, Jliovili;; ffolll niid;irpolt , uvclltiuk 
W'hcfh'i's foi'crs and diM\«* thnii arross th«* \alh\. kill- 
in;; soiiif and riM-apt uiiii;: (•i<:;hl lniii<lrrd niiilis and 
way;ons. \\'ln'«d«'i\ wln» had tliirc ctdunins, Mni\rd 
nrarlv to .Miii-fnM*sln»fo, doin;: iini» h daiiia;:*', Itiii Immii;; 
pni'snrd liv all «>iii- ravalrx in \\ hirh In- lusi h<-aivil\ by 
ti;;htin;; and dcst-it ions, was ;ilad l<i rsrapr atitiss tin* 
'rmiK'ss***' in a disiir;^ani/«'il t-unditiun. 

Tin* tiUfstiMn of sii|»|ili<'s fop (he ln-siri^rd was tin* 
\ilal on<* and d('iiiaiid<*d inniirdiali' sohition. (i<*in*i'al 
ijonki-r had Im-cii sent with lln* lOh'Vcnlh and Twrlfih 
< 'oips from tin* Aiiny of tin* I'otoinar to Krid;:»pnri in 
ant ii-ipat ittii of iiiov<-in<-nis lo Im* nn*l*'i'lak<-n for tin- 
raisin;; *tf t In* si«'i:<*. 

nra;:;;'s aini\ iiavinu <oniro| uf iIh- list-i- on iIm* 
sonth sidi*. Ktisrcians picpaiod jdans lo dislod;:r him 
l»v a iiioN«*iin*nt of Hooker from Hiidi;t'|>ori. snppoiiod 
liv foicrs from ( "liattainM»;;a. A siramhoat at tin* lat- 
ter |da«<* was repaired and a new one hnilt at Hrid;;e- 
|»ori. Toiitoons Were also ronst rncted, all nnder the 
snper\ision of (Jeiieial W. I"\ Smith. In the midst of 
these prejiarat ions. (Jeiieial IJosecrans was rern*ved 
from eommand lt\ \ii'iiie of an or<ler froni iln- I'resi- 
delil of (>e1o|H*|- It'tlh. The same o|-der ereated a new 
Military h)*partment with <iem*ral <irant as Com- 
inanderin-< 'hief. and this new I division im-lnded Ten- 
nessee. At the same time (lem-ial Thomas was 
iippoinied lo rnminand ihe .\rm\ and hcpari nn-iil of 
llie < 'nmlteiland. <ieneral lvost*rrans leavin;: his fare 
well order to the ariiiv to he read after he left, started 
for <'inrinnali on the e\fnin;x (»f tin* llMh. When the 
older- l»etame known there was nnnh re;;ret anion;; the 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 159 

soldiers, with whom he had lost none of his popularity. 
Had not Genernl Thomas been appointed to succeed 
him, there Avouhl have been the greatest dissatisfac- 
tion if not open rebellion. 

General llosecrans was a ma^ who had many ene- 
mies and was often luisty and imperious to his supe- 
riors and not s])ariu_t; in his criticisms of them. 1 le liad 
while in Mississii)])i, not hesitated to criticise General 
Grant, which in time was sure to bear fruit. IJut his 
tilne had come, and the greatest strategist of the war 
must step down. Time will only increase tlie estimate 
of the great services he performed in the most critical 
period of the war and cannot lessen his fauie. 

General Grant on assuming command, which he 
did at once, telegraphed General Thomas to h(dd Chat- 
tanooga at all hazards. To this he replied, "We will 
hold the town till we starve." The army was then on 
quarter rations and it was no uncommon thing to see 
soldiers foUoAving the wagons in order to pick up any 
grains of corn or bits of hard-tack that might fall out, 
while the horses and mules lost so much of their scanty 
allowance of three or four ears per day that it became 
necessary to guard them while eating. There was an 
abundance of oak trees between the town and Mission 
Ridg(^ and elsewhere. The rebels Avere in possession 
of the greater part of tliis space, their picket lines in 
front, but our boys, or some of them, looked with long- 
ing at those trees, believing that acorns would prove 
an acceptable article of diet and help to fill an empty 
void, so many attempts Avere made on dark nights to 
get them. Marshall BagAvill, of Company (J, One Hun- 
dred and Fourth, thus relates his experience: "While 
on picket in front of tow^n and being very hungry, I 
located an oak tree during the day near the rebel line, 
which I concluded had plenty of acorns on it, and 
resolved to get some after dark. When night came I 
crawled out, but observing a rebel picket not far from 
the tree, was obliged to craAvl around him. This occu- 
pied an hour, but I finally succeeded in climbing the 
tree and filled my pockets Avith acorns, and they proA^ed 



1«0 THE ONE HL'NDKEl) AND FOURTH 

lo Im- \i r\ swffi and jjikhI. 1 iheii iviui'iuhI as care- 
fiillv as 1 wfiitl" TliiH siinplf lalt* shows tlic j^irat 
|irivati*iiis i«i wliuli tin* aniiv had Ihmmi n-diniMl, but 
iiuid all ihtTf was a f«*<liii;; that irlit-f woiihl s«m(Ii 
■ <»iiu« iiiid ihf uiiiviTsal sfuliiufiil was, starvi- l»ui ii<\( r 

'IMu' davs draj;;:td shtwlx mi. I'irin;^ tm i he 
I»i« krt liiH's liad rrasrtl liv iiitttiial a;;i«M'iin-iil and tlie 
|»irki*ts fiiMjiU'iit Iv iiu't to roiiipai'c iioifs, i*\(han;z^e 
li»bairo, n»fT«'«* aiiid iu*wsj»aiH*rs. These iiHM.*liii«j;s «llil 
;:ood ralhrr than harm l«> oiii- side. Neither part v weiv 
tht'ie ill hostih- ariav l>e«aMse thev hated each oth«*r, 
e.\t»'|it ill rare insiaiires, hut beeaiisi' tiiev had an itiea 
liiat thev were li;;htin;; for prinriph's and rights. The 
war was the inevitahh* ronse(|iM*iiee of the two svsteiiis 
of what ue call civilizal ioii, so ahsoluielv antaj^tmistic, 
lioui'Ver. in theii* tearliiii;; and ieiideii(i«'s that the 
"'tin<:;ile had to rtiiiie, and t InTefoic all, except the most 
i;idiral, wfi'e inclined to make it as huniane as pos- 
•>iltl<-. oil oiir siilr lo icjiipci- lirmness and zeal wiiii 
<!in- loiisideial ioii for ilw masses (»f their enemies, 
whom iIm'V toiisideled ;is the tools of a sla Ve-rulill{^ 
o|i;i;i|-cil\ , uliicli \\;is IIIH- hcvolhl :ill (|Ucslioii. The 

wiiitT desires to ohseiNe here as a result that cannot 
Im- di-nied, thai the war made the thiIlkin;,^ intelli^^ciit 
soldiers of both sections, better, more patriotic and 
I uiisi'ivative cili/fiis, and in that view abun' Wiis not 
'•iil\ an educator, but a iialional blessing. 

'I'lie Uin- Hundred and I'ourlh was moved on the 
ir»ih over to the ri\er nearer Lo<»kout, and there- 
after did ]»icket duty aloii;; t 'hat taiioo;;a ("reek, the 
rebels holdiii;; the south bank. (JeiieiMl Kosecrans 
liaxin;: possession of Moccasin Toim had placed s«une 
liea\ y ;,'uiis there which fre<pieiilly exi lian;;ed com|»li- 
meiiis with the rebel battery on Lookout, but beyond 
aiiinsiii;; the boys and relieving; the ^jeneial monoiony. 
neither did much damage except to animunit ion. 

<ien«-ral <irant arrived on the '2'.U\. and on the 'Jhli. 
accompanied b\ <ieneral Thtunas and <ieneral Siiiiili, 
mad'- ;i I Ik •lull '.'Ii ii-i iniiioissa inc of t lie Tennessee belt iw 



REGIMENT If.LIXOIS VOLUNTEERS. 161 

Cbattaiioojuu on the i)1()1>(>s(m1 line of ()])('iati<»ns against 
Long-street, for the puri)ose of deterniiiiing uixni tlie 
plans already prepared for opening the river and rais- 
ing the siege. General (Jrant having approved of all 
that was proposed, (reiieral Thomas hastened forward 
the enterprise so (piicklv and (|nietly that alniosl Ix'fore 
onr army realized what had been done, snccess crowned 
his efforts and the blockade of the river was at an end. 
That very day, the 24th, General Thomas ordered 
Hooker to concentrate the Eleventh Gorps and one 
division of the Twelfth (Gieary's) at Bridge])ort, ready 
to cross the river and advance toward Lookout Valley. 
Hooker was to arrive in the valle}' on the 28th, which 
he did. The greatest secrecy and nicety of calculation 
for the corresponding movement from Ghattanooga 
was necessary, and to General W. F. Smith, who com- 
manded the expedition, was also due the credit for all 
the details of arrangement. The night of the 20th 
was fixed for the movement, and under cover of the 
darkness sixteen hnndred i)icked men under General 
llazen were embarked on fifty pontoon boats and two 
tiats, in companies of twenty-five each and an ofhcer. 
General Tnrchin Avith his own brigade, the rest of 
Hazen's, and Major M<^ndenhall with three batteries, 
went overland across the peninsula to Brown's Ferry, 
where the landing was to be made, and remained con- 
cealed in the woods, ready to cross when the boat exi)e- 
(lition should become established on the southwest 
side, or cover it in case of failure. At three a. m. on 
the 27th, the boats manned by oarsmen, moved down 
the river close to the right bank. The moon was 
obscured by clouds, and there was a mist hanging over 
the river. It was nine miles around to the place of 
landing, seven of which was patroled by rebel pickets 
on the left shore, while opposite Moccasin Point, Look- 
out frowned down upon them. But the trip was made 
in safety, an.d as the first boat arrived, the pickets 
fired a A'olle^' and fled. All tlie men then quickly 
disembarked and forming in line rushed up the hill, 
where, meeting a small force, they dispersed it and 



ItJ THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

lic«;an f«»rtifyiii^. Meantiuic, Tiirtliiu's ami llazeu's 
iiHMi w«*n* l»rou<;ht ovn- the rivtT in tin* lioais. Tlu' 
n*lM'ls having' nM«»v»T«M| from iIhmt sur|ii'is«' hnnijilit 
up i'ciiif<in<Mii«Miis of alioiit a tlioiisaii<l iiifii aii*I 
attatkiMl, hill wiTr soon ihivfii olT, h»siii;: soim* in kilknl 
and rapliii-tMl. Ilaz<'n's h»ss was ihirt.vtM^lht. Our 
troops taptiiriMi hfic two tlioiisainl hiislicls of roiii an«l 
t\\«Miiv rallh*, whirh was a \«mv iiii|>oriaiit a«hliti«»ii to 
thi* foiiiniissarv at that tinu*. In a f«*w hours thi* phice 
was nunh* stTiirc a;;ainst attack and the ptuitoon hrid^r 
hiid ai-ross th«* rivrr. The si;;nitiraiur of th<* uiovtMueut 
did not s«'<'iii to dawn upon the minds of thi' rchcl i-oni- 
niandt'rs, as no mor«* atliMiipts w«*i«* mad«' diirin;^ th«' 
day to dish»dji«* lla/.^'U, thou;:h the ndnds kept up a 
harmh'ss homhardiiKMiT from Lookout on the pontoon 
ami I la/.rn's position. 

Ilookci-. moving; from |{iidu:''l»«»rt on th»* L*7th, 
n-aclH/d tin* virinit.v of Lookout \'alh*v at lhr«M' p. m. 
with his head of c*)!^!!!!. TIk'H lirajj:*; and Lon;i;stri*t*t 
lH*«;aii to wake uj> to the meaning; «»f the Hrown's Ferry 
atta<k, hut too late, as we already had five thousand 
men thei-e. I looker advancing east from Wauhatrhie, 
enioiinteied the enemy's skirmishers ami driving; them 
before him without mmli trouble, w«mh into camp 
al)out six. a mile from Brown's I'erry. (Jeary's nivision 
bivouacked at \\auliat«hie, three miles distant. The 
two forces thus covered the loads to Hrown's and Ktd- 
b'v's Fi'rries, whih* llo«»ker threw out a rei:imeiit to 
^uard a crossing; of I^iokout t'reek. .\hout iwehe at 
ni;:ht Lon^^street advaiiceil with two divisions to make 
an atta<k and encitiinleied this re^iimeiit. This «;ave 
Hooker lime to form the Kleventh < 'orps (Howard's) in 
line. <iearv's IMvision beini; isolated ami sonie three 
miles fnuii Howard, was fearful of an attack and had 
remained under arms with stioujx pi«kets thi-own out. 
Soon aflt'r Lon;istr«*ers forces tlivided into twt» lutdies. 
ntta('k<Ml <iearv tiercel \. expecting; to sur|>rise him, but 
in this W4're disa)»poini«M|. Hooker, advancini; a part 
of Ijiiward's Torits to aid <ieary, struck the rebel «ol- 
unite* ami thus tin* b.Mtlc la-jed alon-j the wIimJ.. line. 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 163 

lasting in front of Geary for two hours. But the rebels 
were routed at all points and fell back to the hills in 
the valley where they had intrenchments. Howard's 
troops pursued, climbing up several hundred feet, 
which would have been difficult to do even in da^dight, 
and drove the enemy from their works at the point of 
the bayonet, capturing over one hundred. The rebels 
then withdrew from the valley and "Fighting Joe 
Hooker" was in possession. Meantime General Thomas 
had sent reinforcements, but they were not needed. 
Hooker lost in killed, wounded and missing 437 men, 
the enemy 1,500, of which Hooker buried on the field 
153 dead rebels. The river was now open and repairs 
on the road to Kelley's Ferry began at once. The 
steamer Paint Rock passed down on the night of the 
29th, and though shelled by the rebel guns on Look- 
out, was not harmed. The steamboat at Bridgeport 
came up to Kelley's loaded with supplies, which could 
be hauled the eight miles to Chattanooga without 
trouble. Thus was solved the question of food, and so 
easily and quickly that Bragg and Longstreet must 
have been struck with amazement as well as shame. 
By this brilliant stroke, of which General Thomas saj'S, 
^'Preliminary steps had already been taken to execute 
this vitally important movement before the command 
of the Dei^artment devolved upon me," the force of the 
siege was broken, the hold of the enemy upon Lookout 
made useless and precarious, while it also must have 
warned Bragg that it was only a question of time 
when he must fight for the rest of his positions around 
Chattanooga. 

In the early days of October, Jeff. Davis Avhile visit- 
ing Bragg's army and looking down upon the besieged 
host, had predicted its speedy destruction by starva- 
tion. The announcement of the -failure of his and 
Bragg's liopes and plans must have seemed like the 
handwriting on the wall, pointing to his own over- 
throw. 

The effect upon the Army of the Cumberland was 
magical. The prospect of having full rations again 



IM THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

very shortly, tojifetlKM- witli iIm* |trus|uTi ni tlrivin^ 
Itraijrj; fmiii his riMiiainin^ stroiij:h«»hls, aiid n*viMi«;iiiy; 
('hickiiiiuiii;^a, pivi* in«\v vip»r to all. Hut the work 
couhl not proriMMl at oiur fur various n*asoiis. Th«*re 
wtMr iio horsrs io iirnvr t hr arillliMy, <M*iH'ral Mcijis, 
l2tiari«'riiiasii-r-( MMUM-al, «*siiiiia(»Mi that ovi*r 1(>,(MMI ani- 
mals had |M*rislMMl iliirin;^^ tin* sit*^«*; tin* few Ifft couhl 
hardly dra;: tln'Misrlvrs around. Morr troojjs with sup- 
jdics of all kinds s«M'nnM| r«M|uisit<* io render su«-«fss 
irriain. llou««\«*r, with a fatality thai seeins wondrr- 
ful in virw of his past and rrirni fXin'rit'iircs, (Jcneral 
Hrajjy: («»r Pn-sithMit l);ivis) jjraspinj;: at straws, <h»- 
tarhiMl l,«»n|,'stn'<t with his corjis a f«*w days aft»'r his 
th'frat \n llotd;rr, ami smt liiiii to lM'si<'<;c Knowilh'. 
lie did this in rxpertat ion of overwln'lniin<j: Hnrnside, 
thinkin;; that he <-oMld hold his lines around ('hatta- 
noo;;a in the meantime, ami y;ain a victory that would 

revive the failing: eaiise of the Confederacy and the 

spirits of his army. 

<Jenerals <Jranl ami Thomas, anxious to take ad- 
vanta;;e of nra;;;:'s error, prepared to attack on the 
Till, hut havin;: made a t horou;:h lei .tiinoissam*' of t lie 
enemy's lines herame ron\inced that it would he ini- 
prartiralde to do s<» just then, mu- until SherniMii 
shoidd arrive with the Fifieeniii Turps, wliidi would 
;;lve ( J rant a pre pond era nee of men o\er Uimu^. though 
the hitter's position tin Mlssitm liid;:;«* would eipializc 
the differeme. I''rom that tim«' forward the si^iis of 
hnsy pre|>:iration everywhere within the lines of our 
army hctokciied that a hat tie would soon oi( ui. 

The ( Mie llun<lrei| and I'ourth. which, iluriii;^ ilu' 
sie;ie, had done its share of duty on the skirmish ami 
pi<ket lines, was increased somewhat lu-etweeu the 1st 
anil 1 1th by the arrival of memliers who had been sick 
or wounded, and had returned froiu home or hospitals. 
.\mon;: those were Sheiiujin Lelaud ;ind Ser;::eant 
(HMir;,^' .Marsh, of Company I >. The latter was (piitc 
wvercly woundeil at < 'hickamaii'xa, ami ohli^'ed to uo, 
much against his will, to hospital at Nashville. Tuder 
the ilatc of Novi'inhei- llih, .Marsh savs: "W •• arc 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 165 

camped in the western part of town, and are on a 
quarter to three-quarters rations of hard-taclv and fresh 
beef only. We have comfortable cabins roofed with 
pup tents. Our pickets and the rebels are close together 
but very friendly, exchanging surplus articles, of which, 
however, there is very little of anything. The enemy's 
batter}' on Lookout throws an occasional shell that does 
no harm. This is a shabby little town of few houses 
and completely covered by our guns and works. There 
is no danger of an attack, or rather no ho])e of one." 



<ii.\i'ii:k Ml. 

The Battles of Lookout Mountain and MlBslon Ridge. 



Tin- hisi rliaptrr closed witli the Army of tln' Cmii- 
ImtIuihI still hesii'gtil ami on short rations, hut these 
' alaiiiiiies ranu* to be repmhMl as incidents of the serv- 
ir»' w hirh NNoiihl soon piiss jiway with a rorr(.*spon«l- 
iii;: « «im|M'Ms;Mion foi- tlu' siilTfTiiij^s tMiilured. (lent'ial 
IJia;;^, iiieai»al>k* of prosecut in|j: olTensive niovenu'Uts 
against his enemy, whik* ktM'piny: up the semblance of 
a sie<:«', had l>een weakenin^^ his army and looking^ 
wildly in other direct it>ns for opportunities to achieve 
ii success that would aid the Confederate <ause. At 
the very moment of j^reatest peril he detathed Huck- 
ner's Corps to aid Lony:street, apparently unconscious 
of the vasi forces bein^^ arrayetl against him, at least 
nt»l sioppin;^ to consider \n hat it all meant, or else *i'\y- 
in;; a wrong interpretaticui to the nio\ ciiieiits ;^oiii<; on 
almost within view of his lines. 

< Jem'ral ( iraiit, keeidy alive to i he op]i«iri imiiy pr«'- 
>>eiited for sirikin;: an elTective blow and breaking:; 
ihioii;ih the barriers that held the army inactive, ha<l 
hurried Sherman forward with the Fifteenth Army 
Corps of four divisions from Mississijtpi, and in the 
middle of November the leadini: di\isioii of (ieneial 
dohn K. Smith reache<l Hiid;.;e|(ort, bin i lie oi her divi- 
>ions were far behind owiii;: to ba<l rnjnls and their 
immense trains. However, CoMieral Ciaiii ]ilaiined to 
illack on the iMst. 

Ceneral Sherman rude forward lii>m l»rid;iejtort 
• n the I.'ttli liy (Iranl's reipn'st, when, with 'I'lnunas, a 
< onference was held, and (Jeiieral Sherman made 
ac(|uainted with the pro|»osed plans and the part his 
"•WII troojis were expected to perform. Ibietly Statetl, 
<!eliel;ll Slie|-||i;ill \\;is In lll(i\e lii^; fiilir tli\isiii||S frmii 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 167 

Brown's Ferry up the north side of the river to a p(»iut 
opposite the mouth of South Chickamau^a Creek, where 
he was to cross on a pontoon bridge to be laid down 
by General Smith, and assail Bragofs right, which was 
siipp<;»sed to occupy the noith end of Mission Ridge. 
At the same time. General Hooker was to operate on 
the enemy's left from Lo«»kout Valley, It being ex- 
jjected that Bragg would draw from his center on the 
ridge to strengthen his flanks, General Thomas with 
the forces under his command was to advance in con- 
formity with Sherman's movements and attack in front, 
but it seems to have been TJeneral Grant's idea that 
(reneral Sherman's troops would have to do the heavy 
fighting, and what the latter has written in his 
"Memoirs," Vol. I, p. 362. shows that he derived sucli 
an impression from Grant. He reports him as saying, 
•that the men of Thomas' army had been so demoralize<l 
by the battle of Chickamauga that he feared they 
could not be got out of their trenches to a.ssume the 
offensive." Again. "The Army of the Cumberland had 
been so long in the trenches that he wante<l my troops 
to hurry up and take the offensive first! after which 
he had no doubt the Cumberland Army would fight 
well."' 

General Sherman was fi*ank, f<Mdish and vain 
enough t«» embo«ly the foregoing in the form of history, 
and which in the light of what he actually did and did 
not do, had better have been omitted in deference to 
his own fame, the truth of history, and justice to the 
herc>es of Chickamauga, dead and living. But as events 
developed on the eve of action. General Grant modified 
his pre-arranged plan at least twice on the suggestion 
of <.Teneral Thomas, but the latters p»rop<:»sal to move 
General Sherman's divisions through Chattanfxjga and 
up the south bank of the Tennessee to the north end 
of Mission Ridge, a plan that was practicable, ea.sy, 
and could be executed in the night time, was not 
adop»ted. The wisdom of General Thomas' advice ^vas 
shown when Sherman, after spen«iing much time and 
labor, crossed over frc»m the north bank, and having 



I«« THE ONE HrNOREH AND FOl'RTH 

lnMoiiM- «'st;il»lislu*t|, iuit willi in* rin'iii\ in siliIiI loi- 
two and « luilf niih's, was nn-t by (mmhtjiI llowai.l w iih 
tliriM* n-;:iin«'nts wliirli ho lunl nianlnMl up ili«- s<nnli 
Itank rally *in lli«- LMlli: lln'sr In- Irfl Ml (Jnirnil SImt- 
nian's rr<|u«*si and iImmi uiili his rscuri ii'j<tiiHMl iht» 
main i-nninianil. 

On lh«' isth <irncral <Iiaui aiiii<Min« .il in liis (nm. 
inainhM-s thai ihr allark wiMihl h«' iiiaWt- on ih«* L'lsl, 
iunl |n«*|»aial<>i\ lo ihis, <i<*in'ral Thuinas •linM(«Ml 
llowanl's Corjis to takr iiosiliMn hrtwtM-n hruwn's 
l''«*rrv and ( 'hattanoM-ia. !•» hr prphni'd in Li»okoiit 
\'alh*y by lh«' bii;,Md«*s of Whiilakn- and <',|ns«*. lb* 
also sfiit (b'ln-ial Davis' ni\ision and <'tdonci Lun^i's 
Tavab-y !<• ihf nui-ih bank of ih«' livt-r to ro-o|M'ial«' 
in Shfiinan's inoMMiKiii. 

On the LMMh tirnnal Iba^^ had noiiii«'d (M-in-ral 
< liani by a thi;; of t rare l hat it wouhl br well lo icniovr 
all ii«»n-«oiid»aiants fioni the town. Ib-avy rains srt- 
tinj; in and (ontinniii;:, prcvcntrd Shcnnan's divisions 
from ;:«'tlin;i np, so that no attack was niadi- on lin* 
L'lst or L'lM. Oriirral 'riioiiias then suuLirsicd that 
Howard's ( "orps should be used by riciifial Slu-rnian, 
and Ostrrhans' I)i\ision. if behind, be tnriicd t»\cr to 
llook<*r for an attat k on Lookout .Mountain. (Inn'ral 
Orant adoph-d ihc sn;;:^«'st ions. .\rtoidin;:iy. Ilow- 
ard's ('orjis nio\«'d thron;:h < "hat taiiooi^a on tin* L'.'M, 
and look |>osiiion iumi* I'ort Wood in plain siiiht of 
Mission Kid;:t' with I In- ohjcct of d<T»-i\ iii;i r»iai:i: as 
to SlnMinan's niovrnifiiis. and also to ha\«' tin* < "orps 
within sujtportin;; distancr of Shrinian. <i«'n«*rals 
Oram and Thomas wn*' fearful that Hrauu wouhl 
throw lip tin- sir;:f and rscaiM* without a batth* ami 
bi'raim* anxious to attat k, whirh it was xny desirabh* 
lo do whih* LoiiustiMM't and Ibn kiicr were away. (Jni- 
«'ral Oiiaiit was also romrrm-d about Ibirnsidr, who 
was riosi'ly lM*sir;i<'d at Kiiox\ilh>. lb- rrsolvrd not 
to driax lon;:cr. As an initial mo\cm<ni, a rcconiiois- 
Haiirr in fon-c wjis ordcii'd about noon to b«* mad** from 
tin* ri'iitrr bv Wood's and Shnidiin's hixisions a;:ainst 
till* rrbi'l adxam-rd liiK's w hich o<( npird int r«>m himnis 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 169 

ou a liij^h ridge 2,100 yards east of Fort Wood. The 
center of this line was ()reliar<l Knob, a rocky hill one 
hnndred feet high, where the rebels had an cpanlenient 
for a battery. From the Knob their ritle pits extended 
northeast toward Mission Kidge for a mile and a half, 
where was another line two miles long. From the 
Kn(>b south there was a low ridge extending half a 
mile which was fortilied with rude works. All of 
these were occupied by tlie rebel outposts. One mile 
beyond lay Mission Kidge, the rebel stronghold, on 
the brow of which Kragg's main army, supported by 
nearly one hundred pieces of artillery, were ready to 
deal death and destruction. To General Thomas J. 
Wood and his division was given the honor of making 
the first attack that was to usher in two great battles 
By 1:30 p. ni. of the 23d the three brigades of 
Willich, Hazen and General Sam. Beatty were in line; 
on their right rear, Sheridan's Divishm; in support of 
these en masse Howard's Corps. To the right of Sher- 
idan, l^aird, while -Johnson's Division, under arms, 
awaited events. As these thousands thus formed in 
serried ranks on the slopes and plain in front of Fort 
Wood under the eyes of their great Commanders, Grant 
and Thomas, the sun of a perfect day shining down 
upon the starry flags and gleaming bayonets of the 
embattled array, produced a spectacle of military 
grandeur which it seldom falls to the lot of man to 
behold. From the cloud-capped summit of Lookout, 
on the heights of Mission Kidge, and within the Union 
lines, more than one hundred thousand men were 
watching the grand pageant. The rebel hosts looking 
on in wonder and amazement mistook it for a review. 
At the sound of the bugle Wood's veterans advanced 
in perfect alignment across the plain, which for a quar- 
ter of a mile was clear, but beyond thinly wooded. Not 
a man straggled in all that long line as it moved swiftly 
forward and brushed away the rebel pickets in the edge 
of the woods. Willich's Brigade marched straight for 
Orchard Knob, Ifazen charged the intrenchments to 
the right, which were on a rock^' ridge, and met with 



170 THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

niiirli •»p|Misilioii. but larritMl tlit- wlmli- line with a 
ruKh at tiir jMiiiii of the UayoiuM, tajit iiiiii^ iln- '1'\v«mi- 
ty-«*ij:hlh Alatiaiiia fiiiin* with its lohn-s. llazrii h>st 
ill kilh'tl l!2, woiiihUmI 1(K». whirh sh«»ws th«* rhannttT 
of i\n' ti;:htiii;:. NN'illirh losi I kilh-<l and JO w<»mi(l»Ml. 
The casualties woiiM have Immmi j^rrah-r hat! ihi- attack 
been Utw rterei* aii<l impetuous. 'Vhr rebels who 
esoayuMl th^l to tht- ti<iirhes at the base of Mission 
Ki«lp'. Itraltv's Itri^ade on thr h'ft had litth' l«> do. 
tJeiieral Thomas thi-n din-rtrd Wo. id to f.uiify, \vhi<h 
he did un«hT a heavy artilh ry lin- from the rebel bat- 
teries (Ml the rid;:e, but <>idy one man was sli;;htly 
woundfd, stian<«'«* as it may sfcni. Shtiiilan's division, 
jidvanrin;: to tin- ri;:ht on tin* iirolon;:at icui of the 
(►rehaiil Knob ran<;e to what is miw the National ('em- 
eiery, met with little resislanee. and als<» foitifi«M|. 
Howard's ('oi|is movin;; to the h*ft and nortlhast of 
nrchanl Knob drovr back the rebel pickets and skir- 
mishers in the Hat wootled plaiti ah»n^ the headwaters 
of t'itico TnH'k, there a mere brooklet, ami established 
his lines. There were im lar^e forces of the em'iny to 
itppose, and thus the moM'nients of the day ended in 
succ«*ss and the attainment of most advanta^<'ons posi- 
tions f«ir further operations, one mile in advance of 
l-'ort Wood Mild about the same distance fiom the base 
of .Missiiui Ivid^e, whose heiuditfi from four hundred 
to fi\e hiiiidreil fei'i hJi^h must be stormed, (ieueral 
<iran;:er. commanding the I'ourth ( 'orps, received an 
• •rder after dark to have ev^Tythin^ rejM'.v for furtlu-r 
offensive operations <ui the lilt h. .\s afterward known, 
lira;:;: then re«alled a part of r,u< kner's (Vups. The 
One Hundred and I'oiirth which, duriiiLi the da\ and 
ni;;lil had, with the nri;:ade, remained umler arms, was 
to take a ci»ns]iicuiuis part in tlu' two approachini: bat- 
tles. 

The niornin;: of the L'lih o|)ened with a slight rain, 
which linally ceased. <ieneial <Irant*s army of T<'(JMM> 
men was astir early and jueparin;; for battle. The 
lo|t nf Lookout was Veiled in clouds when (Jeueral 
Hook<M', under orders from <Jeneral Tluunas, mar- 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 171 

shaled his command of 9,681 men for the assault. He 
had portions of the Arm}- of the Potomac, of tlie Ten- 
nessee and of the Ciimberhind, all strangers to each 
other, but nevertheless animated by one common 
impulse, and if any further incentive was needed to 
deeds of bravery, it was furnished by the very grandeur 
of the battlefield. 

Geary's Division, supported by Whittaker's Brigade, 
proceeding up Lookout Creek, crossed near Wauhat- 
chie at eight, capturing the pickets, forty-two in num. 
ber. They then moved on down the right bank driving 
all before them and began ascending the mountain. 
By eleven AA'ood's and Grose'sBrigades having crossed 
Lookout Creek, aligning themselves with Geary's left, 
moved forward amid the firing of artillery from several 
batteries M'hich Hooker had placed on some hills; these 
raked the enemy severely in their trenches and breast- 
works, and trying to escape they ran into the infantry 
and were killed or captured. There were portions of sev- 
eral rebel brigades represented there. The rest of Oster- 
haus' command now came up on the left, and the whole 
line, extnding from the palisades to the valley swept 
forward regardless of all obstacles natural and artifi- 
cial, and the former were of the most stupendous charac- 
ter, until about twelve, the right had gained the crest of 
the slope on the north end of Lookout and immedi- 
ately beneath the muzzles of the rebel battery on the 
point, or coronal of the mountain. Clouds hung over 
all, and amidst these the fighting was done. The atten- 
tion of both armies all along the eight or ten miles of 
battle front had been earnestly fixed on Lookout since 
early morning, and the result was awaited w^ith anxiety. 
The sound of musketry mingled with the hoarse, sol- 
emn boom of Hooker's guns and the artillery on Moc- 
casin Point, approaching nearer through the murky 
clouds, announced success. Soon the lines of blue and 
the starry banners appeared on the lofty heights, mov- 
ing slowly to victory around the point. Before them in 
retreat was the line of gray. Orders to halt and re-form 



17:' THE ONE Hl'NDHED AND FOURTH 

Wfi-e «lisivjrai-«ltMl. TIk* ivbfls wwv «»ii ili»* rim -i»aiiic 
sirirkfu. Our H-Mups IImsIhmI with siuci'ss ami spuiTcd 
on no lfs.s l»v ilu* iiisipratiuii bn-alluMl iii in ilu'fir souls 
fixun the );ran(li*8t arena of conllit-t known to American 
hisjoiv, than l»v tin* tIhmm-s and shouts of wait in;;; thou- 
samls on Ihf |>lain lM>h)\\, rushed forwanl to hurl the 
«Mn*iu\ from their main snon;:hohl, rraviMi's farm. 
Th«'ir elahoi-ate works were for them a slau^hti*r \n'\i, 
llookrr's men |>our«Ml into these a «lestru«tive lire from 
al>o\»'. Tlu'V had Ihmmi rt'inforerd and atn'mjiird 
rounh'r nio\«'un'nis liut ihrsfoidy resulted in j;r«'airr 
d«'f«*at anil ihrv were driven from the plateau around 
Craven's in wihl <lisorder «»ver the rocks and precipites. 
About » p. m. tin- fij^htin;: was over and further opera- 
lions susptiidt'd ouin;: l" 'he rh»uds and dai'kucss on 
the mountain. TIm' I w o ic^iiiut'iHs of ( )sH'rhaus' on l he 
left ad\ anting' ahui^^ tlu- I'oad reachrd the valh'v and 
opriifd i-ouiiiiunirai loll with oui* lines across ('hatla- 
noo^^a < 'reek. Hooker was iheu tirmlv estaldished from 
the latter poinl to the {talisades. lie had fou<:hl num- 
bers e«|ual lo his own over ground that seemed almost 
impassable. His |irisoners amounted to l',(M)II or more. 
.Many arms were captured. 

The ( >ne llumlerd and I'nnrtii with liie rest of 
<'ai"lin's bri;;ade was t>r<lere<l ai L' p. ni. to leiiiliuie 
Hoi»ker. ( 'rossin^ That tanoui^a < leek at tliebuiiii tail 
io;id brid;:e they bej^aii rlinihiu^ ihe mountain on t he 
old .laeksou t rail. < ieiieial Hooker awaited t heir arrival 
and the ( Mie Hundred and I'ourth was oi-dered to take 
position mi-ouikI the <'ra\en house and Imiii. The 
Ke;:iment was disposed for al tack oi- defense by < 'ulunel 
Hapenian. I'p to li p. m. of the ll."it h, considerable 
tiling was done, the lasualties of the entire ltri;;ade 
bein;; ll! killed and L' 1 wounded, but our lines rould not 
be dislodged and after that inai teis w eie (|iiiei but the 
utmost vi;;ilance was preserved until dayli;^lit. The 
camp lires on the mountain slopes wfre a Joyful si;:ht 
t«» the army in the \ alley, but how depi-essiiiL: uiusi hav«' 
been their efTett on that cold ni'J^ht to the lleeiuir 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 173 

soldiers of Bragg who spent the entire time in retreat- 
ing from Lookout and marching to Bragg's riglit and 
center on Mission liidgc. 

The '^Battle above the ch)nds" liad been tlie great 
event of the da^' and little had been done elsewhere 
except on the left. General Sherman had spent part of 
the night of the 23d, in crossing one brigade on tlie 
pontoons over the Tennessee and by daylight had one 
division across and a ritle trench thrown np. Tln^ bridge 
was then laid nnder tlie direction of General Smith 
and completed by 11 o'clock. Two other divisions then 
marched over and were followed by a fonrth, (General 
Davis,) of the Fonrteenth Gor])s. General Howai-d with 
Bnschbeck's brigade of Steinwehr's division had pre- 
viously arrived by marching np the right bank. 

At 1 p. m. General Sherman's army began the 
advance toward Mission Kidge, General Morgan L. 
Smith's division on the left, General John E. Smith's 
in the center, General Ewing's with Bnschbeck's bri- 
gade attached, on the right, all moving en echelon. 
They advanced abont two and a half miles to tlie base 
and ascending cantionsly seized the top of a hill near 
the tnnnel, when for the first time there was a show of 
opposition. Skirmishing and one or two small attacks 
followed abont 4, but the position was held and forti- 
fi<Ml. It Avas now developiMl that Mission Ridge was not 
one continnons, nnbroken line, bnt furrowed by depres- 
sions into distinct snmmits. Throngh one of these 
depressions ran the railroad tnnnel; on a high hill above 
it on the north the rebel forces were placed behind 
earthworks. These mnst be swept away before Sher- 
man conld reach the tnnnel or advance fnrther sonth- 
ward as his orders had contemplated. General Grant 
had the impression that the Bidge had been carried to 
the tnnnel. Dnring the night (xeneral Sherman was 
instrncted "to attack at dawn." 

On the morning of the 25th, a heavy fog hanging over 
the valley prevented early movements, bnt every prepa- 
ration was made for the final straggle. Very early some 
soldiers of the Eighth Kentucky climbed to the topmost 



IT4 THE ONE Hl'NDRED AND FOURTH 

piiiiiailf of l^>ukuut aiitl disfovtMvW thai tin- »ii(*mv 
had y:nin'. Th«* siiii rising u\iM' .Mission kissftl with its 
lirst nivs thr Naiioiial Fhij;, wiiicli uiifoldino lo ilie 
br»H'Zi' l.*,100 f«fi above the valley i*ev«*ah*il to frieud 
and fo«« alikr, Hooker's victoi'.v. I'lidei- orders from 
Thoiiias, Hooker |»re]iai'ed to int»ve ai r«»ss ( 'haiiaiiooj;a 
N'alh'V to Kossvilh', from wheiire to strikr nra;^^«:'s U*ft 
oil tin* rid^«'. <>\vin;4 t" heavy fon^s in the valley anil 
delay at < 'hallanooH^a Creek to l>niltl a l»rid;;e, lli»oker 
did not start until Id. The nn«- llnndred and Fonrth 
movril down the nionntain with the rest of ihr hri^Mde 
alMMit !> a. m., and re-«rossin^ the creek marrhcd a<-r«)ss 
the valley and r«*joined theSeroml Hri^a<le «>f .lt)iinson\s 
IMvision, forming; on its ri«,dit for the jrrand assatilt to 
!••• made on Mission Kid;;e. 

Tin* entire irhel army was now coiniMHiahMl on 
Hra;:;:'s last line of defense, exlendin«:: from Kossvilh* 
to Tnnnel Hill in fnmt of Sherman, a distance of six 
miles, hnt in heaviest force in the c«'nler, which was 
• onfionn-d l»y the Army of the rnmherland. (leiit-ral 
Hardee uas in immediate commami <»n the rebel ri;^ht, 
(leneral Ureckinridjre on ihe left. The divisions of 
Stevenson and Cheatham, or what remained of ihem 
after leaving; Lookout, \\«'re mo\ ini; to the liiihi. 

The ;:rand strn^'j^le was opened at early dawn by 
Sherman and lasted tin* entire day without his bein;,^ 
able to drive the rebels from their very stronjr positi«Mis 
lhou;:li his troops i hat wer<« en^a;:ed «lid sideiidid li^ilil- 
in;:. I' be«ame evident to (Jeiierai (iiant about Id a. 
m.. that Sherman was makin;: no pi-o^^ress and would 
be unable, thou;:h bavin;; then live divisions on the line 
or within reach, to drive the rebel ri;:ht as he had «itn- 
lemphited. he therefore sent Howard's Corps to Sher- 
man who jdaced it on his left, ami renewed the attack, 
l»nt met with a rejuilse to the bri;:a«les t»f (ieneral 
John I'. Smith, which, howe\ei-, was met by a counter 
«har;:e and the enemy driven to co\er by the bri;:ades 
of Coi'se and I.onuiis. Ceneral (Irant learnin;; of t his, 
then sent Haird's di\ision of the I'ourteenth ( 'orps to 
lilH aKKistaiice, thus ;:iviii;; to Sherman ^cm-u of ihc 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 175 

thirteen divisions of his army, and niakin<>- it ]»hiin that 
at that hour, noon, he still adhered to his <)ri<;inal plan 
of havinj'' Siiernian do the main lighting while the rest 
of the army acted in sui)port or as the emergencies of 
the battle should dictate. General Baird on arriving in 
Sherman's rear was informed that he could not be used 
and was not needed, so he countermarched to the left 
of Wood and formed in line there by half past two. 

The impression seems to have prevailed in the army 
and with Grant and Sherman, that the latter was light- 
ing immense numbers and heavy reinforcements sent 
from Bragg's center on the ridge. Sherman in his report 
and ^'Memoirs," Vol. I., p. 377, says in speakiui-' cd' mat- 
ters as they stood at 3 p. m. : "Column after column 
was streaming toward me; gun after gun poured its 
concentric shot on us from every hill and spur that 
gave a view of any part of the ground held by us." 
Grant in his "Memoirs" says: "From the position I oc- 
cupied, I could see column after column of Bragg's 
forces moving against Sherman." Also, in his report: 
"Discovering that the enemy in his desperation to de- 
feat or resist the progress of Sherman, was weakening 
his center on Mission Ridge, determined me to order 
the advance (of Thomas) at once." 

A study of all the reports of the Confederate Gen- 
erals, (vide Rebellion Records) shows that there was 
no weakening of Bragg's center at all in front of 
Thomas. The soldiers seen "streaming along the ridge" 
did not belong to the center. Neither was any artillery 
taken from the center. These reports state exactly 
what forces were on the right and those sent to rein- 
force them. About 2 j). m. of the 24th, General Bragg 
having learned that Sherman was then approaching 
the ridge, at once sent General Cleburne with the three 
brigades of Smith, Lowre}', and Govan, from his posi- 
tion one and a quarter miles south of the tunnel, to 
oppose him. He also had three batteries. These troops 
seized and occupied the ridge, or hills, which Sherman's 
men fought so hard to take that afternoon and nearly 
all of the following day, but without success. During 



1T« THK ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

thf iii«;:li! (McbiiriK' fortiiifil. Ai sumis.- of tlio 2.">ih, 
In* was rriiifuirtMl \t\ Un»\\ n's Hri^adc nl SirMMiPMn's 
division, ami ai 1» l»v ('miiiiiiii^is' Hiif^adf. riici*- \\fi«' 
iiM aiMiiiuiial fMii^-s snii lo < IctMiriii* until alMtui L' p. m.. 
wIh'Ii .Maiirv's Hri;:a«l«* of Walkrr's Division, which lav 
tliriM' <|nartfi*s «»f a niih* soulh of tin- tnnnrl. n\n\ oii.« 
small i«'i;im«"in of St<'\«'nson's l>ivisi«in, wnr s«'nl to 
iIh- ri;;ln. 'I'ln* a;:;;r(*;ialr of all these foiees opposeil 
to Sherman's six divisions We (jo not know, luii it coiihl 
not havt'hjM'ii laf«re. ami it thus appeals t hat theie was 
an optical illusion ami lai'^^e imagination in the mimis 
of (ii'ani aiKJ Sheiiiian alioiit the immense nnmlieis 
"St leamiii^ aloii^ .Mission IJitl;:e toward Shetiiian." 
These ai-e histoiical facts ami fof i his reason t he w litei- 
has de\otei| etHisideialde lime to the subject fof the 
|»ui*pose of jdacinj; them on lecofd as a tfue ex|>osititni 
of matteis ahoiit which all the cuii-ent histoi-ies have 
been misleadin;:. l>min;,^all t he li;;hiin«r by Shefinan's 
troops, which was se\ere, relle<tiii^ the hij^hest credit 
on his soldiers, (leiieial ha vis' IM\ision of 7, (MM! men 
and all of lloward'.'* l»i\ision, excejit one luii^atle, w«*re 
n</t in action and the reasons therefor have never l)een 
jxiveii. ricneial SlnMinairs loss was !.*."»(> killed. l.'UO 
wounded, and ."M 7 missing, (leiieral ( 'lehtirne'^ loss, 
except in Maney's Hriua'le, was .">!» killed, .'l-'U wounded, 
and .■>(> missini;. I le also claims to have capl ui ed eiirhi 
stamis of colofs ami 'M\{\ jirison«'rs. 

I?etw»'eii IL* and 1 p. m., <ieneral Sherman liasiii;:: 
failed to do the w»u'k intended for him, sent to ask 
tirant, "Where is Thomas?" It is needless to say that 
the "|{ock of Chickamau^'a" was cpiietly waitinj; for 
< leiieral < Irani io order his adxanci-. Hot h were look- 
ing' for Hooker's fold's to sweep Up <Ul the rebel left 
from I{oss\ ille, before Tluuuas should be^in the assault 
on the cent<M-, but the time was drawing' very near. 
Hooker had been delaved three hours to build a brid;:e 
and did not reach Ivossville until about L' in the after- 
noon, when he immediately attacked the rebel forces 
on the rid;:e under Stewart, drivini; them bebtie him 
in rout, (Kterhaus' division alone capiurini: J.OIK) 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 177 

prisoners. Hooker jilso (•a])tnred many arms, artillery, 
and supplies of all kinds at ilossville. lie then moved 
on north toward Thomas, killing, wonnding, or driving 
the enemy at all points where they o])posed, nutil he 
reached CarlinV and Ila])emairs ])osition. 

The afternoon of the short November day was wear- 
ing away. It having become evident to (ieneral Urant 
that Sherman could not advance further, and Hooker 
not having appeared, he decided that the time had 
come to attack in the center, and ordered Tluniias 
to begin the assault at the sound of six suc- 
<,-essive cannon shots from Orchard Knob. The divisions 
of Baird, Wood, Sheridan and Johnson, the latter con- 
sisting of the First and Second lirigades only, were 
formed in the order named from left to right, having 
a battle front of two and a half miles. By brigades 
they were arranged as follows from right to left: Car- 
lin's and Stoughton's of Johnson's division; Sherman's, 
Harker's, and Wagner's, of Sheridan's; Hazen's, Wil- 
lich's, and General Sam, Beatty's of Wood's; Turchin's, 
Vanderveer's, and Phelps' of Baird's. This line con- 
formed to the alignment of W^ood's and Sheridan's 
divisions, which on the 23d had occui)ied the first line 
of rebel works in the plain between Fort ^Vood and the 
ridge. Strong lines of skirmishers were thrown out 
and there were reserves in the rear. The signal was to 
be given at 3 p. m., but delays occurring, it was half 
past when the sullen boom of cannon repeated six times, 
stretched the nerves of that mighty force of 20,000 
men to their utmost tension. Springing forward, the 
long lines of burnished arms, and the 150 standards 
waving over the lines of blue, were borne forward. One 
mile in advance were the heights fiA^e hundred feet 
high, defended by a desperate foe equal to or superior 
in numbers, and armed with every modern implement 
of destruction. As the line advanced sixteen batteries 
poured down on them their murderous contents. Not 
a man wavered, only the killed and wounded were left 
behind. General Grant's order to Thomas'had directed 
him to take the rifle pits at the base of the ridge, and. 



178 THE ONK HUNDKED AND FOURTH 

(|Ui>iiii>: from his ifpori. "Wlifii rarritMl tti iv-fomi UIh 
liiH'S «iu iIr* rillr )ti(s with :i y'ww !o (jinviuii ihc i»»]> 
of ihf rill;:**." 

Thf t Mif IhiihlnMl ami I'oiiiMh. (of ( 'arlin's Itii^ailfi 
which fMi-iiuMl thf rxiifiiif rij^hl of iln* assaulting 
mliimns, and rommaiKhHl by (Vtloiu'l Ilapcmaii, iikivimI 
forwanl with tin* n-st of tin* lim* at tin* si^^aal liom 
Oirhaitl Km»i». (Mi i«'a«hiiiy; an (>|mmi clcaird tit*hl 
iH'Vonil tin* timlx'i', all picssnl forward ami »ai>lnird 
thf lirst linr of works, tin* ri*b«ds in tln-m swarming 
out and np tin* hill lik«' ho many lu'fs. For the last 
half milr tin* lv«'j.dnn'nt was snhjrrti'd to a f«'rriti«- lir«* 
of ariillriy and mnsk«'try, dnrin;: whirh LitMiirnani 
Koss, and S«*r;;fant I*. Talln»t, both of ('«»mpany It, wt*r»* 
badly uoundrd by a pi«M«' of slndl; also liN»' otln-rs of 
onr bra\»' boys wnr shot down by one volh*y, Itni 
I hf lit'uinitnt had cxrcntrd tin* order of < MMn*ral < Iiani 
ami stopped to rest as well as it cttnltl, nmler a murdcr- 
oiis tire frt»ni above. Noi |itM;:di<i i lit- im-n r«*niain in the 
«aptnred tren«hes, bnl (•har;^ed on up the ri«l;;e from 
one lim* to another until tliey«stood viitoriotis on th«' 
summit. (Jem-ral t'arlin says in his r»*i»ort (Keb. Ker., 
\ol.;;i, I't. '2, \t. U\4): "In front of the left of my bri-^ade 
was a rille pit about half \\;iy u|» the ri«l«:e which was 
occU|»ied b.\ the enemy. After a few \ollevs they Were 
<lri\en frtun it and it was occu|>ie(l by the Forty-second 
Indiana, t )ne Hundred and Fourth Illim»is, and Fi;:hly- 
eifihth Indiami. Tin stanlif tdlur nf tinst r((/iin(itts final- 
Iff (Iron (hi niciin/ fnnii tin riiUjt when my uliolc tiin ml- 
niiirril to till siininiil." (The itali<s are t he writer's.) 

Then* had been nttwhere on that hui^' line any lial( 
oi- hesitation tint il the rille pi is ai i he base of the ridj:e 

w er cupied, which was done nearly simultaneously 

by theei^rhtyiiine re;;iments at six dilTereiit points. The 
lebels on the rid^e had depresseil the mu/./les of their 
cannon, and where possible, were deliverin;; an enlilad- 
inj: fire. This with their musketry was tellinjx ra])idly 
on our ranks in the rille pits below, Stun<x to madness, 
knowin;:thal it wmdd bede.ith lo stay t here; scoruiiiLT 
retn*at; and in--piied bv one couiniou impulse, iliei-e 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 179 

was suddenly aii involuntary movenient begun along 
the entire front, up the ridge, which was very steep 
and covered with obstructions and small loose*^ stones 
making the footing insecure. In from twenty minutes 
to half an hour, the Army of the Cumberland stood 
victorious on the heights. It was nearly 5 p. m., and 
Sherman still pounded away at the rebel right holding 
his positions of the morning, until darkness coming on, 
Hardee and Cleburne withdrew their gallant soldiers 
safely beyond the Chickamauga. 

The ridge having been carried and cleared in front. 
General Baird wheeling his troops to the left and leav- 
ing ten or twelve i)ieces of the captured artillery to be 
gathered in by others, moved north along the crest, 
routing the division of Anderson, but was not so fortu- 
nate when he came in contact with troops sent by 
Hardee from the right in front of Sherman. Here a 
desperate fight ensued which only ended by night 
coming on, when the enemy withdrew. General Sheri- 
dan and one of Wood's brigades, pursued the enemy 
down the east slopes of the ridge a short distance, 
capturing prisoners and artillery, but it was too late 
for successful pursuit. The heavy fighting was oyer 
and the army went into bivouac on the ground it had 
won, and built its camp fires from mountain to valley. 
General Grant, mindful of Sherman, thus wrote him 
at the close of the battle: ''No doubt you witnessed 
the splendid manner in which Thomas' troops carried 
>\[ission Ridge this afternoon, and can feel a just 
pride too, in the part taken by the forces under your 
command in taking first, so much of the same range 
of hills, and then in attracting the attention of so 
many of the enemy as to make Thomas' part certain 
of success." In view of the fact that Sherman attained 
the position he occupied with "no loss," as he says, and 
was opposed by very small forces as has been shown 
from official and undoubted authority, the sympathy of 
General Grant was timely. 

There is evidence to show that General Grant had 
not determined when the Armv of the Cumberland 



IW THE ONE HUNDKElJ AND FOl'RTH 

Klartftl for tin- litlp*, whether In nidt-r I Imiii i.» ^.> lo dn' 
lop or in»!. It is ]iroli;ilile from w hal he <liil orMer ami 
from his o\\ ii wonis hereltifore tjuoied from liis report, 
that he hoptnl the iiioveiiieiit to the bjise of I lie liilj^e 
woiihl so (lisinirl Mra*:^ t hat he wouhl rail haick eiiou«:h 
tn»ops from the ri;:ht to eiiahh* Sh«Minaii lo siuceed 
there ill hreakill^ (he rebel lilies, aihl to atlvaiii-e soiltll 

lo\\ar»l Tiiomas. 'I'liis view >\oul«l seem t«» be the true 
one iifti'r heariii;: what (leneral .F. S. Fullerton, Ad- 
jutant (oMieral ami Chief of SialT, «»f the I'onith Army 
Corps, savs upon t he subjtM i. lie was on ( Mrhaitl Kiiob 
at the time and heard what he tells: 

"As soon as this movement nip the rid^^ei was si»en 
fnun Hrrhard Knob, tirant turned (|ui<-kly to 'riiomas, 
who s'ood by his side, and I heard him say angrily, 
''riioiiias, who ordered iliosi- men iiji the rid^e?' 
Thomas replied in liis usual ipiiei manner: '1 don't 
know, 1 did iioi.* Then addiessin;^ (Jeiieial <iordoii 
<irani:er, he said, 'Did ytui iU-tler them up. • Iiaii;;*'!?' 
*No.' said <ii-aii;,'er. *Tln'y started up without 
• •rdfis; when those fellows t:;t'l stalled all hell raniiot 
Ktop ilii-iii/ <i)-ii«-r;il ttiant said something io the 
efTeri thai somebody Would sulTer if it did iioi lurn 
out w«'ll. and iIumi nirnin^, stoically watched the ridiie, 
III* ;;ave no further orders." 

To show full\ and furihei- the iiiosi honorable and 
;;|orious part borne by the < Mie Hundred and ^^Mlrth 
in the battles around < 'hatlaiioo^xa, the writer will in- 
tro«luce hell' several iiariatiNes i>f its un'iiibeis which 
jfi%*c» truthful and \i\id pidures of wluii each saw an<l 
eXpeliem ed. 

<ieor;:e Marsh. I'ii».i Scii:caiii ot tompaiiy !>. says: 
'*\\'«' then descended Lookout and prepared to assault 
Mission Kidj^e, w hich is four or lixc miles hmi: ami live 
huiulred feet liii^ii. \\ c formed |tail of an imim'iise Iiii(> 
«»f batt |e in some w oods at A: l."» p. m., w hen our < leiieial 
Carlin said to us: 'Itoys. I diuTt want you to stop until 
\\v reaicli the top of that hill. I'oiwardl' There was 
a mile or so of open llat i^round to cross, where the 
rebels slu'lled Us lu-avily, and where Lieutenant Koss 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. iSl 

and Sorjivaiit Tallx)! wciv severely wonndcd by a shell. 
But they i>eneially overshot us and the shells burst in 
our rear. (Jeneral Carlin rode his horse to the foot of 
tlH' ridij-e and then let him loose and scrambled up 
with the rest of us. At their breastworks half way up 
some of the rebels snrrendere<l and others ran to the 
toj). At this point Lieutenant Orrin S. Davidson of 
('onii)any H was mortally wounded. lie said, '(to on, 
b<\vs, and take the hill and atteiul to me afterward.' 
lie was very ])ale. We then made a ^rand rush aiul 
killed, wounded, and stampeded the rebels in front of 
lis on top, and the field was ours — at 4:'i0. Anson S. 
Smith was severely' wounded in the foot. Cohu' Ser- 
lueaut W. 11. II. llutton, while beariui; the llajj;, was 
hit in the breast by JV ball, and Corpoi-al Lemuel F. 
Holland, S(^izin*»- the colors bore them to the top very 
bravely, and was the first one up. Everyone tried 
desperately to get to the top and did not look around 
mneli except at the middle breastworks where the 
])anorania of battle was a magnificent sight. The rebels 
came into our lines b}' hundreds. I threw my blanket 
(hnvn once as I was getting veiw tired, not having en- 
tirely recovered from my wound, but as it was likely 
to be cold at night and I was wet from crossing a little 
stream, I picked it up again. As we fired at the re- 
treating rebels we aimed for an officer on a white 
horse; the prisoners said this person was General 
Bragg." 

("olonel Douglas Hapeman in liis report, vide Reb. 
Rec. Vol. 31, Pt. 2, p. 467, says: "The officers and men 
behaved gallantly. I would especially notice Color 
Sergeant Wm. IT. IL Hutton, of Company D, who was 
wounded, and Corporal L. F. Holland, Company D, who 
carried the colors safely to the top of the hills, the first 
colors of the first brigade planted on the enemy's 
works." 

It was stated at the time by a correspondent of the 
Nashville Press, that the flag of the One Hundred and 
Fourth was the first one of the line planted on Mission 
Ridge. But the ridge being assaulted at six different 
points, after the troops had arrived near the top, and 



l^: THE ONE HL'XDKED AND FOURTH 

Ikmij;; liidiliMi from an uiiubstriutetl view either above 
or Im'Iow, I his iiiav iiol hav«* been so, Neveriheh'ss, if 
uoi I he lirsl, ii was oin-of ih«*iii, ami there wen* ceitaiiily 
hoiit>rs «-i)ou;:h lo ^«i roiiihl. 

W'illiaiii M. NN ilsoii of < 'oiii|taii\ 10. sa\ s t>f liie tliar;ie 
lip ih«* ri<l^e: "1 was with the lie^ximent at Lookout 
Moiiutaiii ami Mission lCi<l;:e, an<l will •niveau im-iih*nt 
iliat orrurnMJ. In ihf seron«l rille i»iis where we 
<«lo|i|M'<| to li'Sl, the l-ebels l*otll«!-e«| oni' li^ht paititu- 

hirlv bv their sho«»tin;i, ami one rebel sharpshooter 
< onhl not be pit at, after man\ trials, so one t»f the boys 
^aid that any one who conhl shoot l<>ft hamleil woiiM 
ii-i«-h him. William A. Kain, of our < 'ompaiiy, Ihin^ 
l«'ft hamleil, <lri\\ a bead on the rebel ami 'silenced 
(hat .bdiniiN so that he did not boilirr ns any more/" 
W ill Kain was soon aft«'r killed l»y a shot in the neek. 
Most of till* old members will remembfr t he jovial and 
l>ia\«' Kain with liis dark ha/.el eye and pleasant ad- 
dress, piissessiii;; eourajie ami <ooliirss. uniicd wjili an 
nm-oiiimonly kind heart. 

Marsliall ISa^^w ill of ( '(nupany (1 says <d" t he assault 
oil Mission Kiddie: "TIm* last charge at .Mission |{idi:«* 
was my last, bein;;; wounded in tin- ri;iht shonhh'i- and 
left knei'at their last works. .\ kImI raised np iwi-niy 
fi'*'\ from me and sent a ball through my hat rim. a roll 
of blank»'ts and the shoiiMcrs. His m'Xt three shots 
lodp'd in the blankets. lb- then threw down his ^nn 
and snrr<Mideri'd. I was mad and about to use my 
bayoiift >\ith my left hand, when a ball took ui*- iu iIk* 
kiHf and I u ilird." 

ib'iirv Wintersriicidi of ( '.im|t:iu\ K says: *'\\ Inn 
the w«>nl 'l''or\\ard' was ;;i\en. the army movtMl slowly 
out of the timber into the open ;;rountl. It all lookeil 
lik«* a ;:rand dress parade, but in a short time the top 
of till* hill iMM-aim* lively .Ml tin- batteries there 
bebhed forth ;;rap«' ami ranisit-r. and every «iiher kiml 
«>f niissile. Soon the whole of iIm* loiii; ridi;*' was en- 
veloped in smoke, and t hm as w e a«l\ am«'d. t he infantry 
at t he foot of I he hill opiiii'd lire on us. ( Mie short n-si 
tt» ealrh bi«'ath and we WfUf :il llirui with a ^';lukee 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 183 

shout and a rush; the rebels liad to give way and they 
went i^ell mell into their works half way up the hill. 
Onr flag- bearer had been shot, also the flag bearer of 
the Eighty-eighth Indiana; some one shouted, 'Pick up 
that flag, pick up that flag!' After another short rest 
the bugle sounded again. Major Widmer and Colonel 
Ilapeman shouted, 'I want the One Hundred and 
Fourth to be the first regiment on that hill.' Holland 
taking his hat in one hand and the flag in the other 
sang loudly, 'Kally round the flag, boys, rally round 
rhe flag.' The boys formed around the colors and up 
the ridge we went. The rebel officers could be seen 
swinging their swords and doing their best to keep 
their men in line, but all in vain. Thej called out, 'Bull 
Run!' We replied, 'Chickamauga!' Our men were de- 
termined ; the rebels had to go. The Kegiment captured 
scores of prisoners. When the sun went down behind 
Lookout the banners of the Arm}- of the Cumberland 
waved victorious over Mission Ridge and Bragg's army 
was in hasty retreat." 

William H. Conard, of Company E, gives the follow- 
ing interesting account of tliat stirring period between 
Chickamauga and the battles of Lookout Mountain and 
Mission Ridge: 

"From the 21st of September, 1863, the day of retreat 
from Chickamauga, up to the 23d of November, our 
time had been taken up in digging rifle pits, building- 
forts and doing picket duty, the latter being no small 
duty, as the details were so large that the whole array 
would come on about eveiw eight days. 

"We were liable to have a brush with the Johnnies 
at any time, our lines were so close. Our Regiment was 
on picket the 20th and 21st of November. This every 
man of the Regiment will remember, as it was chilly 
and rainy, and we went out without anything to eat. 
On our return to camp I went to a mule commissary 
and offered him 75 cents, all the money I had, for one 
ear of corn, but was refused. But the mules were be- 
tween me and the camp, and they had just beeu fed, 
and before I got to camp one mule was minus three 



IM THB ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

eiirn of i-orii, iiiid I luul tin* luMiftit of it ait the imilr's 
fX|M'n*jf. This will illiisiratc the state of our stoinaclis 
at (hill tiiiif. Our |Misi(ii)ii Wiis on tht* fxtrciiu* ri«;ht of 
thr nhl ( 'iiiiifrhiiiil Ariiiv, (oiichiii*;: the rtiiiu'sst'e 
IJiviT ln'hiw rhaltaiHMipi. 

"Towaril fVfiiiiij; of th*- L'.M \\t* ufic uitlrrrd iinu 
liiifaiul took out- |iositioiis !«• ih<- ri^'hi ami Icfl of l-Nut 
^>**r;l*'>. i>ii<l li>iil oil our arms that iii;:lii, Init did not 
Hhfp much, as tln*r»* was a ;;o<mI dral of slu-llin;; ;::oiuj; 
on most of tin* ni^ht. Tin* nioruiii;; of tlir liltli o|HMU'd 
np a lillh' rain\ but soon <-lcar«'<l a\\a\. At noon t h«* 
♦•nt-niv rould hr s«*«'n inovin;; to our h-ft, ahui;; tin* ni-st 
of Mission Kid{;r. So«»n wo rould hoar tin* souml 
of bat th' over in Lookout N'allov.and about noon, above 
tho misiv ilouds. wo rould soo a lino of nion wavorinj;, 
an<l soon anothrr prossin;: thoni rioso. This latior line 
was •Fi;^htin;: dor jjoidioi's' nion and ( >stcrliaus' l>i- 
visi«»n t»f Shoiinan's IMftoonth Torps. I' mil l' it'clork 
we had list«*nod to ami watrhod tlio battle to (»iir ri;^dit, 
thon Carlin's liri^ado, to NNhirh our Ko;;inu'nt Inloimcd, 
was ordofod to roinfoiTr llookoron Lookout Mouniain. 
W'i' had sonio dini<ulty in «rottin«; ain>ss ( 'hat tanoo;;u 
i 'r«*«*k as it is «|uit«* dooji noar t ho mountain, and wo had 
to bo foiiiod ovor. JJowoNor, w r \\ oro so«in arross and 
woll up tho mountain sido. dust w Iioim* wo »rossod tlio 
old dat-kson trail that winds around tho mountain, 
KtiMid old ti;;htin;: doo bosido his ^M-ay rhar«ior waiting 
for us. <Mir (lonoral i<'arlin) roroivod his ordors. and 
we at onro rrlir\«-d tJoarv's nioii and tontinutij ihc 
batth' until iiftor niidnii:lit, and thm laid on our arms, 
our Ko^imonl ortupyin^ tho ;;ardon of the Whiio. or 
<*ravon, Ilouso. Um* historian has said ili:it M'ailiii's 
batllo, aftor darkiioss had sot in. as Niowt'd friun tho 
town Ih'Iou. was om- of ;ln' most int<'i-4«st in;; sights of 
tho war.' It was a ;ri'Ji"d si;:lii for us as wo lookod 
dou n from our idovalion of \,siU\ fret to the town bolow , 
and irariil our lim'S by tho ramp l»r«'s as thoy strotchod 
away across t ho valloy. and up t ho ii\ or foi- sovon milos. 
At I> o'rlork of I ho L'."»i h wo ( lUunuMood to un»vo tow aid 
MiKMion Kid;;o, ro<rosKin;r ( 'hatianoo;:a (fork and 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 185 

joining onr own division to the right and front of 
Orchard Knob. We had hardly time to malce onr coffee 
when the 'Fall in' was called for the assanlt on Mis- 
sion Kidge. It must have been one mile from where 
we began to move in line to the first ritie pits, from this 
line to the last one on top of the ridge about seventy 
rods, there being five lines in all, directly in front of ns. 
The ground was cleared, and as far as we could see 
from right to left, our lines were perfect, until we came 
in range of the enemy's lire, when our (ieneral(Carlin) 
who was in the lead, gave the order, 'Double quick!' 
Ours was a running fire until the first works Avere 
taken. From there on our progress was slower, as the 
ground was rough and the ^rifie pits close together. 
Our hardest fighting was between the third and fourth 
lines. At this point our loss was considerable. But 
very few rebels got away from the third line. Those 
who attempted to run were mostly killed or wounded. 
One poor wounded rebel lay just in my line of march; 
I can never forget the look of despair depicted on his 
countenance as he lay there begging us not to kill 
him. I stopped and gave him a drink of water from 
my canteen. How his countenance changed! He had 
tried to get away, as he said that his officers had told 
them that if they fell into our hands we would kill 
them, ^hame on the soldier who would do such a 
cowardly act! AYhile our lines were re-forming on tne 
crest of the ridge, an officer and staff galloped 
diagonally across our front; w^e raised our guns to fire, 
but our officers ordered us not to fire; they said it was 
(ieueral Hooker, but it proved to be General Bragg. 
He also rode a white horse that da}'. Barnes, in his 
brief history of the United States, page 247, says of the 
charge of Mission Ridge: 'Up they went, over rocks 
and chasms, all lines broken, the flags far ahead, each 
surrounded by a group of the bravest; without firing 
a shot, and heedless of the tempest hurled upon them, 
they surmounted the crest.' If Mr. Barnes had been 
on the ridge with the Johnnies he would have been 
aware that there were some shots fired. 



IM THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

•In rfnani t«» tht* lii-Kl lla^ plaiitr*! on ilie v'u\)Xl* by 
our forri*»s 1 tjuotr I In* arnjv rurr«'SjM»n«l»*nt <»f the 
•NaHhvilh* I'lvsM,' whiili 1 rlii»|»«Ml from that paiK*r a 
Khort tinuMifliT tin- l»aill«*: 'Tin- honor of lirst phmt- 
iiijj the Natiiinal Ihi^' on Mission Ki«l;:»* h('h»n<:s to 
the <>n«* ilnn<li-<Ml and Fonrth K«';:ini«'ni of Illinoig 
\'olnnt«frs. I'ii-si Hri;:a«h', First I M vision. This l{«*jri- 
iniMii rhar«:iMl uvt-r tixf ilisiinri linrs i>f ihr «Mn*ni,v'8 
wtirkii, tiriviuj; iImmt sharpshooterB ln-fon* tlnMn an<! 
I>hintin;: tln-ir lhi^»»n tin* «MHMny'8 works on the summit 
of ihf ri«l;:«* in a<l\an)-«« of oth«*rs.' W'r hivoiiark<Ml ihal 
nijjhl on thi' ri«lp', an<l I «*njoyc<l the h«*si n-sl that 1 had 
bud sin»t* \vr haul hrrn hrsii*|^nMl in riiatlanooy;a, as I 
had the prlvih»p' of shn'pinjj undt-r a robel's (juilt, ono 
tliat was lar«;«* rnonj^h to covrr six of us. 1 had not 
hh'pt und<*r a hhinkcl sinrj* \v«* h*ft St»'vrns(»n, Alabama, 
on ih«' 1st tlay of S«*pt«'inb»'r, wh<Mi wi- piN'd our knap- 
narks and stripped oursrhrs for hard iiianliin^ and 
li^lhlin;:." 

t'harh's (I, j'liilli|is. of ("om|»any I >. says in ni;ard 
to the 4*vcnts of tile 'J:!d. iMt li aiid '2~t\\i (compiN-il from 
his h'tlJTH written h<»mt' ai i In- 1 iiiH-i: 

"Nov«*nilMM* *j;{d was a siiriiii;; day in ( "hat iaiioo;x:i. 
It was rohl and looked like lain. In I lie forenoon i liere 
was nothin;: ;:oin^ on ami the boys were hunt in^ aroun<l 
for someihin;: to eat, for we w ere ou onefoiirt h rat ions. 
At *J p. m. tin* bu^le blew ilie assembly and the ( Mie 
Hundred ami I'otirth took its idace on the left of the 
bri;;ade. then we lay in line of battle all niirht without 
tir<*s. We did m>t sh^'p innrh ami about ."> a. m. of ijie 
L'lth we movi*«l east of I'ort Ne;:ley. At daylight it 
lM';;an raining; and we built some fires. About \'2 w«* 
saw Hooker's men dri\ini: tlie rebel lines around the 
|Miint of Lookout and rheers were heard on all parts 
of our Ilm»H. Then nt 2 we were ordeitd to manh ami 
ndnforte Hooker. We reaehed I he foot of t lie imumtain 
at snndow n and at 10 reaehed t he ( 'ra\ en I louse. \\ hen 
not lon^: after the rebels made a sortie lui mir Hi-i^aile 
tint were repulsed. The liriu;; eont i nih-d until L* a. m. 
of the lir»lh, u hen all beramei|uiel ami w«' were alh»wed 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 187 

to lie down. Iii the uioriiiug mauy rebel deserters came 
in and said they were tired of the war. The Stars and 
Stripes were thrown to the breeze from the top of 
Lookout about S, amidst immense cheerinii'. At 9 we 
marched back to Chattanooga and to our position about 
a mile from Mission Ridge and formed in line for the 
assanlt. We then stacked arms and waited for the 
or«h'r to advance. About 4 p. m. the order came and 
the Kegiment started going through some timbered land 
for half a mile, when we had to cross an open tield, 
wliich we did on the double quick for the rebels were 
shelling us from the ridge. At the foot of the ridge 
was a. line of Avorks which we rushed for an<l got in, the 
rebels rushing out and up the ridge. They had three 
other lines and were firing at us lively, and those lines 
had to be taken. Could it be done? Yes; the command 
was, 'P^orward, One Hundred and Fourth!' The men 
jumped to their feet and over the earth-works and 
charged for the next line, which was full of rebels firing 
at us as fast as they could, but when we got pretty near 
the}' left and scrambled for the top of the ridge. We 
had a good chance to shoot at them, which we did. 
When we reached the rifle pits midway up, we were all 
tired out and a halt was made to rest, but we kept 
shooting whenever we could see a rebel to shoot at, and 
they likewise sent the balls thick and fast over our 
heads and among us, but we had become used to them. 
After a rest of about live minutes, the orders were, 
'Forward! Drive them from the top!' With a shout 
the men sprang over the works and began climbing, 
yelling as we went, at the top of our voices, and shoot- 
ing as fast as we could load and fire, no one knowing 
but what he might be the next one to fall. When we 
arrived at the top the rebels broke and ran and we 
after them. Our liag was the first planted on the ridge 
and there was joy, shouting and handshaking with each 
other. That was a happy meeting, to know that the 
Stars and Stripes waved over Lookout and Mission 
Ridge again. There was some more firing, but the 
rebels had run off and it was almost night,so we were 



I« THE ONE HL' NURED AND FOURTH 

told to go into raiiip thfiv. Tin* ni^lit was v»i\ ((dd, 
but \Vf had m»«Ml tin-s and slrpi s<nindly." 

'I'h«* Iti^s of liic ( Mif 1 1 inidi'i'd and l-'unn li ai .Missinn 
Kidjir WHS HH fidiiiwh: KIIUmI AihdlM-it S. Ilannnn, 
<'<inipaiiv H; liMiar A. r<H)l, i'Mnipanv «'; William A. 
Kaiii. ('aiiii|iaiiy K; rharlfs M. M«»«»r«% <\»nii»any II, 
llrnrN < ". n«)U;:las, ( 'oinpanx I. Tola!, .">. 

.MmiijiIIn W (iiindcd Li< iih'iiani (Miiii S. i>;i\idson, 
<'oiii|»aii\ li; l»avid < '. « hillil li. < "»»ni|tan\ A; SirplnMi 
J. Slndl«ni, < 'onipanv K; Sainii»*l N. Tn-naix , < "onipany 
F. Total. I. 

\\'<>iind«*d l.itMiifnani William < '. Koss, < '«»m|iany 
li; Sfr;:«-ant IMiilandcr TallMti, ( 'umpany H; Sci-;:»anl 
W. 1!. II. llnUon. Tonipany H; S<Tp*ant Saminl Lynn, 
Colli pa iiy 4"; Anson S. Smith, < 'um]tany l>; .losliua \\ il- 
hoii, (\iin|>any 15; William W ilUinstm, Company 10; 
W'illiaiii (iottinaii, C«»mpany F; Isaac W. <iairlndl, 
<*ompaiiy F; Marshall Ha;;\vill, Company (i; William 
M. .Inn«*s. Company <l; ("haih-s l\. Cook, Comjiany (i; 
< H*or;;«' W. I lammrii, < omitany II; Kdt;ai- \\'. Moshrr, 
Com|»any II; .lann*s .1. ria\t*r, ('om|tan\ I: <'liaih's 
Kuj;«*r, Company K; dohii < "oync, Cdiiipiiny I. Toial, IT. 
T<»tal kilh'd and wonndt-il. 'Jti; wliii li was laiuf in 
pro|Hiriion lo tin* arinal si/r of iln- KcuinnMil. TIm' 
l«iss in iln- Hii^adf, ronsisiin;; of nine i-fLrinM-nis. at 
l^iokonl .Moiiniain and Mission Kid;:i', inclndini: ••ii*' 
kilhil at Cniysvill.' ili<- n»\t djiy. was 'J.'* kilhd. 1! 1 
wonmh'd. lis capinr*- of mn with amis in hand, .'>00. 
Till- IMxision lost in killrd ami wonmh-d, from ihr two 
lnij:ads. a total «d' '.'AW. Its raplnr of piisonis was 
l,ll».\ of caniioii 4, hrsidt's arms, rtc Tho cnliir ioIm*1 
liiKK4t< ill the two hatth's, imindin;; tin- ti^ht at Kin;;- 
;:o|d on llif I'Tth, arroidin;: to thoir lopoits, wfic: 
KilliMJ. ;{i;i ; wiMimh'd, LMsd; missin;:;, 1,1 H".; t<»tal, WjUu 
niir loKHif* w<T«': Kilh*d, 7r>;{; wonndcd. I.T'JJ; missin;;, 
.'UM; total, .".si'i. <Jfam) total on hoth sides, 12, 1'.H. 
\Vr raplni'i'd forty piftos of artillery, many thonsands 
of Hinall arms, ammnnition, ua;xons, supplies, eir. 

Iiiiportaiil as wcvf the resnits tlowin;: from the l»at- 
tl<i« of I/Nikoiit .Mountain and .Mission Kid;:*-; ^lorions 



REGIMENT II^LINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 1S9 

as was the record of the gallant troops engaged therein, 
retlectiug inipei'ishable honor on American valor, yet 
not all was accoiiiplislied that General (Irant had 
expected and deewired. ills plans contenipUited the 
entire destruction or capture of General Bragg's army, 
and this would have been accomplished had not sev- 
eral circumstances contributed to defeat that result. 
Over one of these at least General (jrant had no con- 
trol. The Urst was the heavy fog in Chattanooga \'al- 
ley on the morning of the 25th, and the necessary delay 
of Hooker by it, and also by bridge burning, which i)re- 
vente<l his attacking the rebel left until nearly three 
p. m., and in consequence of which, perhaps, Thomas 
was withheld so long. The other circumstance was 
Sherman's failure to break the rebel right at the tun- 
nel. Had (xcneral Grant himself been present with 
yiierman, he might have ordered other movements to 
be made by General Davis' big division and those of 
Howard, which would have changed the aspect of 
affairs on that Hank. But General Grant could now 
relieve Burnside, and on the night of the 25th issued 
orders to Generals Granger and Sherman accordingly, 
while the pursuit of Bragg was begun during the night 
and early on the 20th, by GeneralHooker and General 
Palmer, the latter then commanding the Fourteenth 
€orps. 

The One Hundred and Fourth moved early on the 
morning of the 2Gth with the brigade toward (rrays- 
A'ille, in pursuit of the enemy and overtook them after 
dark near that place, but they were in no mood for 
fighting and hurried across Chickamauga Creek by 
wading waist deep in the icy cold water and escaped, 
leaving, however, in our hands, a fine Napoleon gun 
and other material. ?5ome fifty prisoners were also (*ap- 
tured. The command then went into bivouac. The 
One Hundred and Fourth had started on this march 
wludly unprepared except in the matter of ammuni- 
tion, of which each num carried one hundred rounds. 
They were also supposed to have rations for four days, 
but these were not full ones. Colonel Hapeman says 



1>0 ill -I^HKD AND FOURTH 

ill Ilis rr|M»r!: "A luimlMi of iln* nun luul no shirts, 
thfir shot's wiTt* \v»trn out, t lothiny; all |hm»i-, and none 
of ihiMu had <»vt*rfoals." There was eonsiMHu-ntly much 
8Uff«*rin;^', hut they iheerfully t*inlurtMl all. The maivh 
was rrsunutl on tht* HTlli, an«l many pris«»ners tak»*n 
«»n the way. t hi approarhin;; Kin^';i<tl<l tin* sound of 
lliHiker's j;iins was heard. Tin* fneiiiy hail made a 
staiitl «ui Tayh»r's Hidj;**, and Osterhans was en;;ay;e<l. 
The <Mie Hundred and roiirih was pla«-e«l on the left 
of his line and two ronipanies of skirmishers thrown 
f«irward. who atlvaneed t«> the to]», but tin* enemy, 
attacked every wher«', withdrew. The Ke^nnient then 
r«*niaineil in line of haittle until ni<:ht, when it was 
detailed f«tr pi<ket duty on the left flank of the lui;_'ad«*. 
The I'Mh set in with both rain and snow, making 
thiiijTK very unpleasant for the Ke;;inn*nt, whirh was 
on pieket until four p. m. before relieve«l. It then 
bivouarked near the ritl^e initil eleven a. m. of the 
L".Mh, when the marrh was be^nin for ( 'hat tanoo<ra. 
This proved to be one of the most i ryin;; ever made, and 
tin arriviiij; there at seven in the evening;, the men were 
nearly exhaiisted fr«>m (Md«l. liuu;j:er and privation; some 
had their feet frozen on this return niar»li. <;eor;;e 
Marsh speaks «»f \\'m. 1*. New comb shoiMin;; a i^oat 
whih* away. f<»r ftuMl. and naively says: *'I»ul it did 
not taiste very jxood, loo stron;;!" l|owe\»i- ili;ii nKi\ 
have Im'^mi. it is far |ueft rable as an article of diet, to 
crow, t'harlestl I'hillips remarks very honest 1\: "t Mi 
arrivinjx at t 'hat tanoo^^a after dark, we were all used 
up, hun>:ry, tired and cold, and ;:lad that we had ^ot 
home." In the Kinj:;:old alTaii- Hooker lost <»."> kille<l 
and .'{77 wounded. The enemy left \'.U) dead on the 
lield. Numbei' of Wounded not known; '2'.U) piisoners 
were taken. I-'urther offensive operations were soon 
aifter suspended and the main part of the army with- 
drawn to ( 'hat iaiioo<;a. w luic ii w eiit into w iiiiei- «|uar- 
lePK. iJemral SlM-rman's troojis also returned fr<un 
Knoxville, Lon;;street havjn;: raised the siep- and 
retreate<I. ,\ period of rest and re«*iiperation was leii 
dere«I necessary before be;;innin;: the next can>pai;:n 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 191 

into that inner Sonth of which Ohattjinoojia was the 
natural entrance and had been so rej^ai(le(i for ninirly 
two years, and hence the battles and campaigns fought 
and conducted with so mnch perseverance and fierce- 
ness on both sides. The Southern people were again 
surprised and shocked, but probably not more so than 
General liragg, wlio, withdrawing his army to Dalton, 
was soon after relieved from command at his own 
request and succeeded by General Hardee, who a little 
later was superseded by General J. E. Johnston. Gen- 
eral Bragg in his report says: "Xo satisfactory excuse 
can possibly be given for the shameful conduct of our 
troops on his left in allowing their line to be pene- 
trated. The position was one which ought to have 
been held by a line of skirmishers against any assault- 
ing column." (Vide Keb. Kec, Vol. 31, IH. 2, p. (>(;(>.) 
But General Bragg, however, had failed to recognize 
a certain element that w'as one of the factors, and a 
powerful one, too, in these battles. That factor was 
the moral forces at work in the minds of his soldiers. 
The irresistible and tierce charges of Hooker's men on 
Lookout Mountain gave them a dim foreboding of what 
was to follow. The impressions made on the plains of 
Chattanooga by the splendid and powerful array of 
our armies, accompanied by the pomp and panoply of 
glorious war when the first advance was made by Wood 
and Sheridan, were well calculated to weaken their 
confidence in themselves. And when as a finale they 
looked down upon the miles of glittering arms, the 
hundreds of waving standards and flags, bore to the 
assault by Thomas' advancing legions, there was a 
moral force about it that could not fail of its effect. 
They knew that those men would carry the heights, 
and the courage of thousands failed, who on other fields 
had proven their valor. 



CHAPTER Xlll. 



The Flanktnc of Dalton— Advance to the Etowah— BattleB of Re- 
Mca and N«-w Hoi* Church— Seizure of Allatoona. 

At tin* trniiiiiatioii of the Imtllt-s ;iiitl (•;impai«:ii 
ariMiiid < 'hattaiiuujj^a tli*' ()ii«- I liiiitli-c*! aiitl Fmirili 
fujiiviil a iMTiod of rrst from li;:liliiij; ami a^^aiii s«*t- 
i1»mI tltiun to ihc «liillrs «tf caiiiii lif«'. < Mi I )<'t«MiilM'r 
Isi llw aniix itass«'t| in irviru ln-foir (tciicial iiiaiit, 
ami it was a |»ion«l orrasion for the li«*rocs of maiiv l»ai- 
tlrs, Dunn;; tlu* inoiitli tin* K«*;,nim'nt was cmploviMl 
oil tin* m*w watn-w «»rks or ri'srrvoir, jirojiMtcMl ami 
Itiiiit oil <'aimM-oii Mill. W'Immi fiiiislnMl iIh- watrr was 
|miiii|»«m1 iiilo it from ihr r»iim*ss('«* l>\ iisiii;; ilio motive 
]Miwcr of an old ttoiir mill wliicli stood on tlir hank of 
tin* river. Pipes were run from the reservoir to the 
<Joveriimeiit l>uihlin;:s in the t(»\\n. This eiiter|)ris(» 
proved to he a ^I'eat hlessiii^ to ( "ha 1 1 a iioooji jmd was 
in list* until a f«'W vears a^'o. The n^jiairs on the rail- 
road not hein;; rompleted t here was a seait it y (d" rations 
to feed the army until the middle of Jannarv. Christ- 
mas and New \'«'ar's proved to l>e dull in many resjiects, 
iiotaldy hy the absent e of luxuries fiom ihe dinner 
tables of the sohlieis. W. 11. ('oiiard notes, however, 
that "W'e had <ow tail soii|i for dinmi." Sherman 
I^^dand says. **Onr dinner r(Hisiste«l of « o(Te<' and Lin- 
rojn |dat forms** (rrark^Msl. l{n< on .lannary ]:U\i :i 
rhaiiire nime, produced by the arrixMl of the first 
'M'rarker" train over the railroad, and this was soon 
f«dlo\\ed by live others. Their arrival was o;n.,.t,.d by 
Mhoiiis of j<iy from Ihe army that had been redmed 
inaiiy times t«i the very ver;;e of starvation and had 
endured HiilTerin^ for months, besides li;;htino^ two bat- 
lies oil eiiipl\ stomaehs. 

The Hue Hundred iind I'ourth had berome roiisid- 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 193 

erably reduced by battles and disease. The wounded 
w(M'e in hospitals or had btvn sent home to recover. 
Some, also, were so fortunate as to be <»ranted fur- 
loughs to ii,<) home. Lieutenants Porter jind IJoss, of 
Company B, both beini;' woun^led (the loruier losinjj;' his 
left arm at Chickamauj^a), J^ieutenant (Mark com- 
manded Company I> for a time. "Bill" Ross, aft(M'ward 
C;ij)tain of Comi)any B, was a man not likely to be for- 
j^otten by any one who ev^er met him or had occasion to 
lun ajiainst his six feet thi'ee or four inches of cor- 
poi'osity and listened to the dulcet tones (tf his ])er- 
snasiv<^ voice when things <lid not j^o to suit him. E. 
F. Mallory, of Comi)any I, sends the writer the follow- 
ing; incident about our friend William, so characteristic 
of him that it seems api)ropriate to introduce it here. 
Tie says: "If you were with us after the surrender at 
Hartsville, you may have noticed, as I and otliers did, 
that ()rd<'i'ly Seri;(^aiit Ross, with cane in luuul, went 
limpinj;- ah^nj;- with a baiKhige on his h^<;-. This w.as a 
blind he used to keep his body warm, that is, to keej) 
the rebels from stealing his overcoat. The ruse suc- 
ceeded. After the battle of Mission Ridge, while I was 
sick in Nashville and walking out one day, whom should 
I meet but Lieutenant Ross, with cane in hand and the 
same old limp. I thought at once of Hartsville and it 
seemed so natural and comical that I began laughing, 
for which T asked to be excused as it reminded me of 
the Hartsville limp. 'Yes,' says he, 'but the curious 
part of it is that this time it is genuine, and the wound 
is right where I had the bandage then. Say, Rastus, 
was it a judgment from Heaven?' I have often thought 
<)f the occurrence since." About the lOtli of January' 
Ca])tain Collins was detailed to take charge of and 
command all the ambulance and medical trains of the 
Fourteenth Cor])s, and thereupon Lieutenant Clark 
assumed command of Com})any L). On the lOth, Cai)tain 
Ludington, of Company H, senior captain, resigned. On 
January 22d the One Hundred and Fourth moved camp 
about two miles over to the east side of town beyond 
Fort Wood and near Citico Creek. George Marsh, writ- 



iM THE ONE HUNDKEI) ANI> FOURTH 

inj: nil l\-l»niai\ Tlli, nuvs: *M)ii<- ..f iln- hi- luirU ware- 
limiM-s full of ariiiv supplies IhhimmI .l.iwn last iiijrht. 
Tlif l»«»ys liavr just iiMi-ivril «*iu»u;:li siM-ks and inittfiis 
fnuii tin- lailirs of I^i SaIN- rouniv to last tlirin six 
iii«iiitlts. Li<Mii*'iisiiit M. Osmaii. S»i;:«aiii .Major iy l>. 
Whitmaii. S«T;ifaut NN'. .Mism-r, of t 'oiiipaiiv r, ; ( "oii.oial 
L. F. Ilollaiul.of roiupaii.v H, and iVupoial S. A. Si;:iioi-, 
»if < 'oiiipaiiv ( *, liavf jioiir hoi II.' oil r.( iiiit iii;^ s<'r\ iio and 
to H«i* llirir faiiiiili«*s." 

As tin* aniiv was sinut of muh's and hoi-srs owiii^ 
iti llu' awful iinutality duiin;: tin* sit';:«', a new sni»pl,v 
iMM-aiiK* iMM«'ssarv Infon* any now inovonionls «-onld ho 
iiiau;:uialod, and *>u I'ohiuary lllli lho(Mio lliindio<l 
and I'ourtli was smt to Nash\ilh' !•• Itrin^^ forward all 
that tould In* ohlaiin-d. This .m iiision was a^rooahlo 
to tin- hoys, as it was a hioak into iho iiionoiony of ilio 
last tuo inoinhs, and y;av«' thoin an op|(oiinnily lo sit* 
our woundod in NasliNiilo hos|iiials, and !«» onjoy tho 
si;:lits of the rapilal, win mo iIm-v had fonnoily sjicnt 
KoiiH* ploasanl wooks. < hi :nri\al iho Ko<:;iinoni was 
<|uart««rod in Harrarks No. ;;, Iti-oad stroot, hut on i ho 
ir»tli inovod to Clin I'attory. <'aptaiii L«'i;:hion. of 
<'4iiupany A, who was thm in Nashvillo slill sulVnin^X 
from his wound, says, "Tho One llnndiiMl and I'oiiiih 
an* lion* and having; a j^ood tiino catchin;; and hrc akin;:: 
inulos and onjoyin;: ihoir holiday hy al!ondin^ tlio va- 
rious jdaros of aniusoiiioiii, j»rini ipally I ho 1 hoalci' whofo 
.1. \N'. Itooth is now playin;;, many of couiso attoinlin^ 
• liurrh oil Sunday. Tho mulos aif mostly yomiM^ and 
wildor than a ( 'oiiiam ho I ndiaii. Tho juoross of «at( h- 
in;: tliom is fun for iho hoys, hut <|uito tho contiary for 
tin* jMior inuloy. Tiit-y throw a ro|tc ovor his In ad and 
dra^^jiii;; him out of tin- di-o\o, ono Ht.MZ<'s him li\ iho 
oars iind throw s him dow u w lion ho is hold uni il luidlod 
and liarnoss«M|, tlnu hoin;; lot up, muloy lohols, rofnsos 
to iiiovo, liiit is put in moiii>ii, not hy moral suasion, 
liiit liy 11 lihoral appliralion of hlai ksnako." Having 
tiy Manh 'M soruro«l om- thousand mulos. two hiimlrod 
horsos ami oi^hty wa;:oiis, tho Ifooimrnt staiioil alMUit 
iHMiii for tho front and ;:oin;; four inilos woni into i-amp. 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 195- 

The following "itinerary" of the joiirnej^ was given 
to the writer by Sherman Leland "March 4th. Broke 
camp at eight a. m. Thirty non-commissioned officers 
commanded by Major Widmer, acted as advance guard. 
Halted at La A'ergne for dinner, then moved on and 
camx)ed for the night at Stewart's Creek near a large 
brick house. 

"March 5th. Leaving camp early we made twenty- 
two miles on the Shelbjville Road and camped. 

"March Gth. Started early and passed through 
Shelbyville, a very lovely place. Having made twenty 
miles Ave camped at night on Thompson's Creclv. 

"March 7th. Starting at eight Ave reached Tulla- 
lioma at eleA'en, where we got dinner, loaded forage, 
and then pushed on to the Elk KiAcr, Avhere we Avent 
into camp during a hard storm near a graA'eyard, 

"March 8th. We remained in camp to-day waiting' 
for teams that AA'ere behind, stuck in the mud. 

"March 9th. All of the teams having come up we 
started at eight and crossing the Elk reached CoAA'an 
soon after noon. The Regimental Postmaster joined 
us here Avith a good supply of letters. Going on a few 
miles we camped on a creek at the foot of the moun- 
tains. There Avere fish in the creek, but thev failed to 
bite. 

"March 10th. During the night it rained A^eiw hard,, 
but we began to ascend the Cumberland s and by the 
route followed when we set out on the Chickainauga 
campaign. The road proved to be most horrible, but 
AA'e made Tantallon and biA^ouacked. 

"March 11th. The creeks were much swollen, but 
managing to get our stock across we moved on, and 
in some places had to swim the animals. Mj' horse- 
stumbling I receiA'ed a good ducking. Camped to-night 
at Anderson's. 

"March 12th. We moA'ed on down the valley and 
passing through Stevenson, camped two miles beyond.. 
We Avere now getting nearer the front. 

"March 13th. Setting out at seven a. m. for Bridge- 
port, Ala., we soon met a man who was decrepit from. 



IM 



THK ONK HlNIHtKI' AM» F"l ICTM 



ajjf au«l hafiUliip ainl was tlun «»ii his waiv home ixflov 
till iiii|U'isuiiiiirut (if si'Vt'll luttiitlis ill Lihltv. lie had 
btfii imairtiTalttl Imm-uiihcu I'liioiiisi. \\ «- rrosstnl the 
Ti'iiiu*Ks«M' ai nrJ«I;;r|M»rt jiiid wmi iiii«t ramp in*ar 
llo;.' .lau Nalh'V, w hm' \\«' slalitiinMl a strt»ii;i pirk**!, 
i( imw Immii;; iHMi'ssarv to ^iianl our liin-s >n«II. 

"Marrh Uth. Starting; rail.v wf aiiiv«M| ai \\ hitr- 
Hliltti a! Ihni* p. iii. In passing; iln- 'Naiiow s' uc iia«l 
HoiiH* iliflii itliv. as f»»r a iiiih* Ihrrt- was jusi i«k»iu Im*- 
twiiMi ih«* iiioiiiitaiiis and lli«- river fur th«' rail and 
\va;;i>n roads. I hm* look ad>'anta<;(' oT I he opport unity 
to visit the famous Nirka .la«k cavr, where the rel»els 
had sjiltpetre works. This is a ^reat natural mriosity, 
said to run hack under SantI Mouniaiii for miles. A 
tr»i*k of the purest watei- inns lioni It; heauiifiil in- 
rrustatious fresro the roof. 

"On the loth the «a\alraile iiiommI on, ami passin;; 
hy the old road ar<uind and o\er the norih eml of 
I^iokoiit. went on llirou;:h rhattanoo;;a and into eainp 
two miles from Mission lvid;;e. Here we remained 
until the 17th. meantime i urnin;: o\ er unr siock in ;;ood 
order, and rollert in;; t he fV.i;;;;ai:e left helliml. The I li]» 
of live Wii'ks had heell a SUr«essful olle ami was elijnycd 

by all. We foumi iln- w(*atln*r warm and |iearli and 
other trees ha<l been in hloom for two weeks." 

iMirin;: the alisem-e of the ( Mie Hundred and I 'on it h 
vast preparations had heeii in pro;:ress looking; to the 
Kpriii;; eampai;;n a;:ainsi the n-liel army, then eom- 
liiaiided by iJeiieral .loseph \l. dohnstoii, whiih lay 
iiitreiirhed at Ihilt<»n and IJocky I'ace Kiil^^e, ready to 
dispute the passa;;e of the Inion armies into (ieoi-;:ia. 
In .Marrh (ieiieral Sherman had l)e<>n desiunaied by 
<ieni'ral <5rant as the t'ommamler of tin' .Miliiaiy 
DiviKJon of the Mississippi, the laiier haviie^ been 
made the <nMieral-in< 'hief of nil t he armies of the 
I'liited States. .\l»out .Marrh L*r»t h tJeueial Sherman, 
areoiiipanied by tb'iieial .Mt riierson, repaired tot'liat- 
tanoo^a to eoiifer with (b-iieral Tlnmias and arranp» 
the plans of raiiipai<.Mi. Stron;; renunioissames made 
in I'ldiruary l»y several tli visions of the I'ourf »mm( h 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 197 

Corps in the direction of Dalton had devel(»i>ed the fact 
that the enemy were in lieavy force at P»n//.ar(rs Koost 
of Jiocky Face, and at (dhcr i)oints. After sonic tij;ht- 
inii', witii a loss of several liundrcd men, it was deter- 
mined tliat all attempts to <lislod,uv the rebels then 
would be futile. Therefore the troops were posted in 
o-ood positions to await further deveh)pments. Two 
brigades of .Ff>hnson's Division were ])lace(l at Tyner's 
Station on the Knoxville Railroad, nine miles from 
('hattanooj»a, and the third at (Jraysville with a force 
at }*arker's (Jap. 

On tin- 17th tlie One Hundred and Fourth rejoined 
Jcdinson's Division at Tynei-'s, and on the UMh marched 
to (Jraysville. Leland says: ''We canii)ed on the e<l.ue 
of a beautiful i>rove of youno- pines. The tents were 
pitched in ref»ular order and the boys, fearing we would 
remain some time, beautified their (juarters. Trees 
were set out, grounds cleared and an evergreen stajid 
built for the band boys, (leneral Palmer, (I'ommander 
of the Fourteenth ('orps, came along and complimented 
us on having the most orderly and prettiest camp in 
the De])artment." The One^ HundrcMl and Fourth 
renuiined at (Jraysville engaged in heavy picket duty 
and in preparing for the advance soon to be made. 
One-half of the Regiment was often on picket. A 
number of recruits had joined the Ilegiment, but ther^ 
were less than three hundred men in all, inclmling the 
old members who had returned. Captain Leighton 
arrived on the Sth, but his wound still troubled him 
very much. He was, however, anxious *to be with his 
(V)m])any, which had tw(uity-seven men for duty. On 
the 27tli of April marching orders came and also oixh'rs 
to have twenty days' rations ready; all baggage was 
to be sent to Chattanooga. 

General Sherman, on assuming the command, had 
set about reorganizing his armies and nmking every 
preparation for the long and remarkable campaign to 
follow. He had the three armies of the Cumberland, 
the Tennessee and the Ohio, commanded respectively 
by Generals Thomas, McPherson and Schofield, from 



IM THE ONE Hl'NDRED AND F'OURTH 

wliifli to HvU'il his «:rainl army of invasion. Me |»r<»- 
jHiMil to taki* ."itl.CMIO iiM-n of tin* liist, :^\(i(M> of tin* sec- 
oiul aii«l iri,(K>(l of ilic iliinl. lot:il KKI.OOO, ain) iiiohilizo 
tln'iii l»\ liaiiisliin^ \\a;:ons, tnits, l>aj:;;a<:«', and «*v»*rv- 
thiii;: in»t al>s«»lul«-l\ iHMt-ssarv. Ka«li n-^j^iiiHMit was 
allowdl but OIK* wiipin and one anil>ulan(-t'. Kacli sol- 
dier and oHitiT was nM|nin'd to carry on his jhtsoii 
his iloihin;: and tivr days' iali«ins. A inul«* «»r park 
hoiTir was allow I'd |o thr olVims of rjlcli rompany. 
IVnts won* to \n' takrn for tin* si«k and wounded only, 
exi*«*|»t that each ln*ad«|nart»*rs was allowed a tent. 

<S«Mi«*raI Slu-rnian and his Staff proposi'd to uso tont 
flies onl\. TIh'si' roiild In- spn-ad ovrr fcnrr rails, jhdes, 
vir. tirnrral 'i'lionias, however, did not obey the order 
but had his re^Milar tents, and Sherman says that the 
boysciilh'd his establishmiMil "Thomas' Cirrus." W hen 
May 2d airived, which lime hail Immmi set by (Irant iTtr 
a ^^iMicral and united movement of all the armies of 
the I'liiiin a;:ainsl the hosts of the rebellion. <Iencral 
Sherman's army musieretl as follows: Army of the 
Cumberland, riO,77.'i men : Army of the Tennessee'. L'4,4<»."> 
men; .\rmy of the (Hiio, ftj,.~i.~»."> men; ;:rand ai^irre^ate, 
1)S,7;»7 men; artilh-ry, -r>4 j;uns. This poweifnl array 
was to be further increased soon by cavalry divisions 
not yet attached. In addition, ( ieiieral I' rank \\ ]>lair, 
with t wo d i visit t us. const it nt in;^ I he Se\enieent h .\rmy 
Corps, joined Sheinian on dnne IMli at Ackwoitli and 
IJi;; Shanty, < la. 

To op|»ose this poweifnl a;:;^rei:at it»n (leneial .lidin- 
«ton had on .Mii\ 1st, as pei- his i-epoil. (\ide Kel>. Uec, 
Vol. ;{s, I't. :{, p. «;i n. HMM>i» inlanny and artilh'iy, and 
about t,(MM) cavali-.N. lint by dune Isi liis arm\ had 
be«'ii increased to nearl\ r»0,(MIO men. lie had in his 
favor also the advanta;^e of choosing; iiis positions, 
■which Were foriilied in ad\ance by thousands of slaves. 
'J'lie natural defenses of the country were foiuiidable 
in character and made every mountain, hill and \alley, 
UK Well 3IS riN«*rs and streams, a source of strength. 
His army would increase constantly, while as Slieiniaii 
ntoveil further awa\ he must jo.se liesides |ossi*s in 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 199 

battle, many tliousaiids, detached to hold his lines to 
the rear and (h'fend the conquered territory. 'Plx'se 
conditions balanced much of the dilTereuce in size of 
the two armies. Captain Leighton, writing on the 
2<)th (►f Ai)ril, says: ''We are still at Graysville. My 
wound is troublesome. I am getting used to the ohl 
rations and camp life again. Things are ])leasant in 
the Regiment, the men are healthy and in hue s[)irits. 
Our camp is situated four miles from our picket lines, 
Avhich are south of Taylor's Ridge. From the ])icket 
station on to]» of the I'idge we can see both lines of 
pickets. There is a half mile of neutral ground. The 
pickets exchange comT)linients every day or two, and 
have tried several times to drive our men from the 
picket station, but failed. This nu)rning at sev(Mi they 
began the exercise again, but without avail, as six 
regiments wer(^ sent out. Ours, however, was not 
ordered forward — one-half of it being already on the 
picket line. Many ])risoners were brought in. On 
account of my wound Colonel llapeman assigned me 
to light duty." 

Writing on May 1st, Cai)tain Leighton says: "We 
received orders at twelve last night that reveille would 
sound at four a. m. and to have the men up and two 
days' rations in haversacks ])rej)ared, all rea(l.y to march 
at six. !r?o immediately after the bugle sounded the 
camps were astir, knapsacks and haversacks packed, 
and all provided with plenty of cartridges, as it was 
not desirable to start without plenty of these in case 
of need. By six the camp became quiet, an indication 
that all was ready. Then followed a period of sus- 
pense, and when this had produced impatience, Joe, 
our bugler, was called for to blow his horn, but seven 
and eight o'clock arrived and no assembly sounded. 
At nine an orderly rode up with an order countermand- 
ing the march. In five minutes one would not have 
supposed that the camp had been disturbed. During 
the day an order was received directing that all bag- 
gage and surplus tents be sent to the rear and to take 
nothing but what we could carry on our persons. 



a» THK o.Sr. Ml .NKui.i- .\M' i .»L'UTH 

iCiiiiiors In «|;i\ llial llif rifhM-iilli ;iii<l Tu »*iil i<M li «"..ii»>i 
llll\i* Im';;uii I III* ;i«|njui««*." 

Oil the .'{il tlu* Our IIiiii<Ii-<mI and Foiirlli iiianlMMl 
Willi llu- ltri;:ailf to Kiii^;;M|<l aii<l raiii|MMl al iIm* f«M»l 
of TaxlMi's Kitlj;«'. Hu lln- r»tli it wfiit !•• Parkri's Tiap, 
rfliiniiii;: !•• Kiii^:;:o|«| tm tin* «itli. Slininaii Lchmd 
miVK: "This rvfiiiii;: wjis niu' Ion;: in Im' i<'Iii«'IiiImi«mI. 
onltTK hi'iiin riTfivtMl that tin* riiiiif aiinv wniil.l a. I 
vaiHf lo iimnow a;:aiiist tin* immmiiv. StMtii afin- «laik 
lioiitirfs \v«-if li;:ht«Ml. all t«-iils wm* illiiiiiitialc<|, and 
rlHi'rx ran;; ff«ini om* fiid «>f tin- army lo ilif oiln-r. 
Mili*H iiwiix down tilt' \alh-y tin* «lnMMin;: cttiiiiinMUMMl, 
and rolling; ahm;; lik«' iIm- i<v«'ilM'iaiions <»f tiniinh'r. 
Went fi'oiii oil*' end of the valh'v to th<* otli«*r. then 
lurntil and, s«M'iiiin;ily loudfi- than iM-foic, passed hack. 
Mixed with the noise was the tiiin;; td wci powder into 
the air from the mnskels, prodiicjii;^ miiiianiie liic- 
works. The releliralion was kepi up for i w o Ihmiis, 
when the tiimnli siihsided and naught save a tire here 
ami there indieated that an aiiii\ of lOO.dOO men ro- 
|N>Kii| In thill vallev." 

< Ml the morning: of .\|a\ Tili Sliermans jirmies wiie 
in motion against the enemy. The ronrieeiiili Army 
I orp'^, with I he Tu eiiiiei h I i looker's I on l he i ii;hl. and 
the l*'onilh ( ll<»\\ aid's) on ihe jefi, advanced to Tiimiel 
II ill and drove on l t he small foire of relx-K I lieic, who 
f«dl hark to the slitni^ i»osiiion of Kocky I'ate. which 
with its ;;or;:e called |{ii//.ard's Koosi, also ••.Mill t 'reek 
<!ap," was Niron;;|\ fori i tied l»y mil me and an. In t his 
iiiovenieiit the One Hundred and I'oiirt h, t hen nnmher- 
iii^, its per i 'oloned I la|>eman's report, L*7!» enlisted men 
and 17 onicers. |iari i< i|>aiei|, and occii|)ied that ni;:ht 
tin- cani|i of 1 he Teiii h t 'oiifederale ( 'a valry of Wheeler's 
roinmand. The still smoldering: tires ami foia^e scat- 
tered around showed that I he enemy had left in a hurry. 
The position of |lii/./.ard's KtMist hein;; alniosi impre^- 
iiahh* to attack in front, Sherman prtiposed to iniii 
il liy sending: .Md'heison with the Army of the Ten 
lietiMii* Ihroii^li Snake Creek tlap on ihe rlL'hi and 
striking the lehfl rear enilaiiuer his poviiioii ;ii hal 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 201 

ton. Tlierefoiv t<» cjiny out tliis ])l;ni, McPIkm-sou 
b(\i;an tlio iiiovonioiit, while to cover the real d('si«;n^ 
the Fourteenth Corps was to dcnuonstrate heavily in 
front of liuzzard's Koost as if intendinii to carry it. On 
the 8th the One Hundred and Fourth, niarchin<>' witk 
rarliu's IJrij^ade, look position on some hills half a mile 
southwest of \\\\7//AiV(V^ lioost, aiul after m(»vinj;()ii<-e or 
twice, camped for the ni«>ht. The Dth was ushered in 
by advances in force of several divisions of the Fourth 
(\)ri)s, and the enemy pressed back into tlieir lines. 
Genei-al (Jeary made an attem]»t to scale (Miattooj;a 
Mountain, but met with resistance and it was aban- 
doned. I lis loss was considerable. The One Hun- 
dred and Fourth and Ei<;i»ty-eiohth Indiana, which, 
with the ]>ri_i:,ade, was orch'red across Mill Creek, took 
p()siti(ni on a spur overlooking the enemy's works in 
the (Jap and was en<;aj;ed in lively skirmishing- most 
of the (lay, but the Kegiment lost no men. The rest of 
the l?rima<le, also eiiiiagiMl, met with a sliiiht h)ss. 
McPherson's army entered and ])assed throu<j,h Snake 
Creek Oap on the 9th, and i^reatly surprised Johnston, 
but findin<i- liesaca fortified and manned, and afraid of 
bein<;- attacked from Dalton, McPherson withdrew to 
the mouth of the (ia]> and threw uj) works, (reneral 
Sherman claims that here the Commander of the Army 
of the Tennessee made a mistake in not seizing Resaca, 
which, when he arrived near it, was occupied by only 
one brigade of thv: enemy. Or he could have placed 
his army across the railroad and Johnston's line of 
communications and have forced hini to retreat in 
disorder over roads almost impassable, and witli 
Thomas and Schotield close behind, he would liave lost 
half his army, artillery and wagons. By night of the 
9th it was too late, as Hood, with three divisions, occu- 
pied Kesaca. General Sherman, on learning the result, 
resolved to throw his whole army through Snake Creek 
Gap. 

During the 10th the One Hundred and Fourth occu- 
pied the same position as on the previous day, and was 
skirmishinjr more or less heavilv all the time. On the 



>>: THE ONE HI'NnHKD AND FOURTH 

111 It ii \wl^ n-lifV«Ml afi«r liaviiiu Im-cu iiinln- lir.- foi 
foriv Ihiiii*!* foiiiiiiiioiislv. aii«l r«Mrossiii<; Mill • KmU, 
(-aiii|Mi| ftir tin* ni;;hl «»ii soiiit- liills. 

OiiliTx having Immmi issutMl l»v (mmmmjiI SlHiinaii l<»i- 
lldWiinrK TorpK nln* Fourth) and Sioiuiuairs Tavalrv 
!«• rfiiiaiii iM'foiM' nu/.zanl's Koost, tin* irst «»f tin* anii.v 
wan iliiiMictl lit iiiairh I lii«Mi;:li Siiaki- < 'nM'k < iap. w liirli 
il iliil on ilii- iL'ili aiKJ l.''ili. aii<l * uii(ciiti-ai«><l :iroini<l 
l{«*Mi(-a, Mtl'iM-isMii oil ilir li^lii, 'riioinas in tin* cimi- 
llT, tllltl Srlu»rH'|i| oil tlir h'fl. rnMltI:il .luJinstcUl was 
foiiiiil to liatr withdraw II his aniiy wiiliin ihr vciv 
««xiriisivi' iiml stitui;: works, his jMiJiry fNitJciillv lu-iii;; 
lo art on th«« drfi'iisivr riitiri'lv. thus Iraviii;; Cn'iKMal 
Sh<Tiiiaii the alternative of attacking his alinosi iiii- 
|ire^nahle positions and sai ritieiii;; thoiisaihls of val 
ualde lives, or of rout iniiiii^ his ;;:raiid slratc^iir tlaiik 

IIHiVellielitS wllirll Would of ||i*ressil V <-o|u|m-1 .lolmsloli 

to rrtreat or ha\e his ronniiiiiiirat ions i iii olT, when 
(liKaster wtHild he sure to follow wheihei- his army 
foii;:ht within the intreiirhiiients or outside. ( ieiieral 
SlMMiiian also had an idea that he wtuild \ei he aide 
to taki* .lohnsioii unawares, as Mrriierson *lid him at 
Hiiake Crei'k iJap, and arhie\e a \iei«»iy wiihoni loo 
iiiin-li sa«-rifi<e of lives. 

The t )ne 1 1 II nd led a lid I'oiiri h. lea V inn camp on t he 
rjth at six a. in., reaelied the (la|) ai dark and iiiarrh- 
in;; throii^ih rampeil in Siij:ar N'alhy. om- mile east of 
the il(*lMMirlie. (Ml the i:;t|i ill)- Ke^^inieiil took all 
urtlve part in the day's operation.^ and not wiihont 
joKK. t'oloiM-l llapeinaii says in his lejioit : "The line 
of the hri^ade was formed ahoiit noon, the Ke^jinieiit 
ill the lirht line, with the ICi^rhly-ei-hi h Indiana on the 
ri^hf and the rift^i'iiih Kentiirky on the left, rom- 
panies A and K were deployed as skirmishers. .Major 
\\ idnier in ehar;;e. They ad\ anted a «'onsideialde dis- 
Imne, driviii;; the enemy's sKliniishers until tiny 
r«'iu IiinI Tainp t 'reek, where ih<- en.. my was disi.ixcred 
ill forri*. In adviinrin;; anoss an op.n lirhi in front 

*'f 'I neni\'s Works tin. eompanies lost .uie man iiior- 

lally Wounded, and four \\ oinMh-ij The |:»..^ji,,,.in ^vas 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 203 

reliovod in the ovonini;- by a portion of the Twentieth 
Corps and moved fuiiiicr to the left" Durinjj;- the day 
Howard advanced throu<;;h Dalton and nearly to 
Resaea, skirmishing all the way. McPherson, with Kil- 
patrick's cavalry in advance and Hooker on his left, 
advanced on the roads to llesaca. Palmer moving on 
the left was engaged all day in skirmishing. Scho- 
tield's two divisions were to the left of Palmer, and 
Howard one mile from Scholield's left. 

(leneral Johnston had formed his army with Polk 
on the left, Hardee in th(^ center, and Hood on the 
right. His heaviest works were in fnnit of Camp 
Creek, where the One Hnndred and Fourth had been 
engaged. General Shennan had already prepared to 
get into the enemy's rear by having two pontoon 
bridges thrown across the Oostenaula Kiver three mih^s 
l)elow Kesaca, and had sent General Garrard's ( Javalry 
Division to operate on the railroad, seven miles from 
the town at Calhonn. 

On the 14th McPherson, crossing Camp Creek near 
the month, encountered Polk and drove him from the 
hills to his trenches. The whole line then, from Hook- 
ei-'s left, was slowly swung round on General John- 
ston's Division of the Fourteenth Corps, as a pivot, Car- 
lin's Brigade being the first to encounter the foe. The 
rest of the army to the left then came successiveh^ into 
action. The One Hundred and Fourth was formed with 
the Brigade in line of battle, with two companies out 
as skirmishers with or<lers to press the enemy hard. 
The advance was through thick woods and across an 
occasional opening. The enemy's works were on a hill 
back of an open field and as the Regiment came up 
and the skirmishers moved forward, a terrific fire was 
opened upon it from every tree and log, and from their 
works below the hill. The skirmishing companies 
advanced within one hundred and fifty yards of their 
line, when firing was directed upon them from another 
line of trenches. They then sought such shelter as 
could be had and fought the enemy for two hours and 
until they kept very closely in the trenches, to which 



an THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOl'HTH 

all hail hiM'ii driven. S«*r«;«*aiii Aiiiold, of riunpaiiv A, 
rolhflin;; his ;^niii|> Im'IiiimI a l<>^, ili<l ^mul wuik. Inn 
tliry wi-n* iiiiirli aiiii«i>«Ml bv a sliaipslnMtirr in a iH)-, 
iiiilil ilisroMTiii;; w linr lir was, ihr •:ronp liicd liy 
vollfjk ami Lu'oiijilit liiiii iImwh ratliri- lash-r than a 
n*;:anl for IiIk licalth wonhl warrant. Iln' htii^ath* 
Immui: iiiisiip|»ortr«l maih* no rhai';;«* upon the worUv; 
aii«l linally f«'ll l»a«k to the shelter nf tin- < 'irrk. 'I'Im- 
I{«-;:inii*nt lost oni* man kilh'<l aiitl nine woumh'il. The 
rasnalfies on the l.'ttli ami llih wri)' as follows: 
Kilhil — .lolin FtMin. ( 'ompany 1 ►. .\l<»iially woimiliMl — 
Si'r;ieant .\lh*n Hrn«Mliri, t'ompaiiy A; lacoh DrlTen- 
l>aii;:h. ( 'oiiipany <l. WonndiMl \Niii. Ilaiicit. 15. W. 
na;:ley ami < ". < 'hi-ist frlhT, all of < 'onipaiiv A ; < 'oi|(«»ial 
!•'. K. I'hi-lps aii<l oli\«'r I]. ( iriest, of ( \iiii|taii\ It; I'irst 
Seri»esint ha\i«l niiiikci-, ('onipaiiv <"; I'iisi Sci-^t-aiit 
toil. Mai'sh, ( 'uiiipaiiy I >; ( 'oi|M»ral haiiitl Mason, ( 'nui- 
pany <i; K. !•'. .Malloiy. ("nniitanx I: I'iisi Sci^cant ('. 
ii. Itutterwerk. < 'om|tan\ K ; lltiiiy Mnkel, ( Nunjiany 
K; .\u;iustus Knsner. <'oni|tan\ K : lltiifv Tox, < om- 
pany K. The lu*a\y li;,'litiii^' of tin- <la\ was fartli<r lo 
the left ami was en^M^^ed in by Uaiid's ami I>avis' 
IMvisions with vaiions smcesses. aided l>y the ( "oips 
of llowsird and Schnficld. who dro\i' Hn- i-n<'ni\ from 
tlu'ir rifle pits and into theii- woiks. An a<lvamed 
line was ;;ai!ied from which onr artillery reaehed the 
rehel main lines. The mnsketry and ;irtillery lirin^' 
was territlit- all day. I'inally ^Jeneial Johnston seeing 
that the lines wei'e diMwinu <loser around hint res(dved 
to take the olTensixe ami try to tnrn Sherman's left 
Hank. I'oi- this pnrpose he sent Stewart's and Steven- 
son's I divisions jiml two Uii^^ades of Walker. These 
triNipK were snereedin;: when they weii' met ami hurled 
hark in defeat l»y Williams* l>i\ision of the Twi'iilieth 
< 'oips, iiided |»y Sinn»nsoii's jJatlei-y. \\\ eveniii<i other 
IriMips arrixed un the left, snp|iorled also |»y Mrt'ook's 
i'liVHJry. (ieiieral .lolmston ordered another assault 
to he niad«' in the m<»rnin;:. Init withdrew the order 
aflerw iird. 

< Ml the |."»ih the ad\anla;ies ;iaim'd the day lietui** 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 205 

were followed by bold a<»gressive movements on the 
left, but these were not in full heiuhvuv until noon, 
when Geary and Buttertield, Williams in resei-ve, 
advanced. The enemy were again threatening that 
Hank and Williams' Division was deflected to the left, 
deary and I^utterfi«dd carried tlu^ nearest hills and 
drove the rebels from a battery, but could neither 
remove it nor hold the ground, however, retiring a lit- 
tle, they kept the enemy from recapturing it, and hauled 
it off at night. Further to the right the entire line 
was engage<l, particularly Howard. In from nf the 
Army of the Cumberland, heavy tiring and skiruiish- 
ing occ^urred all day. About tive p. in. Stevenson's 
and Stewart's Divisions made a fierce attack for posi- 
tion, but were repulsed with heavy loss, some regiments 
being nearly annihilated. The heavy artillery tiring 
was a marked feature of the battles at Kesaca. During 
the night Johnston withdrew his army across the 
Oostenaula, aiidOn the lOtli Sherman's entered Resaca, 
and pre])ared to pursue the enemy. But pontoon 
bridges had to be laid and this caused some delay. 
The Army of the Tennessee crossed at Lay's Feriy and 
Howard's Corps at Resaca. The Army of the Cum- 
berland followed. 

The One Hundred and Fourth here received the 
knai)sacks left at Snake Creek Cap and which had 
been left behind when the Regiment advanced. Cross- 
ing on the 17th with the rest of the army, the Regi- 
ment marched on over very muddy roads, during the 
day passing through Calhoun. The combined armies 
adA'anced in the following order: Palmer following 
Howard; Hooker on the left; the Army of the Ohio to 
his left; McPherson on the right, supported by Gar- 
rard's Cavalry; Stoneman's Cavalry on the extreme 
left. General Howard met with opposition early and 
fought all day, the rebels retiring from one position 
to another and watching for an opportunity to gain 
an advantage, but at night Johnston concluded to 
retreat further. It had been Genral Shrman's object 
to bring Johnston to battle north of the Etowah River 



tot THE ONE HVNDHED AND FOURTH 

or iiiakf liiiii tfivv up Koiiit- ••!• AlIattKUia, tlu-nfuie 
Ihivin' irivisioii was start. -.1 f.»r tin* f«>riMci- jilatf. 

till iIm* iNth tlu' nn»v«iinMit was <MHitimH'«l l»y all the 
ariiiit*K, ilu* (Mm- lhi!uli«-«l aii<l r<nntli iiiairliiii;: tttwuid 
A«laii>vill.-. biv.Miarkiii;; at iii;:lit tw«» iiiiUs fioiu that 
plait- an. I ilin*«- mil.-s fi-..iii Kiii<:st.m. Oii the l!Mh the 
Kruiiii.-iit r.-a. ImmI Kiii;:st<ni alxnit !i»>«»ii. This place 
was r.iiiii.l t.» Im' fiitii.-lv <l.-s«'it<M| liy tin* iiialc pojiula- 
tioii. The KtrtH'ts were full of all Uimls .>f ;:.».mIs whi.h 
tlir fMsipIr ha.l att.MHptf.l to i-.iiiMV.-. Whil.' .atiiij; 
iliiin.T «>ii tin- banks .if a liin' . r.-.U liiitij,' l».';;aii in iIm- 
fnuit. iii.li.atiii;; that tli.- .mk-iiiv was iicaf. Th.' I{r;ii- 
liifiit s.Hiu afl.T luai.lM-.l to a lni.li:.* .>ii tin* l^t<twah, 
f.iur iiiih'S southwest of tin* town. Tin' lii-iiij,^ was upnii 
Stanl.'v's Division, whi.h lc«l lii.' a.lvan.-.' in tin- • iii- 
t.T. hut picssin^r foiwai.l the hattcry f.'t i.'at.'.j. ;iinl 
Staiih'V. ;:oinji f«>ui- inih-s fuitlit'i- luft the .in'iny a.l- 
van. in;; in stnui;; f.»i.-.* in liii»* <if hat tic lloNNai.l's 
< 'orps was .Ic|iI.»\.mI ami ili** .'H.-iiiy halt<'<l. Inn um.I.'I* 
a vi;;.»r.»us aitilh-fy lif.- tlicir liist line fell hark an. I 
ll.»\\ ar.l .•«■. iipi.Ml t h.* posit ion and k.-|)t n|> skiiMiiishiiii; 
until .lark. Nook. m* .-am.* up in th.' lu.'antiiu.-. During; 
thf .lay th.' latt.-r ha.l Immmi .Mi^ia^rtMl on llio roa.l to ( 'ass- 
viih*. w h.'i'.* a|ip.-aran.-.'s indi.ai.W ili:ii J.thnstoii 
u.Mil.l ;.'iv.' t h.' hatt I.'. In ant i(i|»at ion (»f this (icncral 
Shcrnian ..•n.-.'iit rat.-tl his arnii.-s. lint .lohnst.ui .Inr- 
in;; the ni;.'lit rr.»ss.'.| th.* I^towah with all .>f his inat.*- 
rial ami r.Mr.'al.'.l to th.' str.ui^ .l.'f.Mises of Allat.»oiia 
Pans, lie ha.l h.-.-n r.'inforc.Ml hy I'r.-nch's Division 
an<l wais a.lvis.'.l hy llar.l.'.' tt» ti;:ht, hut .hos.- th.* 
w is«T .-ours.', as Sh.'rinan c.Mihl hav.' h.'at.Mi him at 
raiHMvine. (icni'i'sil Davis .In rini,' th.'s.- op.'rations .ap- 
tuffMl Home with a h»ss <»f loO men. ami with it th.' 
r.'iM'l ma. him- shops ami ir.ui wtuks, also \ast amounts 
of r. it Ion. .'tc, of ;:r.'at vain.* t.i t h.- rch.'ls. 

Tli.' On.' Ilumlr.'.l an. I l-'.uirth mar. h.-.l on ili«- L'iMJi 
!•• a |Miint .in th.' railroa.l f<»ur mii.'s from Kin^rst.m, 
wh.-n- it r.'inain.'.l until th.' U.'M. to .-nj.ty a mu.-h 
ikmiIimI r.'sl ami t.» pr.'par.- for th.- n.'\t movcm.-nt, 
whi.-li wan ilk.-ly to 1m- l<.n.^' :iii.| ar.luoMs wiili pl<-ntv 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 207 

of fi«>litiiiji-. Diiriiiji- the halt all siiiplus baggage was 
sdit to rhattaiio(>ga in chai-gc of Slu'nium J.^land.- 
The regimental wagon was taken away and the Col- 
onel and Adjntant carried necessary papers in their 
hats or pockets. The same stripping process was 
enfcu'ced thronghout the army, the value of which 
ai)peared later on. The whole army was now halti^l 
on the line of the EtoAvah waiting for the )-epaiis on 
the railroad to be completed. This was accomplished 
by the 24th, and cars loaded with supplies reached 
Kingston. Many rei)orts were brought in by negroes 
that Johnston's army was greatly demoralized by con- 
stant retreating and the failure to turn our think at 
lleseca. From the beginning of the campaign the 
southern ])apei's and peoi»le had predicted great things 
of (leneral Johnston, and as he withdrew from one 
position to another, said that he was' only drawing- 
Sherman on and when the time came would destroy 
or capture the wlude "Yankee Army." In these hopes 
they had the synn)athy of their northern friends, the 
Co])]»ei'lieads. That had been the talk, but, of course, 
their intelligent leaders knew better, and Johnston 
knew Sherman too well to delude himself. lie could 
simply avert the evil day that was to close down in 
darkness over the Confederacy. Therefore he pursued 
the only wise course by which he could save his army 
and by it served the rebel cause best. 

On the 20th General Sherman issued orders for his 
combined armies to move on the 23d. He did not pro- 
])Ose to attack Johnston at the strong Allatoona Pass, 
but turn it by moving on Marietta via Dallas. This 
would oblige the enemy to come out and fight or again 
retreat. The Army of the Cnmberland was, as usual, 
the central column and marched for Dallas via the 
Euharlee A'alley and Stilesboro. Davis marched from 
Kome. The Army of the Ohio was on the left of Thomas 
and directed toward Burnt IIick<u\v. Mcl*lierson kept 
on the right. All were to concentrate at Dallas. The 
country to be passed over was wild, away from the 
railroad, and therefore rations for twenty days were 



SM THK <•.%». Ml M'Kl.l' AM> F<»IUTH 

iiik«*n aluii;; in tin* \vaj:<»ns. Tin* (Mh* Iluiidn'd ami 
r«»urili Irfl tamp at i'i;:lii a. m. »»n the -.M, and iroinj; 
T«»iir iiiili*»< down tin* riv«*r rrosKinl by wjuliii;^. ihtii 
iiiairliiMl alioiii livf iiiilt's and i-anipcd iirai* KiiliarliM- 

< "t*t*»'k. .\I»< '«Mik*s 1 H\ isioiis of «avall\V, wliicli plrrrdrd 
'riuMiias, fmiiid I In* tiuMiiv in ftHMM* and k«*pl up skir 
inihliiiiu until ni;.dil- Tin* march was n'siiiniMl on th<' 
l'4lh toward Itnrnt llirkorv and skinnishint: (ontin- 
u«mI. (iarrards TaxalrN «tn the i*.\tnMn«* ri^liJ nn is 

attiM-kcd tlurin;: th«* day by Hales' IMvision of infantry, 
of llairihi'V < 'orps. Itnt at ni;^ht llnrni lliik»»i-y wis 
orrnpied l»v 1 h«' I'ouilh and Tu eiit id h < urps. The 

< Mie I InndnHl and l^Miirt h adxancin^ t hi'<M> inih's rross('<l 
|{arro«in ('reek and rainpfd. 

'rh«* armies \n ere now w ell on i he w ay lo I Jalhis and 
the motive of Sherman's ad\an»e l»ci ainc a|ipMiint !<• 
dohnstoii, who also saw in it a inenaee to .Marieii;i and 
Atlanta. Il«* tlMMefoie hastened to make what resist- 
am«' in* lonld. ih\ the L*r»t h the advame was rontin- 
m^I with llookfr's ("orps aln-ad in the <enter. l)nt his 
thriH? divisions w»if on separate roads, anti as he 
ii|ipi'oarhiMl I'mapkin \'ine('reek, he fonnd the ln'id^e 
aeioss iIh* stream defended by the ('inMny's ravalrv. 
<Jeary*s IMxision dro\e it awav and inirsncd beyond 
foni* miles near to ,\ pjare (ailed "New llojte." from a 
rlinrrh of that nann-. hesii-jn^; to seiiire tlie roids 
here, whirh were important. Sherman directed lloida-r 
to make the attempt. This bion^iht on a brisk en^M^e- 
inent beiw«i'n (Jeary's IMvisioii and a heavy forre of 
the eneniv whirl) had eome from Allatooiia. Hooker's 
hiviKions of Ward ami Ibit teiliehl arriv«'d on thesrene 
and Ihe ronlest was prohmi^ed into the nii;ht, without 
any derisive result. The Onr Ihimlred :ind I'ourth, 
with t'arlin's nri;,'ade. remaimtl in i;im|t diirini: i he 
-r»th, and until one a. m. (»f the next inoinin;:. Hn the 
•Jtlih the Ke^inieiif mairhin;;: out on the Murnt lli» kory 
Itoad erossed the Pumpkin \'ine and took position <in 
the eant Hide about three miles from Dallas. TIn'dawn 
of iliiy rcvejUed to Sherman the fart that .I«dinslon 
with IiIh army slt»od arross his line ..f mairh protected 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 209 

by heavy iutreiicliineiits. He was therefore reduced 
to the choice of assaulting in front or of maneuvering 
so as to outflank Johnston and either compel him to 
retreat or fight on ground more advantageous to his 
own army. The conditions were very similar to those 
that had existed at Dalton and Resaca, and it seemed 
probable that Johnstcm would pursue his usual policy 
of what his friends called grand strategy until he got 
Sherman where he wanted him. General Sherman 
had a humane and great aversion to having his sol- 
diers butchered in assaults which might fail when the 
result aimed at could be acctmiplished with less sac- 
rifice of human life. However, ready to seize either 
horn of the dilemma, he proceeded at once, on survey- 
ing and grasping the situation, to make dispositions 
of his forces calculated to bring matters to a speedy 
conclusion. To this end McPherson closed in on Dallas. 
Hooker held his position intrenched and was supported 
on the left by the Fourth Corps. Schofield closed in 
on Thomas. I>avi,s- Division was within three miles. 
Baird's and Johnston's had been delayed, but were 
approaching rapidly. The last few days of May were 
spent in concentrating before Johnston's lines and 
heavy skirmishing was maintained day and night 
everywhere uith an occasional vigorous attack, when 
heavy losses usually occurred to the attacking party. 
General Sherman kept extending his lines further to 
the left so as to reach and attack the right flank of 
the enemy. This policy led him nearer the railroad 
and his present objective, Ackworth, about eight miles 
distant. McPherson was ordered to leave Dallas, and 
close in on Hooker, but before he could do so was 
heavily attacked on the 28th, however, repulsing the 
enemy and inflicting great loss. It was June 1st before 
he effected a junction with Hooker. On the 27th the 
One Hundred and Fourth was moved in conformity 
with the Brigade and the general advance, to a point 
on Pumpkin Vine near Pickett's Mills and took posi- 
tion on a ridge. On the 28th the Regiment was formed 
early on the side of a wooded hill one-fourth of a mile 



ji» THK u.NK nrM»m:i' am> fmi uth 

ill iuivaiit«' of tilt* laiiip ami was .ii^iajitMl all »lay. t ln» 
♦•lu'iiiv al oiif tiiiu' atlvaminji wiili infantry an»l rav- 
ailry. Iml tlu\v wen* proiuiiily Wiivm !»ark with 1»»sk. 
Tli»- l{«'y:iiinMit th«*ii ihit'W ii|» woiks. I»nt was f\|tos»Ml 
all ilay to a scvm* Iii«* fr<»ni tin* top of tin- hill. Tlu' 
lirinj; was krjit ii|> all ni^hi ln*if an*l all ah>n;; tin- liiu*. 
Tlu* On*' 1IihuIi«mI an<l F«Mirth ni«-i with im .asiialtirs. 
Johnston's lHvision lM*hl tin- fXii«iin' l«-ff ai iIm- iinit». 
Tin* -l»th \\as sptMit in skifmishiii;: an»l siTiiriii;^ |Misi- 
tions n«*ar«T tin* cntMnv, whilt' SiD-niian lai<l linn hoM 
liu all roads in tin* tlini-tion of Arkworth mikI sent 
Htoiifinan ami <iarfanl with tin* «avali-\ to sii/,.- Alla- 
ttxma. Thns y^radually In* was ov«M-lap|iin<; ami rxtrml- 
in^ his lint's hrvond .iohiision's riuhl ami iMM-ami' imlif- 
friiMit as to .lohnston's jtosition at Neu I |u|k* ( 'lnii«h, 
ft»r tlu» stron;; Allal«Mina N\as sun* to In- lii> Tin* (>u«? 
Ilnndn^d ami I'oni-ih was uiih'tftl <iii iIh- i'.iMli to 
a«lvanr«* its skii-niislnM-s to tin* to|» ol iIh- hill. This 
was «|om* ami thr hill taken. Iiiit tin' lines on the left 
fulliii); bark coniijelletl the ( >ne llnmlietl ami Fourth 
men to retife als«i. ( >m* rasualty ocnin <•.!. .jjinies t ', 
Sehoonover, of ('onijtany K. hein;; inoitallv NNoinided. 
About si.\ p. m. a pail of llooil's « oips attarked in 
front of the whole Hfij^ath*, but ut-r*- uhi with a spii-- 
it«Ml lin* ami fell bark with a heavy loss, leaviui: the 
4l<*a(l ami woumled in our fioni. 

June 1st ami LM .M«I*herson aiiived. aii<l the Twen- 
tieth ('orjis moved to tin* left of .lohnsion's division, 
whirh had Indd the e.xtreine left. tMher divisions also 
moved in that direction, ami Hooker. Srlndield ami 
Itaird, advam-iii;;, dr(»ve the enemy's lines furt her away. 
The One Hundred and I'ourth foiiufil a part of a skir- 
mish line uhirh ailxanred al two p. m. to take the 

ridp* or hill from whirh the rebi-ls had I n keeping; 

np a constant tire on our lines. The rhar;:e was ^mI- 
lantly made ami the hill capturt'd; ihr Ke^iment then 
drove the enemy across a lield. In ihe char;:!' Jacob 
1*. Hnrd, of rnmpany H. was morially wounded; 
Darius U Trask, of rompany I. woimdi-d. The fo«* 
hein;; protected b\ Works oil the hill, it was a maii«'r 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 211 

-of siirpris*' that the (•asuMlri«'s \v«M-e not ^nvitcr. At 
six p. 111. the Kei^iinciit was r('li(*v<Ml by oiic tn»ni Haird's 
Divisiou aiid took position on Brown's Mill Creek. On 
Jnne 3d the One Hundred and Fourth with the Eiglity- 
■eijj;hth Indiana were sent to tln' left of Baird and formed 
on the front line and rcinaiiKMJ there eniiajned in skir- 
nii.shinj:;' until June 4:th, when thev rejoined the Brij;ade. 

From May 23d the movements and fighting of the 
Kegiment had been within the line of operations com- 
prehendiMl by the territory adjacent to Dallas, Pump- 
kin Vine Creek and New lIo])e Church, and was nearly 
continuous for two weeks, the men lying on their arms 
night and day, being frequently aroused to repel or 
make a charge. They suffered greatly from cold, wet 
and hunger, but endured all without murmuring and 
were in the best of spirits. 

On the night of June 4th Johnston evacuated his 
position and retired toward Kenesaw Mountain. Gen- 
eral Sherman's armies immediately advanced to Ack- 
worth, thence to Big Shanty on June lOtli. From the 
latter place a good view was had of the rebel forces on 
their mountain fortress. McPherson's army was shifted 
to the left; Thomas on the right and Schotield to his 
right. The railroad was repaired to the skirmish lines 
in front of Kenesaw and supplies brought to Big 
Shanty. Allatoona was fortified strongly and made a 
base of supplies. On the 8th General Blair arrived 
at Ackworth with the two divisions of the Seventeenth 
Corps, about nine thousand men. 

Thus had closed practically in May the first part 
of the campaign. The army had marched and fought 
over a rough mountain country for nearly one hun- 
dred miles, with an aggregate loss in the three com- 
mands and the cavalry of 9,299 men in killed, wounded 
and missing. Blair's Corps replaced this loss. John- 
ston's loss, as given by him, was in killed and wounded, 
5,392 men. He did not give the number of the missing. 
Prior to reaching Cassville, Johnston ha<l been rein- 
forced by 21,(500 men, which made his total since leav- 
ing Dalton about ()6,000 men. Therefore, in round num- 



m THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

ben*, lit- had ai N<'\\ ll<'i"- «liuirli tid.iMKt. whirli was 
not diTiraMMl w Immi Ii«- f»ll l»at k on Kmcsaw. If tlu' 
KMUllirrii |n-ii|»lr who \\ai«ln-<l tin* raini>ai;:ii with «'a;r«'r- 
in«K*i \v»T«* KiitistitMl Willi till' sti-atfgy of .lohnstoii, that 
«;avi* UK inn* simii;; |Misiti<iii aft«T ani>th«T. whith ha«l 
Imimi ih-i'iiH'tl iiii|in';:iial»lr. aii*l I In* loss «if itiic huii<ti-tMl 
iiiiirs nf i»'rrll<n\v in tin* Kiii|»ir«- Staitt* of tin* Stmtlu 
t«>;,'t*th»*r with tin* i»i«*st i};«* «»f virtory, (i»*iu*ral SImt- 
niaii, his army ami tin* North ha<l no i'i;;ht to coniiilain. 
'riif luavi- ami laimiiicil Sfr;;<*ant llfUiy K. I'lirt*, 
of Company I> (afinwaitl Uiijrd at IN-at h Tir** ( 'n*cki. 
writing; from Hij.' Shanty on .Fiim- lUth, sjiys in n*^ard 
to this (-am|>ai;:n: "1 would hav«* written soonci*. hut 
had no |»a|M*r or t*n\t*|o|M*s (nor toluicco). I cnu irivf 
vttu no init*lli;:i*nt a<<ount of our mo>«*unnts, for \\»* 
have marrhrd in «-\t*r\ ima*;:inabh* dirr<-i ion, and 
toward «*v«*ry poiMt of iln* rompass. W <• li;i\f b«M'n 
most fortunat** as a llc^iimrnt sim«* wt* left K<*sara, as 
ind«M*«l w«* w<*r»* in iIh* hatth*, for, thou;j[h w«* liavt* 
iMi-n und«*r lire a ;;r«*at dal, our loss«*s \\«*r«* rompara- 
tivtdy small. \\'<* w«'r<* on the tirst and skirmish linrs 
in tin* Allatoona Hills for iiiauv rousreutiv** days ami 
iii;;lits. Tin* Third l{ri;,Mdf sulT«'r«*d lM*a\ily thrrr, and 
w«* w«*r«* w«*ll slicjlt'd. Tin* rfhcls had \«'ry si r<»u;; \n oiks 
around New llopt-, liuili l»\ ilit- (l«'orjiia Miliiia and 
ni*;;ro»-rs. hut Slii*rman woikrd artuiud till tlu*y had to 
Ii;:ht out just as ili«*y did at Ki*sa(-a. A woman in om* 
of tin* hous«*s after the *.I<diiini<'* h-fi, said: *It was 
too had. aflt-r their \\\*-i\ had worked so hard al the 
!)r«*aKt Works. Hooker and auoijii-i- re;;iuieut ;::oi to 
shootin;: ri;:lit in the end of ihfui and they had to 
|ea\e.' W hile in those hills, there were a ;;real many 
Kayin;;s aiirihiited to the reltels. and more than I will 
voneh for. une was that a juisouer taken l»\ <»iir men 
had ai'i|nired a \er\ ronsideialde icvpci i for ihc way 
our !_'enerals were riowdin^ lhin;;s. and his way <»f 
manifesting: it was hy sayiiij: that <irant and Sherman 
on;;lit to ^ei oh a hi;:li hill ami ;:i\'e iIh- rniiiinniid : 
'Atleniion, ereaiion. l»y kinjidoms rij^hi wiieell' It 
HO happeneil that our wlioh-army was doiiij: thai very 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 213 

tiling at the time, making a right wheel on a fixed 
pivot, and the story took well. The regular Brigade 
lies in our front and a steady skirmish tire is going 
on. We have something more than twelve pounders 
with us, for guns of larger calibre are pounding away 
at the enemy on our left. We have nothing at all with 
us in the shape of baggage and officers carry theirs 
the same as the men. The cars now run into Big 
■Shanty." 



fllAl'TKiC XI \ 



Th*" B«ill«-ii Aroumi K<'nt»HW Mountain— Johnston's Withdrawal 
lit-yond the t'httttahtK>ch«H>— Battle of Peach Tree Creek— Bat- 
tle of Atlanta. 



t Hi .hiiif HMli ShfriiKiii's nniiirs ;»j:;iiii iii<»\i'«l fi.r- 
\\ai«l. S. huIii'M nil I he ii;.'lil. Tin •mas in t li«- t«'iu«M', and 
Mrl'lM-ismi (111 I In- Irft. .loliiistmrs |M»siiiun ttiviMMMl a 
fnuit of Koiiic tWflvr milrs, fnmi Lost .Mountiuii on his 
Ifft to KfiM'saw Oil his lijrht. H«'t\vr«Mi thosf was IMue 
Mo<i:itaiii. Th*- ^mouimI in his front was roii«:h, tiin- 
lirrnl, and rovrnMl with all nianinM* of ohsti ii»i i«»ns 
Hi- h«dd a liiu- of j^rrat natnial sir«Mij:^th. and In* had 
adth'd to I his hy rxtrnsivt* lines of w«nks, a matter he 
n«-v«-r in-«:hMird. It had rained most of tin* time since 
.Inne 1st. and what roads there were eoiild mu he 
used. Itnt the army consi riii le.l lis own r<»ails 
and ttiiled sh»\\ly aloni; up lo ihc Itase of Kem-saw. 
The Uiic llnndred and I'oiirih iiiai<h.d mi iIh- KMh 
to a point beyond W'l'^ Shanty and camped in the mutl. 
The llih and TJih were so rainy that \er\ liiile luuld 
he doiH'. Thf lletiinieiit was nioxfij nine or t wice a 
half mile in the left and nearer ilie cmniy. (Mi the 
14lh the rain havin;: slackened up the lin.-s were 
advam-ed a mile and a half and works thrown u|i for 
tell miles. Hn this day the rehel (o-neral Polk was 
kille<l by a shot from om* <»f our halieries which was 
]dayiii;: on rim* .Mountain, nm* of our si<;nal olhters 
who had lejiriied the rebel si;:iial k«'V, ascertained the 
fact, (ieiieral Sherman ordered the armies !«• advance 
on the ir»th. whirh beiii;; doin- it was discovered that 
.Tohnsion had shoriene(l his lines b\ evacuating; IMne 
Mountain, lie thereby aided Thomas and Schoficld 
jireatly in i he line nf t heir ad\ am »•. nur left was well 
exieiifletl ;irouinl K<iiesaw . 1 1 « ' w ;i ]• !'*> < "ofps III ad\;inc- 



REGIMENT IT^LINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 215- 

ing- the lines liad a brisk fight but drove the enemy 
from their intrenched skirmish line and into their 
works. The One Hundred and Fourth not long before 
was obliged to i>art with a valuable officer in the per- 
son of Captain Leighton, whose wound, received at 
Chickamauga, had become so bad as to compel him 
to leave for the hosi>ital at Nashville. On the 16th 
the Regiment and Brigade were ordered to relieve the 
Second Brigade, having done which it advanced, skir- 
mishing some six Imndrod yards and threw up breast- 
works. On the 17th the One Hundred and Fourth 
advanced lialf a mile, driving the en<MMy's skirmish- 
ers with Companies A, E and F, Major \\'idmer in 
charge. No casualties occurred. It then lu'ld the posi- 
tion gained. The operations on other parts of the line 
resulted in driving the rebels across Miid Creek. Dur- 
ing the niglit the enemy attempted to regain the posi- 
tion, but was rejMilsed. On the 18th the Kegiment 
again advanced and skirmishing drove the rebels into 
their works. In this charge Corporal James Logan, of 
Company C, was killed. Captain O. M. Southwell and 
Edwin S. ]\Ioore, of Com]>any II, were severely wounded. 
During the <iay Cenerals Wood and Xewton, of the 
Fourth Cor])s, suri)rise<l the enemy and secured an 
important part of his main line and intrenched. In 
the night Johnston withdrew from the portion still 
held, thereby preventing an intended assault by our 
forces on the 19th. At seven a. m. of the 10th the One 
Hundred and Fourth was moved to the front of and 
base of Kenesaw, against which the Fourteenth Corps 
now pressed closely. Johnston had further contracted 
his lines. Kcnesavr was the salient of his army with 
tlic wings drawn back so as to cover Marietta and the 
rear toward Atlanta. The line was of immense 
strength and it was to be tested whether Johnston 
could maintain it or would retreat before his wily 
antagonist'. Oeneral Sherman meantime kept pushing 
his lines clctser to those of the enemy, ready to assault 
and tight when anything could be gained, and he also 
did not neglect his favorite game of playing around 



tl« THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

till* tlaiiks aii«l Irving !•> rrarh tht* (-oiiiiiiiiniraiions of 
hiH ciiiMiiv. Oil the L'Oih ilic (Mil* lluiwInMi aii<l Fourth 
iiiovimI Im tlu* ri<;lil and n*li»*viMl soinr tioops of (he 
Koiirih t'orps. I hiring lh«* L'lsi an. I I'lM th«' K«*;iiiiu'nt 
was i-hiKf up to thi* I't'lM'l \vi»rks aii<l MiltjirttMl to a ttT- 
ritic lin» of arlilhTv and nnisk«'trv. .I'llm A. <'«H)k, of 
i'onipaiiv <\ was niortallv \vouii(l«<| ; Sit^^'jiim (mmit^^c 
l^iiiiniiiis, «>f < 'onipaiiv 1^, ami W illi;iiii I'. N«*wroiiih, of 
(.Vuiipaiiv I), w»Tc \\oiiiiil«'<l. Thr liiiii;^ \Nas hravv and 
eoniinnoiis all of tin* liLM ou ih«- w hoh- jiur. Tin* ivhel 
left, r»Miiforr«Ml bv Hood's Torps. w !ii< ji had toiin' from 
tlu* rl^dit, assaiiltt'd llook«T li»'ir«*l v. liiii afi«'r srv<Tul 
assaults withdicw with ln-avv loss. <)ur artilln-y, as 
Johnston adiniltcd, inowfd down Hood's rohimns l»y 
huudi'<*ds. ( i •Ml* Ma I Shcrniaii now d«M<'i-iniii«'d t«i attack 
the rfb«d rt-nit'i- and nainrd tin* 'JTili for the assault, 
whifli was lo Im' mad** l>y troo|»s of 'riiomjis and 
Mrl'lu'ison. At niin* a. in., tin* tinn- xi, amidst the 
roar of tanmm ami musket tv alonu: the line of tea 
miles, the divisions of Davis and Nt'Wton l»*apin^' over 
tln'ir w«»i'ks, moved forwaid. Tin' dislam** to the i*ehel 
works was ahoiit si.\ hundred yards ami the ;;ronml 
to In* travers»*d lou^h, stony ami st«'»*p. I'mh-r a ter- 
rilif tire Djivis' l»ri;;ades advamtd to iIh- \«ry |»ara- 
p«'t.s, hut lu'ini; unalde to tak** llicm lialifd nndfi- the 
relM'l ;:uns, and <*<|ually unaldr to retreat, staid tln-re 
uml ilir«*w up intrrnchments within a few yards of 
the •*m*my. N«'Wton met with l«'ss surr«*ss owin;j; to t he 
obstrm-iions. .M< I'luisou ai Liiil<' Kcn«*saw ctTected 
a lod;;uit*ni m-ar the memy's wi»rks, hut mnld m»t take 
th»*m. <hir losses were hravy. Tlionias losing: about 
two thousand ami .Mcl'lM-rson !i\t' liundi<'<l. < rcnerjil 
Marker was moi*tally w unndt'd. also many oi ht-i- ofht-ers. 
Ifowevi'i-, Scliofidd bad ini|»ro\cd I In* <»ppoii unity |>re- 
K«Mit«*d and f(T«'»t«*d I In* rrossiiij; t»f ( MIey's ( 'r«'«'k. when 
h«* «*st ablisht'd bis roips in a position tliat impi'rile«l 
•lohnKton'H rear. <liin-ral Slu'iinan. iir»'d of costly 
aMMaiultH, prepar«'d nioi-.- flankin;: movi-ments. 

Th«* On»' llnndr«*d and I'ourib on tlie «'V«'nini: of 
tin* L'Tib. i«-lii-\»'d p;iit of ill.' Scc.ind Uriuadt* on tli<* 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 217 

front line and was about three hundred yards from 
tlie rebel works. IMenty of dead rebels lay in their 
front. Serj'c'aut Sidney ^^ Arnold, of Company A, was 
wounded in the foot. The lie^iment remained here 
until July '2d, when Serj^cant Henry K. Price was 
wounded. In the afternoon it moved a short distance 
and threw up works. General Carlin receiving;- a hnive 
of al)sence, Colonel A. (i. McCook assumed eommaud 
of the Brij^ade. On the 3d, the rc^bels were found to be 
gone from the front and the Regiment, marching at 
7:30 on the Marietta road, advanced four miles, 
beyond Marietta and was again confronted with the 
enemy behind strong works. It was now about ten 
miles to the Chattahoochee Kiver. On the 2d 
McPherson passed his army and cavalry to the right 
to tiauk Johnston. The latter very promptly, if not 
courteously, withdrew from all his huge fortitications 
on the Kenesaw line on the 3d, going to the river 
July 4th the One Hundred and Fourth was engaged 
in heavy skirmishing all day in front of the enemy's 
works. Meantime Sherman had pursued rapidly, but 
found Johnston's front eyervwhere fortitied His 
object, however, was to hold back our army until his 
own was sure of a safe passage across the deep Chat- 
tahoochee. Beyond that river vast fortiiications 
crowned every hill top to Atlanta, ten miles distant. 
When the astute rebel general perceived the scope of 
McPherson's movement he knew that our army could 
get below him at Marietta, or even cross the river. He 
had to fight in assault the strongly intrenched army 
under Thomas, or run to save Atlanta. He chose the 
latter. 

On the 5th the One Hundred and Fourth and Fif- 
teenth Kentucky advanced in reconuoissance toward 
the rebel works, but found them vacant ; the enemy was 
again retreating and the regiments following. Captain 
Proctor, with Company I, captured eleven prisoners. 
The pursuit here was continued for two and a half miles 
when the Regiment suddenly found the enemy in- 
trenched about two miles from the river. Skirmish- 



OS THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

iuj; lli»M> Ik'^jmi ;iu«1 la>l»-<l ln-avilv \intil cvriiiii;:, \\\u-n 
tin* < Mif lhiii*lr«Ml aiitl l'<»iirt li, lu'iny irlii-vrtl. iiiovi<l 
bmk ii kIhum ilisiaiirt'. <HMH'ral .lolmstMH having fall«*u 
bark to hi« liiu* in ihe \all«\ of \hv ( "hattaho(K-li«*i', 
SlKTiiiaii pnrsuiii;: vi«;<»ioiislv. plantctl <;«Mi«Tal 
Thoiiiiis ill fiiiiit with liis aiiii.\ of ih.- < iiiiilMMlaiKl. 
SrhoIii'M au<l MrlMn-isoii iiimv«m| h» tin- li^lit il«>\vii llie 
rivrr i«Mi mill's. whil«* ili«* ilashiii*:: <ii'iu*rai SloiK*iiiau 
w««in still fiirtluT liflou to S;iiulli»\vii. <Jari-anrs Cay- 
alr\ iiiitxiii;: "ji tin* livi-r «'i;;liif«'ii !iiil«*s caiiliirjMJ Koss- 
w«'ll aii«l tin* riossiiiiis tlH'ir. It was suppostMl tliat 
.loliiistoii \\tnil«l t'St'Vi liiins«'lf to tin* utiiiosi to |u«*\«*tit 
tin* National Aniiv fiom nussiii^ t li«' < 'liattalio(nhef, 
hihI it woiiM si-tMii lliai In- oii^'lit lo Iki\<' <lom» so, but 
it a|»|K>ais that In* ii';:ar<li-<l his imIht lines a litth' 
fiifthiT bark oil IN'ach 'l'v*'t- ( 'irck. and the ininirns«* 
fort ilii-at ions of Atlanta it sol fas iin|Hr^Mial»h' to assault 
in fi'tiiit, whilo invostincnt of that fa moil rity ho t honHrlit 
impossilili*. l'rolial»l\ hi- iliM-iih-il that Shoinian 
woiihl also Im- unabli' to ^o aronml Atlanta ami 
stMi-r all of his rommnniralions with tin* n-st of tho 
CoiifiMlcfaiy. ll<- iiiisralciilaiiMl ihi* stfoiijrth of Shor- 
ni ail's annios also. I tut it was iliMiMinini'il that At la lit a, 
a plari' of tho most \iial importami- to tho vim\v oxisi- 
onri* of tin- ( 'oiifiMlfi-aiN , mnst In* savi-tl fi-om tho in- 
vailof. Ihmh-.- tin- <russin^ of the ii\«T \\;i^ «;ii<»'ly 
dispiitoil. 

( >n I III- !»i h i low Mill's ( 'orps iiossnl ai raircs I'tirv 
ami fonml ii ih-fi-mli-il by only a small i:nanl. Now- 
toiTs I>i\ision ami l)oi|;:i''s ( 'oips itossimI ai Kosswoll. 
Thomas ilomonst raii*)l in front mrantiim-. Tho < Mio 
Ilnmlroil ami I'oniih was i'n;;a;ji'il on tin* skirmish lino 
ami with t III- nri;:aili-. ailvami-il to tin- lirst liiii' of irbil 
ritio pits, whirh tln-y ra|itiiroil. In this aiham-o John 
a. I h*bo|t, of ( 'ompiiny II. was nioi-ially woinnlnl. Not 
boin;: siippoiiiMl tin* lii-^inifnt hail to fall bark. l>nr- 
in;: tho ni^'hi .Johnston wiilnlirw his army arross tho 
< 'hatlaliourhiM'. bnriiin;^ ihi- britl;xos. Thus rlosi'«l 
aiiothiM- i-ra in tin- hisiorx nf ihi* rampai;;!! bi'^nm two 
months bi-foif ami it inil«<l in snr«rss. with a promise 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 219- 

of final triuiiipli for the armies of the Union sometime 
in the future. Sherman's k)sses in killed, wounded and 
missing, from June 1st to July 3d, aggregated 7,580 
men. The Army of the Cumberland lost 5,531. The 
Army of the Tennessee, 1,334. The Army of the Ohio, 
665. (reneral Johnston made his losses in killed and 
wounded 3,048 men. Ilis missing, prisoners not given, 
amounted to 2,000. The June campaign had been car- 
ried on un<ler greater difficult i<*s than the one in May. 
It had rained uearly every <lay, rendering movements 
slow and difficult. From the 10th of June to the 9th 
of July some part or all of the armies had been under 
fire constantly by day and frequently all night. The 
month had been one of severest trial, hardship and 
danger, yet amidst all the armies of the Union had 
pressed forward in the full confidence of victory, and 
when at last they beheld in the distance the spires 
of Atlanta, there Avas a greater desire than ever to 
press forward and capture the prize, and destroy, if 
possible, the last and only great rebel army south of 
Richmond. 

General Sherman, having forced Johnston back to 
the defenses of Atlanta, began at once to prepare for 
the advance on that city. This was the more impor- 
tant, as it was not improbable as indicated by General 
Grant, that reinforcements would be sent from Virginia 
and from other points, in the endeavor to hold a place 
of so great value to the Confederac}^ Therefore, from 
the l()tli to the 17th of July new bridges were prepared, 
McPherson's army was transferred up the river to 
Rosswell, and Palmer's and Hooker's Corps were ready 
to cross at Paice's Ferry. Garrard's Cavalry Avas sent 
to the left, and Stoneman's and McCook's down the 
river to the right. On the 17th of July the movement 
was begun. McPherson, crossing at Rosswell, marched 
toward Stone Mountain, Schofield toAvard Cross Keys, 
and Thomas on the right toAvard Buckliead, the latter 
facing Peach Tree Creek and camping that night on 
Nancy's Creek. The enemy's skirmishers retired Avith 
little opposition. The One Hundred and Fourth occu- 



sal THE ONE HL'NDRED AND FOURTH 

|>U*<i ai |Hisitiuii aboiii om- iiiil<- Ih-voikI tin* ri\«'i-. Tin' 
liiuviMiiiMit wais a ;;iaii.l li^lii w Ihm-| wiili tin- r<Mn- 
ttM-iiili i 'oi|iN as a pivMi. ( Ml «lu- l>«li < itiuial SInMiiian 
ItNiriiiHl fnnii mw <»f his sjiirs. wlm lia«l conn* fnua 
Allaiilii. thai <i«*ij«Tal II«».m| was i hi'ii ronmiaiHhM- itt 
thf n'hfl aniiv in plarc <»f .lohiision, having siutiMMltHl 
him Mil th.- ITih. This iiM-aiit lliat a in-w polirv wjih 
tit \tv iiiau;:mjilr(| hv lh«- n-ln-l h-ath-rs. uin- in which 
olTfUsivf *i|M*rali*tiis t»f ihr int»si vi^onuis rharat»«*r 
ini;;hl hr ••ximmIimI fiMin what was kii<»wiM>f lloml. who. 
thi»n;,'h of small aWiliix < ..iii|.ai«Ml wiili .I<>hiisi..ii, was 
u lij^hti'i- of It 'I Ml t at io II. t iciMMal Sln-niiaii so roiisi iiumI 
it ami wanif«l all of his siil»oi<liiiatcs to he on ih«'ir 
;:iiaril. MrlMnTson on ihi- isHi irath«'<| ihi- faiifoa*! 
Ufar Stoiu' Mountain, ton- it \\\t ami marrhnl lowanl 
Atlanta, at ni;:ht j«»ini!i;; SrhoiicM ai |)<Tatwi'. Th»' 
Ainix of 1 hf t 'iimlM'ilamI apitioarlM-il I'rarh Ti«*»*. Tlif 
t Mn- iinmli'rd ami I'oiiiih rpossnl Namv's rn-i-k ami 
maiiitaiiniii;; a hot skirmish tir«' w iih tin* tiM-mv. di-ovt* 
tlifiii ii inih' into ihoir wtuks. ( Mio man was wonmhMl. 
Tims faf sim-f nossin^ tin* t 'hat lahooilu-c things 
iiad ;;onr so smoothly that tlir hoys ln-uan to s|MMiilat»' 
oil t he |ii'os|MM-t *if soon haviiit; a «<^oo<1 1 inn- in Atlanta, 
loit it was tin- talm that |H'«MMMh's tin- storm. Many 
loH'j; w«'«'ks of maifhini: ami tij^htini; w«'it' <lrstim'ij to 
pass away iH-foii- thf fall of th»' "^'lalr t'iiy;*' maii\ a 
hravr heart wonhl Immohh' sih-ni in tl<Mili ln-ron- tin- 
liapprniii;: of t hat rvt-nt. Tin- shadow > i hat w<i«'soon 
to fall n I toll this iiii;:hiy aiiny of on<' huniii'*-i| t hoiisaml 
nnMi. wi'if ;:al hriin;: ami h-n;^! hcnin;:. pir^nant with 
the Ihiimh-ii hiMtls of hatth* ami iMMiin;: <h-st iini ion 
for ihf (Mm- 1 1 iimlt-i'il ami l-'oiii-i h. nn i ho T.M h all t In- 
arml"*s w«-rr rhtst-ly iiiiiiod a;;ain ln-foi-c Atlanta, hni 
)H»rtions (if ilu- Army of tin- t'nmhorlaml in ffoitt of 
l'«*arh Tfoi* foiij^ht thrir way into |iosition across that 
«r»i*k iimh-r a spiriti-tl tir«- fioni tin* omMnv. Tin- Hue 
lliimlr<*«| ami l-'oiiith lti\onackt-il mi I'l-ach Tr<'»' at 
nii:hi. Thr LMMh was a <la\ of hattio on this part of 
the lim*. I'airly in tljo mornin;: tho < Mn- llnmlroil ami 
I'ioirth. cioNsiii;; Ti-at h Ticc ( ii-.-k at llowdTs Mills 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 22L 

aiul inarching about one iiiil<', was foiiiuMl in line of 
battle on the tirst line and on the left (►f the I{ri<ia<le, 
with the Fifteenth Kentucky, Forty-seeond and Ei<ihty- 
ei^lith Indiana on its rij-ht. Williams' Division of the 
Twentieth Corps was on the left. The One Hundred 
and Fourth was in a<lvance of th<- left <>f the Fifteenth 
Kentucky about one hundred and twenty-tive yards, 
and separated from it by a deep ravine which ran by 
the rijiht of the Ke<j;iment and to the rear. The men 
bewail to throw up works, but !iad not made much 
jtroiiTess when an order came to desist, it bein<; stated 
that the lines would soon advance. The day was 
intensely lH>t and all sought the shade of the trees 
and buslies awaitinii further orders. Abotit four p. in. 
the enemy advance<l ami attacked the Twentieth Corps 
and in a few mcunents rushed upon the One Hundred 
and Fourth in two lines. The Regiment tired a volley 
that sent them back to a ravine, where, forming again, 
they adA'anced up the ravine on the rigiit and attacked 
the right Hank of the Kegiment, jtouring in a volley 
that killed or wounded half of the men in the five right 
companies. One of the rebel regiments, ])assing by 
the right, attacked the rear of the half-tinished works 
on the right and a hand to hand contest ensued in which 
every man Avas a hero. Colonel Hapeman ordered 
Companies A, B and C, or M'hat was left of them, to 
withdraw a little. The other companies, meantime, 
maintained their position, while the Fifteenth Ken- 
tucky and Forty-second and Eighty-eighth Indiana 
formed in vchcJou in the rear, opened a volley that 
made the enemy pause. Colonel Hapeman had sent 
for aid and the Tenth Wisconsin came to the rescue 
on the left, while the Twenty-first Wisconsin formed 
on the right. But before the latter arrived the rebels 
had been driven back and their colors, which they had 
planted on the works of the Regiment, captured. The 
first (niset, which had proved so destructive, was the 
work of a few moments. The enemy in trying to escape 
through the ravine were nearly all either killed, 
wounded ^r captured by our men. The enemy had the 



SB TMi; I'M: HI .M>JC».i' .\.Ni> j<'1 KTH 

iiiipr«*ssioii (lull iIm-n IwuI sinirk iln* ri;:lil think of ilu» 
Army of ihc < 'iiiulM*rhtiiil. In I In* ifti«*;ii ili»'\ iciiit»\r«l 
iiniKt of tliiMi- (li'iid ami womihIimI, Imi ilu'Oin- lluii<lnHl 
aii«l F«»iirili liuriiil rivf wlm luul fallen in <ni«' s|»ui. Tin* 
li^lil lasirtl alMiiit an hour, hni was ln'^iin \\\ a sur- 
|>riK<*. Tlif Um* lhin*li-f*l ami l-^Ml^lh foljowftl n|* tin* 
I'flK'ls willi lli«' ifst of I In* Hri^ath' ami its skiiniish- 
vrti «MTUi>i«M| thfir positions of tin* morning. Tin* i«*port 
of tlw c ItiMiai of tin* Hii-iath* says, vi<h* Kt*l>. K«*r., \ol. 
'A\ I'l. I, p. .'»:>:,': ••Tin* ln*avi»*si of tin* ti;;hl f«*ll on tin* 
One llnmli-<*«l ami l;oni-th lllimns, ami that K«*;;inn*nt, 
with tin* i«-si of I In- ronimand arinl sph*n«li<ll.\ t hioii^ih- 
ont of t In* w hoh* t*n;:a;;»*nn*iit.*' < 'olon«*| 1 lapt-nian says: 
"Tin* oMicfr;? ami iin-n lu-haNctl ^alianiiv an<l irniaiin'd 
lirnj in iln-ir position. " Tin* icltcl ;nia»k <li<l not rxtt'inl 
fiirtln-i- to ill.- ri;:Jii ilcui the lioni ol tin* I'iist Itri- 
jia«l«*. h woiihi sciMM that siiMirirni raic had not Imm'H 
lakrn l»\ t'ojunrl .Mct'ook, who, in tin* ahscmr of < irn- 
»*ral <":ulin. t-oinmami«*il tin* Uii^iath- in jiosiinu th<* 
Hc<;iim*nt wln*i«* it was f«)nml by tin' «-n«niy. Tin* 
l(»HS(*s w«'i'<* ap])allin;; for so Nuiall a ronimaml ami cast 
a shallow of ;:looiii ovn- tin* K«*j:inn*nt. Tln'\ \\«*r«' as 
follows: Kiih-d r;ipt;iin l>a\iil < '. Kym-aison, ( 'oni- 
paiiy <'; Taptain dtdiii S. 11. holy, ( oinpaiiy K: Scr- 
p*aiit nlivfi- I'. Ilai-din;:. ("oMi|tiin\ .\ ; .\lon/.o 11. I, Mr- 
kin, < 'onipan\ .\ ; < oi |M>i-;il I'Mward \\ ottlsontroti, t 'niii- 
pany U: Sir^^t-ani dtdin Thorson, < 'onii»any < i ; t orporal 
Kdward Mnnson. <'onipan.\ <": Washington <i. Taik^r, 
Ounpany ( '; Srr;j«*ant llmry I'.. Tilt «*. < 'umpany I ) ; ( 'or- 
poral Tlnnnas Hnrnhain, t'onijtany 1>; Mnsician <Mho 
liolijiri. < ■.iiiip;in\ I >: Noiinan t iiani. ( ompany I > ; Wil- 
liam r». «'oyli-, ("ompany \>: .lohn S. Poucis, ('onipany 
I); Trtcr Ihinn. ("ompany I'; dohn .Mri'nilon^h, ('oni- 
pany K; dohn W. Aldiott, ('onijiany |]. .Mortally 
wotindrd llir;im .\ mh'ison, ( ompany I>: William W. 
rilkin;:ton. (ompany 1). Woimdrd ha\id N'arntT, 
CompanN .\ ; I'atiirk ( >'! >onn«*l|, ( 'umi>an\ A. woumlrd 
and taken prisom-i-: S«'rj,'«'ani William .M. (hamlMTs, 
C'4ini|»any 15: Scr^'rant .Mlnri ( '. hassctt. ( 'oinpanv II; 
Ilfiirx I' Kohi'^oii. ( '.iiiijKinx I': lliiir\ \\ iiiffrsrin-idt, 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 223 

Coinpaiiy B; Siduey W. liurj^ews, Company 1>; (lustavus 
Petei-HOii, Coniptuiy B; Moiis Olson, Company B; Ste- 
phen II. Patterson, Company B; Lient«Miant Thomas 
Clark, Company I), severely; Ser^vant -lohn T. Post, 
Company D, in the head; Corporal Lewis K. lliUton, 
Com])any D, severely in the head and ri<»ht lej>; John 
Shai)land, Company 1); John Kinker, Company D; Rich- 
ard J. Gai^e, severely, three wounds; Serjeant William 
J. Anderson, Company E; 8er«>eant K(d)ert A. Brattou, 
Company E; Corporal William H. Conard, Company E, 
severely in right shoulder; Corjioral Iliion Jj. Mead, 
Company E, in the head; William M. \\ilson, Conii)an3'^ 
E, severely in left shoulder joint. 

Captain William Htrawn, of (,'oni])any F, says in 
regard to Peach Tree Creek: "We had crossed the 
Creek and had come to a halt near some thick woods 
and brush; stacked arms and began some temporary 
works when we were ordered to stop. We were out 
of sight and at some distance from the Brigade, what 
for we never knew. It was very hot. About four p. m. 
our pickets came rushing headlong over our slight 
works, and a rebel force following closely, fired and 
charged on the right of the Regiment, which had 
scarcely time to get into line when they were upon us. 
The whole right was doubled back on the left, when 
order was restored and the rebels eventually driven 
back, leaving part of their dead and wounded in our 
hands. The rest of the Brigade came to the rescue. 
The left of the Regiment, of which my company was 
the right, owing to the fact that it was on the shel- 
tered side of a ridge, escaped unharmed and took part 
in the fight with spirit. But what a terrible loss had 
fallen on the right. Half of Companies A, B, C, D and 
E, were either killed, wounded, or cnptured, to be 
dragged to the rebel hells called prisons. Company 
E, next on my right, lost half its men. Captain Doty, 
my warm personal friend, lay dying with five bullet 
wounds in his body. He was lying with his head down 
hill. Realizing- his condition he called to me to pray 



rr« THK 'Ni m .Si'Kil* ANI> FOURTH 

for him. Takiii;: iiiin in iii> jiniis aiul |>l:iriii^ him in a 
ImMIi*!' |Hihi(iMii 1 atlminisiciiMl what « itiisiWaiion 1 i-onhl. 
IliH I»I«hkI Miiiiralin^ niv (loihin^. 1 h«*hl him nntil he 
wiih iiirrii*«l lo th«' rear «»n ai stpfirhtT. l>iiiv callin*; 
im* I'lww h«T«' I saw n<i nnMr of mv ImMovimI friiMul ami 
u hoh* soiihMl. nolih* stihlici-. lii* (lic^l soon af(«'i- in th<* 
full roiihtiouHnt'ss that his life had Immmi ;;iv«Mi to a jnsr. 
CIIIIH4*, and wiih ih«- hojH- of th«- <hiistian. A iinly 
iiolili* Honl, iisin^ no rani, making no louil professions, 
linl with fall fail h in his lv«'<h-fiM<'r ami ihf ;:oo(lm'Ss of 
<io«l. 'rh«- rcnhT of ihi* itltcl line slrmk the ri;:ht and 
rt'ur whrrc it had an rntihidin^ tin* and noihin;; but 
the t'l«*vali«in spokrn of sav«*d ihf l<fi. \\ »• have a 
ri;:hl to |M«li«'V<' that th«* phirin;: of thi- lJe;iiment so 
far awav from tlw r«*st of ih<- |{ii;:ad«* was dm* to the 
iiuildlitv or rareh'ssness of our Hrii^ade ('ommamh'i'. 
1 have for;:otien his mime and am ^dad of it ; my indi^^- 
nation oxfi* the affair was not ai while heal until a 
ropN of a < 'iminnat i pa|»er tame into camp with a com- 
niuiii<'at ioii from 'onr rorrespondeni at the front,' in 
which the 'hravery. ahilitv and <<>nsniiimat(* general- 
ship' with whieh the rommander handled the Hri;;a<1e, 
et«-., was heralded to the world. Ilandle»l the Uii;^adel 
Hahl The Kri;:ade lia\ini: heeii placed in an awkward 
|H»Hili<Mi and made to JicIieN e I here was no ciiemy w it hin 
Hirikin;: distance, u li«-ii ilie lime came, liaiidled itself! 
llie other rei^inieiits coming to our aid as soon as we 
were attacked. However, We lost maiiv l>ra\e men 
owin;: entirelx io the fact that the Ke;;iment had been 
placed in an improper position before a viuilant f(»e, 
ever on the lookout for just such an opport unity as was 
presented. When burying: 'he dead on the next day 
ipiile a number were found on both sides. pi<'rc«*d with 
the bayonet. Notwithstanding; the suddenness of the 
aflark and the fierceness i»f the stru<;;j:le, there was no 
panie in our ranks. This was owini: to the fact that 

we hail become so arcUStollied to the coolness of our 

rt*^iinenlal oHicers that one ami all took it for granted 
that to simply obey <»rders was the surest way to come 



REGIMENT ILLIXOIS VOLUNTEERS. 225 

out all right. Tlio next iiioriiini; was sjKMit in burying 
the dead, iu which sad duty the dead i'«'bcls received 
the same attention as our own." 

John G. Newell, of Company E, says in regard to 
Captain Doty: "I was among the first to reach the 
side of our beloved and lamented Captain Doty when 
he fell at Peach Tree Creek, and shall never forget his 
last words, which were these: ^Drive back those rebels 
first, then take care of me.' He was the idol of his 
men, noble, generous, brave." 

While the One Hundred and Fourth was engaged 
as described on the right, the tide of battle had been 
borne strongly against the divisions of Newton, Wil- 
liams and Geary, on the left. The enemy about three 
o'clock swarmed in dense masses out of their intrench- 
ments and rushed from the woods, taking Newton on 
both flanks and front, and were coming in between wm 
and Geary when Ward's Division confrtmted them and 
threw the rebels into confusion and retreat with heavy 
losses. Williams and Geary, with Newton, were equally 
successful in repulsing every attack and the rebels with- 
drew, but later attempted to turn Newton's left in heavy 
columns, when General Thomas assuming personal 
direction, massed all the artillery of Ward and Newton 
and mowed down the enemy by thousands. The battle 
raged with fury until six, when the rebel hosts again 
withdrew. On the right, opposite the One Hundred 
and Fourth, their second attack was easily repulsed, 
and in this the decimated Regiment took part. 
Hooker's Corps lost about fifteen hundred men. Hood's 
losses w^ere heavy, being from three to five thousand. 
Ward's Division captured seven battle flags, and two 
hundred and forty-six prisoners. The rebel repulses 
had been signal ones and the new policy of Hood and 
his master was fully shown. Its success or failure was 
of more importance to the rebels than to Sherman, 
whose large and compact army scarceh^ felt the blow 
and thereafter knew well what to expect. 

On the 21st the One Hundred and Fourth occupied 



Z» THK t>XK Hr.NDRKD AND FOURTH 

tilt* iiioriiiii;; ill tli<* Haul task of liurviu<; tlit* (lt*a«l. The 
woiiihlcil w «•!•»• iak«Mi ill rliarp* l>y Snr^«'«Mi Dv^r. This 
iliiiy cMiiiiili'ictl, ilif ( iiH* IhiiitlnMl aii«l I'oiinli. wiili 
lilt* nri;:a<lf, uas aihaiutMl half a iiiilr initial- a Itrisk 
tin*. Tlif iiiov«'iii«'iit was in ruiif«)riuii,\ with liiai of 
ll«M»k«T'K < 'orps on I In- left, ("apiaiii Sirawii sa\s: "A 
loiij; skiniiisii liiir was foinnM| wiili that of thr 'rwrii 
tii*th ('oi-|is, aii«l oiMlfis ^i\«'ii to push th«- fiiciiiv into 
thi'ir main works. Coinpanv T was s«Mit from «mii' 
|{i*;:imciit ami or<li'i'<Ml to or(-n]»y a (cnti'al |>osiiion in 
lh«" lim-. whirh, ju«I^Mn;r from thr shouting an<l n-ports 
of mnskoiry. was sc\«Mal niih's h>n^. \N «* »'\|n*rirmf(l 
a stniihttrn rcsisiaiic-c a<l\aiirin;: amitlsl ntnt iniioiiv; 
tiriii;;, so that as a whoh- iln- |no<;frss «>! iln- lim- was 
Vffv sh>w. DiiiMiij; thr tiiiif <"om|>any l\ with tiioMuh 
to i|o in its fitint, snthh'iily tlisfovci«M| that tin- sUir 
mWifis of tin* 'i'w <'nt iot li roi|»s on out- h-ft had haltol 
for some rrasitn unknown to us. This uavo th«' rchrU 
an oppurl unity to |M)iir in a u:allin': tii)* on i h*- h'ft of 
my lim-. The liionnd wo wtM-o niaichin;: oxer was «o\- 
rr«*«l with a thirk ^r«»wlh of tirrs ami lniish in full 
h-af. Tin* ioIm-Is had mad«* (h'fonst's l»y di^^in^ ]>its 
ami throwing: tho dirt on tin- side toward iis. thcr 
thrso tln'V had tiinnin^ly ananucd hramhos si> as to 
(om-cal thoir lorality and ocrnpants from unr \ i<-w as 
w«' a|iproarlM-d. Sumotim«'s w«' ran riuht into those 
iM'fopc disrtivrrinji I hem. William .lolTorstMi was killed 
iit till* hasr of MiH* of ihcsi', to all apitoaramo hofore In* 
disr(»vor«'d its rharartor. Samuel Mct'ashlaml was 
mortally wiinnded li\ a musk<-t hall from the unro\- 
ered left before mentioned, and died on the 2!»th, fully 
<-oiiKrioiis, K4'ndiii;: farewell and lo\f in all his rum- 
rjid«"i. .lames M. tiatchell was hailly wounded in the 
hip, hut iiMMxered. ( leur;;e M ushlier;;»'r was wounded. 
These rasnalties hajipeiied m-arly at the saino time, and 
tile lire from our left lierumiii;: every monu'iit more 
Kpiteful. I or«lered the uM-n to lie di»wii ami oidv tire 

when Ihev rollld see i feliel to life at. 1 ' nh>oket|-foi- 

tnoilde had ormrn'd all alon^ t),,. Ijn,., ;is we snon 
rereived or<|ers tu desist and withdraw. To Md\;une 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 227 

had been almost iin]M>ssil)le and to withdraw was 
e(j[nally hazardous. \Ve were so ehjse to the rebel rille 
pits that if the boys should rise to their feet they 
would be almost certain to be shot. It was my busi- 
ness to notify each one and 1 mana<j,ed to <:,('t all out 
of the i)osition, excei)t two or three who, taken with 
a panic, had broken for the rear. On arriving at our 
camp I sent a Sergeant to bring up those who had left 
us, knowing they would be ashame<l. Then I said to 
one of them, 'I am ashanie«l of you; what was the mat- 
ter?' As honest as honesty itself, he rej)lied, 'Well, 
Ca]>, I was skeert.' This young soldier was naturally 
as brave as the bravest; he had never flinched before 
and his record thereafter was (Mjually good." 

General Hood, having failed in his attacks on the 
Peach Tree Creek line, a plan devised by General John- 
ston himself, withdrew his arm}' that night to the 
defenses immediately near Atlanta. These consisted 
of long lines of intrenchments, forts, ditcljes in front, 
abatis, and chevaux de frise, all of which had been 
elabt)rately prepared long ago in anticipation of attack. 
During the day our armies had steadily driven back 
the enemy and night found them approaching the walls 
of the city, only three miles distant, so near and yet 
so far. Of the movement of the One Hundred and 
Fourth on the 22d Captain Strawn says: "The enemy 
having withdrawn in the night we formed lin(^ of bat- 
tle, C(uni»any E as skirmishers, and marched thrcuigh 
the woods with slight opposition, which soon disap- 
])eared, and we deluded ourselves into the belief that 
the enemy had really evacuated Atlanta. This idea 
caused us to abandon the line of battle formation and 
we took the rout step, marching at will without regard 
to time, and we were proceeding gaily along right into 
— ^no, not the city, but plain sight of the rebel fcu'titica- 
tions. The time occupied in grasping the situation 
and wheeling into line right and left was not long." 
Kut the 22d was not to close without a battle of severe 
I)roportions on the left. McPherson's Army of the Ten- 
nessee was fiercely attacked by a ]>art of Hood's army 



138 THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

in aKsauIl, iu whirli, piiuin^' at lirst s«nne a»lvanta«rf, 
it was lu'ftm* tlu* rli»s<' <»f ilu' <lay l»a<ily ilcft^airil ami 
Kou^ht slu'ltrr within tin* w«»rks. Tin- liravo and «;ift«Ml 
.M<l'liiTson ffll fjiilv in ili«* aition, virMin^' up his lif«* 
at thf early a;:f of thiriyfonr. H«* was su«»«MMh*(l on 
tliv lield by (Jt'mTal John A. Loj;an. The cntMny h»st, 
as t-oni|inl(M| by <u'n<'i-al l.o;xan, 'A,'24i) men kilh'il, LM.M)0 
of these were from a<tnal ronni; 1,(MM> jtrisctneis were 
taken lu-sides those wonnded, 'i'heir ent ire htss was 
estiniatinl at S,(KM). Onr army h>st in kille*!, wounded 
and inissin;:, 'A,l'2'2 men. Thus elosfnl the battle of 
Atlanta, and liuth armies sat down behiml their in- 
trenrhmeiits. Hood at hay, and Sh«*rman to solve the 
problem of how to compass the defeat of his antaj;- 
onist and seize Atlanta. Writing: of the '2'M\ Sherman 
Leland says: **1 t«»ok the team np to the Ke^Mnieni 
and staid there until the shells from the enemy's bat- 
teries made it necessary for the safety of the mules to 
move to a hcdlow near by, from whirh we were soon 
shelbnl out. Then moved back and halted near the rail- 
road." It oc<urs to the writer that th<»se mules must 
have Ix-en vabiable. < >n the L* It h, about eleven at ni^dit, 
the One Hundred and Fourth took jtart in a feint attack 
(»n the enemy's works for tin* purjxjse of drawinj; their 
tire ami learning' the juisition of their batteries. The 
bu;;;les sounded the charp* and yellinj^ bej;an all alonj^ 
the lim*. when the rebels opened fire and the object 
was aci-omplislu'd. After that our boys amused them- 
selves in lau'diiu'^ at the rebels. 



CHAPTER XV. 



The Siege and Fall of Atlanta. 



On the 2Gth of July the One Hundred and Fourth 
was again called upon to mourn the loss of one of its 
bravest and most faithful soldiers, Charles B. Ruger, 
of Company- E, being mortall}' wounded b}' a musket 
ball from the enemy's works whilst the Regiment was 
resting quietly behind the defenses. His father, Gabriel 
Ruger, was well known to the Regiment as a great 
patriot and the lirm friend of the soldiers of La Salle 
County, which fact had been shown on many occa- 
sions, and by his public acts as a member of the Board 
of Supervisors of the County. Charley was loved by all 
and there was a feeling of sadness when his young life 
was so suddenly and cruelly ended by a rebel bullet. 

Colonel McCook having gone home, was succeeded 
temporarily by Colonel Taylor in the command of the 
Brigade, Colonel Hapeman taking command of the left 
wing of the Brigade. Other changes occurred on the 
27th, in accordance with the desires of General Sher- 
man. General Howard was appointed to command 
the Army of the Tennessee, succeeding General Logan. 
General Stanley then took command of the Fourth 
Corps. General Joseph Hooker resigned, being in the 
sulks because not preferred by Sherman as Commander 
of the Army of the Tennessee. Though General Sher- 
man had an undoubted leaning toward regular army 
officers, West Point men, we did not see John A. Logan 
resigning when Howard succeeded him. He had always 
been identified with the' Army of the Tennessee and 
was fully capable to command it, but Avith him patriot- 
ism and duty were paramount. 

On the 2.5th the armies were distributed as follows: 
The Army of the Tennessee on the left, the Army of 



230 



THK m.NJ: HrXUHKl) AM> KolltTH 



thf nhin lU'Xi on ihr ii;ilit : iIhmi «ainr tin* Anii.v of 
(lu* riilillMTlilllil, IMlliilM'lili;^ fl'oiii left (o I-i;:li1. tli<' 
Ftnirtli, Twi'iilirt h aii«l l'«Miit«M'nili Aniiv ('ttips. Tlif 
iiiin'iirliiMl liin's «'\tt'ii<li'«l for a ilisiaiuf of live iiiiN's. 
Tin* raxalrv was «li\i»lr(l into two stioii;^ «li\isioiis 
iiiiili'i' McCook and Sitmrnian. Tin* i-cIm'I works in anti 
alioul Atlanta lnMn;: t<»o siron;; to assault siu«M*ssfnllv 
aiixl the o|M rations of a i-rjxnlar si«'}i«* too slow to suit 
tilt' iin|iaii«Mii inin<l of (icnciai Slifinian: also t«i aNojd 
tin* l>ni« Iniv of his luavr soMicis, In* proposed to foirc 
Hood ont of Atlanta l>v «'X»*cutinj; atmtluM' ^Mand Hank 
inoMMnciit on tin* li^rlit dcsi^in-d to smiir |M»ss«*ssion 
of tin* .Macon ami Al lanta ivailiond, w hidi was tin* oidv 
on«* l«'ft to tin* im*Im*Is and l»v which thcv ic««*i\«*d tlicii* 
supplies and kept coniiuMiiicat ion op«*n with the icar. 
This drstfovcd, lloiMJ nnisi of necessity come mil and 
fi^ht oiahandon the city. Therefoi-t* < Jeneial Sherman 
issued oideis for jiciu'ial movements on the L'Tih. The 
cavalfv staft<*d hy two dilVei-eiil loules to <lestfoy the 
laili-oad, hut oidy ]iai-liall\ succeeded, ami Stoneinan 
essay in;r '•• liheiate the l'e<le!ai |Uisonels at Macon 
ami A mieisonv ille, was himself caju uicd, toilet hei- with 
seven hiindietl of his men, at the foinief place. The 
wfiief, I hell M prisoner of war ai .Macon. lememlteis 
well the ad\e||| of (!e||e|;il Stoiieliiail aild his ollicels, 

into the prison pen. .\s his command a|)proache<l 
Macon the pri.som*i-s heaf<l the liriii;: ami expected lo 
he liberated, liut their astonishmeni and disap|ioiiit- 
ineiii was ;ireai, w hen soon after our would he resett- 
ers came in as |uisom*rs. This ejiistHle did not add 
ill any ;iieat de^^ree to (Jeneral Sttuieman's «:entle dis- 
position as e\imed hy his Ni;;oroiis lau;iua;:e. Tin' 
Aiiny of the Tennessee nio\ed to the ritiht. joinin;;; 
Thomas, and was severely eii^af^ed on tin- listli with 
Hardee's and Lee's ('or|ts sent hy Hood, who rii^hlly 
understood the meanin;:: of the nioxeinent. These 

ti |is made six desperali* assaults ami were six liims 

re|)nls«M| with very heavy losses. Many prisoners and 
fi\e haith' lla;j:s w«*re taken. The hat lie was foii<^ht 
iiejir Iv/.ra <'hurch. Our lrou|is iiad no iiii remhmeiiis. 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 2:n 

but only slij^lit barricades of rails and lojis. (Iciicral 
John A. Loiian, ('oniiiiaiidcr (^f the Fitt<M'ntli Corps, was 
award(Ml jurcat credit by (Icncral Howard for his con- 
duct in this battl(\ (Jcncral Hood liavin^ aj^ain faiiccl 
to acconi])lish anything by repeated assaults, rested 
behind his works, an<l diirinm' the next three days (leu- 
eral Sherman gradually extended his lines (o the ri^^lit 
toward the Macon road, fully satisfied by this time 
that his cavalry could not break u]> that line. l»y 
reaching' it with his infantry and artillery the object 
iniiiht be iiaiiu'd. Hood, however, ma<le correspon<linin- 
ino\"em(^nts, which, liaxiui^ the inner and shorter line, 
it was easy to do. The losses to Sherman duriiii;' .July 
in killed, wounded and missinii", a,ii\i;r<'mated 1),711) men. 
The rebel losses for the same ])eriod in killed and 
Avound<Ml were 8,841, but the ])risoners, numberiiiu- 
2,<I0(I, were not {j;iYen in the rebel reiM)rts. 

On August 1st the One Hundred and Fourth, whilst 
eniiaii'ed in skirmishiuii, had one man wounded. Major 
^\'idmer, as usual, had chariic of the lin(\ On the Hd 
(ienei-al Oarlin returned and assumed command of tlu^ 
Brij^ade, wlii*-h moved about four miles to the riiiht 
in close i)roxiinity to the enemy. On the 4th the lieiii- 
nient uiovcmI to the line of Utoy ( Veek, on the extreme 
riiilit, relievinji, trooi>s of the Twenty-third (\)ri>s. On 
the 5th the Bri<»ade advanced to develop the enemy, 
and char}j;iu<>-, drove them from the first line of ritle 
pits. The One Iltmdred and Fourth moved in the even- 
inji' two miles to the rinlit and tocdv position on the 
riju'ht of the Fifteenth Corps. It remained lun'e durinc; 
the 6th, but on the 7th was actively en*;a<;ed in an 
advance made toward the main rebel works, losinii' 
duriuii the day fourteen men killed and woumh'd. The 
first and second lines of rebel rifie ])its were ca])tured 
under a furious fire from the rebel Avorks. Captain 
Strawn writes thus of the eiioa«eiuent : "Being ])laced 
in command of the i>icket line of our Kc^iiinu^nt Ave soon 
found ourselves in close proximity to the r<4)(d skir- 
mishers. The whole line of the Brijiade's skirmishers 
joined us on our right and left. About twelv(^ m. (xeu- 



»• THE ONE HLNDRK1» AM» FOLHTH 

tTiiI rarliii fjiiiH* alim;; lln* lint* in tin* thick ln-nsli and 
jjuvf 118 M-rlial «»nlri*s t«> liavf our mm iva«lv on llu* 
liiii* of iialilr witlioiK any n«>isf, and at ti •:;ivi'n si^iuil, 
rliafp* atnd driv«' tin* rtdnds out of tlit-ii- dff«MiS('s and 
HH far as imissIMi* toward their main lini*. We did not 
bavo l»»n;: !«» wait. The «liarj;«* was niad»* an<l so )iiu*x- 
|MHt<*<lly to the rebels that most of theui forsook their 
rilfe pits without lirin;: a ;:uii. We pursued them with 
;;reat eeh-rity on the keen run. until an open lield was 
rearhed when lire uas opened on us fi-oui the rebel 
works on t he itt her side. Meauiiuie we had inilie.! down 
a hi;;h worm fern** in oui- front and erected lemporarv 
tlefenses. tJeneral Carlin then roniin^ up wiMi the 
whole hri«;ade, a stron;; line was established within 
tw«» hundred yar<ls of the rebel breastworks. The One 
llumlreil and I'ourth was moved a few rods lo the left 
of the rail bnrrirade :ind established a line in the ed^e 
of the brush alon^r the side of an open tield frontin;: 
the enemy, t hie of my men suddenly fotind himself 
alone in the field ami in \iew of the rebels, ('uriin;; 
down behind a stump he rem:iined until dark, when 
he joined I he runi|tany. <'a|tiain l-Mt /.simnions. of ( 'um- 
pany K, who was on lop df the iid;:e in the npen li<'ld, 
was almost instantly killed, lie was a vtiy brave and 

capable onirel-, mucll respected by the winde Ke^iment 
and was missed ;:rea!ly." The follow ini; casualties 
occurred on the Tth :ii I i.>y ( "n«k: Killed Captain 
dames r. l'it/,simmon>. (oiiipnny K : Sei-^eant Albert 
< '. Itassett, ('oinpaiiy 15; Sii-^eiini \\illi;ini II. ('rai;:. 
<'onipany Jv;<'harles I]. ( iia\ es. < '(tuip;niy II. Muiially 
woundetl dolin .M. W inslow. t'onipjiny A. Wounded 
Kobert W exi, < oMipMiiv r.;do|in W. h:i\ is. « 'ouipany 
<': Samuel .1. |>o;in«-. ('oni|»any ("; AleMimler II. L:ine. 
<'ompany l>:Ser;:eant I'rancis .M. I hui^lierly. < 'oiupany 
!•'; Corporal dames Mooney, ('onipany I'; <Hivei- Law- 
rence, ( 'om|>any tJ; Ivoswfll .birobs. ( '<unp:i iiy II;('iU'- 
neiiuH Snider. < 'ompany I. 

♦ oMieral didin .M. Palun r li;i\in;i resi;:ned the com- 
m.'iiid of th«> I-'ourteeiiih .\rmy t 'oips on the tith, tlen- 

er;i| IJ \\ . .Io|in«.on. b\ \illue of seuioiilN. silcceeded 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. _:~ 

him, but gave yjlace a few days later to < reneral Jeffer- 
son C. I>avis, who became permanent Commandt.-r. 

The One Hundred and Fourth remaine<l <^»n the new 
advanced lines close t<> the enemy's works until August 
20th, exposed most of the time to a severe fire from 
artillery and sharpshooters. This conipelle<l the men 
to keep closely under cover, but several losses occurred 
to the Regiment while in its works or on the skirmish 
lines. On the Sth, John P. Johnson, of Company F, was 
ba«ily wounded. <Jn the 9th, P. A. Hawk, of Company G. 
was wounde<l in the face, and on the 11th, John Everitt, 
of Company H. in the head. On the L2th < Vtrporal 
John Ruble, of Company G, color bearer, was severely 
wounded. Captain Strawn. S7>eaking of this, says: "A 
stray buUet coming from the right made four holes in 
the hat of Sergeant John Shay, of my company, and 
then plunged into the ne<:k of the color bearer. The 
bkK)d spurted out in a stream as large as a man's little 
finger. I was standing close by and thought an artery 
had been severe!. Our Surgeon, fortunately, was near, 
and being summoned, came quickly and applying his 
thumb to the wound, bandaged it and sent the man to 
the hospital. Few of us expected to see him alive 
again, but in a short time he recovere<i and resume<i his 
place as <olor bearer." Captain Proctor menti^ms the 
same event and says that about that time several men 
werv kille«l or severely wounde<l, always in or about 
the head, and he attributes the killing of Fitzsimmons, 
Craig and Graves, as well as the wounding of the others 
to the same rebel sharpshooter, who was probably con- 
cealed in the thick foliage of a tree. The One Hun- 
dred and Fourth took part in an advance on the 13th, 
to capture the rebel rifle pits in front. These were 
carried for the whole length of two brigades, the Regi- 
ment losing in killed George Schweigart, of Company 
K: Joseph Burkart and Xathan Rham, of Company K, 
were wounded: also Alexander Bramble and William 
H. Jones, of Company D. 

Edgar T^ Stevens, of Company D, thus describes the 



wm* oil IIU' soiiiii siur «•! :i imir rnM-u. i nr itnci 
pirkrt lilH'S \Vrr«* nil I In* oIImT siilr, ill tin* tMl;;r of soiiif 
\voo«|s, ! Iioir iM'iii;: :i rloaroil tifltl iliior lminln*<l \iiiils 
\vi«lr Im'I\\o««ii llioiii :iii*l iln' «iti'U. <i»'iicial ("arliii 
cailiii* out to our pitUri liii*- ami asUfil ili«* Li«>iit<*iiaiit 
if In* roiihl rliar^ii* ami iak«* tin- irlnl line of ritlo pits 
ill fr«iiit. Tlir Lirutciiaii! said In* «oiil(| uv. Tin- mcii 
\vt»n* tlnMi assciiililiMl ill si!i;;lr liiir two «»r tlii«M* vanis 
a|»art ami at tin* \\**vt\ of rommainl wo rlaiiilM-rod 
lliroii;:li ilir Itnisli <it)\\ii till- liaitk, mix! wailiri;: hmt 
nislio«l ii|i llio opjiosiir sido, u lu'ii wo «aiiu' iiiio full 
viow of tlio oiu'iuN, who JH'^iaii to tiro on us at oiiro. 
liiKtcai! «>f I'ot iiriiiii;; the tiio, wo advaiirtMJ on tlioni at 
tli«* lion I tic i| nick without halt in<x, until wo i-oachod ihoir 
pits :ind nnMintin;: I ho works w ith niijskois itM-kod and 
imvoiiots lixod, doniandod ihoii- sniioiidor. Tho lolu-ls 
iniiiiodiaiolN dfoppoil jhoii- «;nns and Itoin;: rolhMti- 
\v«*n* <*K<-o It od lo tlic icMi- liv a part <d" our i>o\s. Tin 
twoiilv-two nioii, imlMtlin;: oni* roniniandoi'. «-aptnr< 
fort\f«inr ioImIs without our having tiled a shot." 

Tin* oaso with which tho rohol lino was lakon ai 
iho roadv sni!<-nd«'r of iho ichcls was dno lo tho fa 



of our iiion w hon tln-v chaf^od. This a;:ioonioin, it 
sooins, was faiihfnily raniod oni, and tho (-asnallio!> 
onniiii;; to uni* sido woro inlliriod fiom otlnr sonrros. 
<Mi the l.'tih and 11th sonio ihroo hundiod inon man 
Hp*«l In bo rapt mod Itv oiir foicos. Moaniiino, how- 
ovor, tho tire from iho lohol shaipshouiiMs and ihoii 
main works roni in nod. (Mi I ho o\ onin^i of the 1 It h iIk 
om-inv mado a dash on tho skirmish lino of tho ( )m 
ilniidrod and l'«»nrih, wonndin;: two inoii. Thoir ''•• 
lorv mado iho h«*ad lo;;s of <Mir works llv wiih s^ 



REGIMENT Il^LIXOIS VOLUNTEERS. 235 

shot and slicll, but iiieetinu witli a linn rcsistanci* from 
Cai>tain l^roclor and his men, tlio cniMiiy fell hack to 
their works. 

General Sherman sent Kilpatrick on the 18lh to 
break up the railroad. That (leneral destroyed some 
three mih's and made the circuit of Atlanta, but faihMl 
to intlict lasting; damay;e and Sherman then determined 
to raise the siege of the city and throw the muin part 
of his army further sontli toward Jonesboro, directly 
on Hood's communications. In i)reparation for the 
movement, the Twentieth (\>r])s was sent to the in- 
trenchmeuts beyond the Chattahoochee to guard the 
bridge, the ferries, material, supplies, etc., there accu- 
mulated. The Fourth Corj^s covered the transfer. Begin- 
ning on the night of the 25th, the Fourth Cor])s moved 
to the right and closed tip on the Fourteenth Corps 
near Utoy Creek. In the night of the 2(>th the Army 
of the Tennessee went to the extreme right of the other 
two corps. The One Hundred and Fotirth, leaving the 
works where it had remained so long, and marching 
to the right until one a. m. of the 27th, went into 
bivouac ff>r the rest of the day. As afterward learned, 
the rebels in Atlanta, on finding that Sherman's armies 
had disap]>eared, rejoiced greatly and telegrai)hed the 
news all over the soitth, thinking that they had got 
rid of the hated Yankees, but they soon after found 
that they had crowed to soon, for on the 28th the 
meaiung of tliis sudden departttre began to dawn upon 
their minds. Hood, to meet the new movement of his 
adversary, had thrown Hardee's and Lee's Corps into 
Jonesboro. The 28th was occupied by the armies in 
execttting a grand left wheel on Schofield as a pivot, 
which Avas closed at night by the arrival of Thcunas 
and Howard at the railroad. The One Hundred and 
Fourth camped near Red Oak, jyid on the 29th was 
detailed to guard troops engaged in tearing up the 
track and destroying the material. 

On the 30th the Twenty-third Corps faced East 
Point. Thomas was near on the right and Howard 



tH ..: NK MIN1>RKI) AN'" '"'HTM 

ap|»n»inliiii;; .Ioui-nImmo, TIh'<Mu- lluiKliril ainl i-ounli 
uiovimI nix iiiilt'S ami tainiMMl. Howard <li<l soim* sUir- 
miHhiiif; with tlu* fiuMuv ami reacli«*il a poiiii wit inn 
two inih'H of .ItuifRboro. Tlu* inoveineiits (»f all lln* 
arinit's mi th«* 'Msi w«*n- ilinH-U'«l towanl lh«* new 
ohjtM-tivf and tin- railroad, wlii«h was destnniM] as 
tlifv advaiKfd. In tin* afiermum llanlr*' madi* an 
altark on u part of Howard's line, hnt was repnlsed. 
It iMM-anu' evident to every soldier on tlw eveiiin;^' of 
the 'Mtii that the Ion;; caiiipai'^n for the possession of 
Atlanta wouhl soon end. All felt thai some ^Mrat 
event was aboni to happtii. ll was an iniuilive fetd- 
iujr, ihon^h the exact sit nation was not yet fnlly known. 
l)n Sept«*inl»er Ist the armies were early in motion and 
lati' in tin* afternoon the F«Mirteenth ('orj»s fminrd a 
jnnetion with Howard's left reaehin;^ t«> the railroad. 
Stanley and Seholield fidlowed. (Jeneral Davis form- 
in;; his divisions in line in front of Hardee's works, 
rhar;;»'d and raptured a r«'l>el l>ri;;ade :ind t \n o l»at- 
leries. Tin* (hie Hundred and I'ourtli was present. 
Uwiuj; to nijiht eomin;: <»n and the failure ^i{ Stanley 
to arrive in time, HaiMlcc was enabled to escajK' and 
reiirat to LoNj'joy's Siaiion. Hurin;; tin* ni;;lM ln'avy 
e\|t|osions were heard in the dire(ti(tn of Atlanta, 
twenty miles distant, tlif meaning; of wliitli was a 
eanse of eonje<-t ui<\ Tlit' mornin;^ of iIh- iM dawned 
n|M»n the deserted w«»rks of the rebels at .lomsbom, 
and Sherman was not a litt le ihaizrined that Hardee 
had es<aped, but at on<e onleied a \ i;;ori)Us pursuit. 
The FtMirteenth Corps remained ai .lunesboro. Dnrin;; 
the day rnm<»rs of the evaeualiou of Ailania reaehed 
our army and raused ;;reat rejoicin;;. lOven (len«*ral 
Thomas, it is said, threw up his hat and imlnl;:ed in 
e.vtraordinary antics «»f ha|»|»im*ss. (Jeneral Slocuiu. 
who, from his works at t he < "hatlahoochee, had heard 
tlie explosion in the ni;;ht, sent Colonel (olturn early 
in the mornin;; with a bri;;ade toward the eily, and 
followed himself soon after. Hn the way these tr<iops 
w«*i'e met b\ t he .Ma\ iM' of A I la III a, w lio made a foiiiial 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 237 

surrender. The city was then occupied by General 
Slociim's command in force. It was found that 
Hood, before leaving, had destroyed nearly all the 
material he could not remove. However, SJocum 
secured tAvent}' cannon and some small arms. Vast 
numbers of cars aud locomotives, machinery and army 
supplies, together with buildings, had been blown up. 
Fair Atlanta had become a wreck in part. Later in 
the day Shernmn received a note from General Sh)cum 
that Atlanta was really ours. General Sherman, 
though with his army before the eneni}^ at Lovejpy's, 
soon decided to bring the present campaign to a close, 
return to Atlanta, and give his armies a much needed 
rest after their four months of marcliings and battles, 
during which time there had been scarceh' a day when 
some part of the lines was not under fire. There were, 
besides, other reasons for a halt. A most vital part of 
the rebel Confederacy had been wrested from the grasp 
of Jeff. Davis, but his army still remained, though in 
retreat and no doubt disheartened. New plans must 
be studied for future movements against the still defi- 
ant foe. Therefore on the 5th Sherman's armies were 
ordered to march to Atlanta, arriving in and around 
the city ou the 8th, where they were disposed in com- 
manding positions and went into camp for a brief 
period to enjoy the fruits of victory obtained after one 
of the longest, most renuirkable and brilliant cam- 
paigns ou record. 

On the 3d of September the following dispatch was 
received and promulgated to the armies: 

"Executive Mansion, 
"Washington, D. C, Sept. 3d, 1864. 
"The National thanks are tendered by the President 
to Major-General W. T. Sherman and the gallant offi- 
cers and soldiers of his command before Atlanta, for 
the distinguished ability and perseverance displayed 
in the campaign in Georgia, which, under Divine favor, 
has resulted in the capture of Atlanta. The marches, 
battles, sieges, and otfier military operations that have 



3U 



THK ONK HlM'KKl' A.M> 1 - 'I in H 



si;;n;ili/.»Ml tin* caiiipai;:!!, imisi ninli-r it faiiiuus in tlu* 
annals of war, anti liavt* rniiilrtl tlmsf wlm have par- 
tiri|>at<*4l tluMfin l<» tin* ap|»laiis«* aii«l iliaiiks of iIm- 
Nation. 

•AI'.KAIIAM I.1N«(H.N. 

•*l*i»'si<lriii oT ill.- I Hi I.-. I Stall's." 



This an«l ain'l In-r f!<»iM r,riiiMal ( i i aiii iicai<-i| ^icai 
♦•niliusiasiii aiiioiiH; i\n> soltlicis aiKl each roiiM jiisilv 
ftM'l proml that lu- had honic a pari. ho\\c\«'i- hiiinhh', 
in th(* Atlanta <anipai;!;n. 

To no on**, pfi'hajis, was iht- mm < (•>> of Sln-iiiian's 
armies more j^raiifviiiu tliaii lo Aluahaiii Liiiroln. 
Alhinla f»*II al an op|»oil iiin' liiiir in iIm- liistoi-y of 
ih«- Nation in its stru;;;;h* for r.\ist<'ii» <•. A national 
rh'rtion was thrn ap|>roarhin^ ami this \irtoiy inailr 
tin- r«*-«*hMtion of IMt'sith-nt Liinoln ccriain. It ^avc 
ni*w «-oiira^«* ami moi-ai force to the fri«*mls of tin* 
I'nion ill tlif North, who wisely ami naturally «l<'sir<M| 
to have Mr. lamoln ic i-h-rtcd, wiiile it «'<|nally <lis- 
ronra;:»M| t In* adhrmits of ( itini al .Mr( 'Irllan. tin- ran- 
tli<lat«' of iho hoiiiociat i<- party ami of the S»»nth. who 
ha<l Immmi iioiiiinatt'il on a platform that iliM-lartMl th*- 
wai' a failiiff ami that it should he stopped at ome. 
It appears that oiir Democratic soldiers thought dif- 
ferent ly. < 'aptain .lames M. Lei;;liloii. a war I ►eiiiocrat. 
wiitiii;: from NasliNille on Sepiemher Sth, says: "In 
ailditioii toronrt .Martial duties I wasassi^imd to the 
eoiiimand of a halt alio n of con\ alestents for the def ease 
of Nashville a;:aiiist Wheeler. The Slate ( 'onveiit ion. 
composed t>f all I'nion men. has been held here four 
day.s, elicitin;; ;^ieat interest. ( 'opiterheads hav«' kept 

out of siy:ht. I|o\\e\er, tilie of the dele;.^ates to the 

<'liira;:o National hemocialie ( 'oii\ cut ion arri\ed here 
in time, as he thoip^hi. to enliuhieii this con\«'ntion. 
He ;;ot into the hall and commenced his ('hi(-a;:o secesh 
haraii;;ne, when he was hisseil down and re<piested to 
leaive the room, with the assiirame that on his refusal 
lie would he put out. | ihillk it Wouhl he Well for 
nianv of our northern men iM*i-ead the res<dutioiis 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 239 

])ass(Ml lici'o, one of which is an un(|ualirK'(l ('(HKlciinia- 
tioii of tlie Chicaj^o ( 'oiivcntion and 'phitf(tnii.' " A^aiii 
he writes: "It does seem as thonj^h i)e()ple at the 
Noitli ai"<' niakinj»- every effort to ('ri])])h' the pn^seiit 
Adiiiinistrat ion. We think since hcarinjj; of McChd- 
hm's nomination, tliat Fncle Abe's chances are j^ood. 
I wish they wonhl leave it to tiie sohliers; we wouhl 
settle the question at once." That Captain Leij^hton 
voiced the convictions of ninety-tive per cent or more 
of the soldiers who wero Democrats, is no doubt true. 
To show the feeling amoni» soldiers the writer, Hkmi 
a prisoner of war, was ])resent at a test election held 
in our prison camp at Columbia, S. C, about October 
12th. ()n<» thousand and twenty-seven votes were <-ast, 
nearly all in the prison voting'. Of these, eight iiun- 
dred and eighty-four were cast for Abraham Lincoln, 
one hundred and forty-three for McClellan. The Illi- 
nois men voted seventy-nine for the former, eight for 
the latter. The figures are taken from the diary of 
the writer. The votes for McClellau were mostly given 
by soldiers who were from the eastern armies. While 
the ])atriotic people of the North were rejoicing with 
bontires, illuminati(Uis ami speech-making in honor of 
the signal trium])hs of Sherman's armies, and gather- 
ing new moral strength and determination that the 
rebellion should not succeed, the effect on our erring 
brethren of the South was quite the opposite. They 
had lost faith in the success of their cause, but pride 
on the part of many and hatred on the part of the 
leaders, held them to their allegiance. The great 
majority, however, it is safe to say, were utterly tired 
of the losing contest. Nowheri* was this more a])]>ar- 
ent than among the soldiers, who frequently met our 
own on the picket lines in the intervals of fighting, 
when the subject was fully and freely discussed in the 
most friendly manner and with marked effect on the 
enemy, which was sure to bear fruit. These stolen 
interviews generally ended with promises on the part 
of all to spare each other if they met in battle. Well 
miiiht angels ween over the stern necessitv that com- 



MO THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

jH'Iktl ihfiii to stfk earh other's livt^s. On the Athmla 
(■ain|iai;;ii tlesertions hail been numerous, th«Te beiuj; 
l.',4ii> rejKirte«| ill four laoiiths. Hut whil" the rebel 
sohliers well' h«*ariil,\ lin-d «tf li^hiiu^ they were hrM 
bai'k b\ a i»artb>u:ibk* prhte, by notions of honor an*l 
other considerationK. Said an ohl Confederate sohlier 
to the writer: "1 went in on the wave of ex«itenient 
that swept the South, and a;;;ainst my jud^^ineiit: my 
neij;hboi*s did the same. 1 was at honelsttn. Sliihdi, 
and all thn»U};h, but soon saw that we wouhl l«»s<' in 
the eud. Hut I was in, so were all my relatives and 
friends, who had either eiilistiMl vtduntarily or had 
been draftt^l. S«H*inj; no way to i^-i out and exiM-ri 
to ever have a^ain the n'speit «>f my ohl neighbors, 1 
stayed." This man relleeteil the feeJin«;s of thousands 
and showed that he was honorable. Ilis education, cir- 
eiimstami's and surroundings rompelled him to be a 
rebid sohlier. Hut the worm tif discontent had not only 
worke«l anion;; the masses of nn will in;; viitims before 
and after the fall of Atlanta. Many vv\h'\ lea<lers 
be;;an i«» Weaken. rntVfiMHtr Hiuun, of <ieor;:ia, was 
one of these, and when Hood fell back b«*fo|*e silt r 
man, withdrew the Stale Militia, uunibeiin;; ir>,()(»() 
men, undei- ( ieiieral i i. \\ . Smii h. 1 le made t he ]daus- 
ible pretext of its beiu;: necessary in onler that the 
sor;;hMm clop miiilit be harvested, but it was known 
that he was only seekin*; an op|M»rt unity to save (omu*- 
;ria from further dama<;e. However, h«* dared not take 
the final step severin;; further relations with the Con- 
federacy. de(Tei*son Ha vis, \it telly dismayed by th<' 
fall of Atlanta ami rendered desperate by the condi- 
tion of alTairs, made a visit «lurin;j Septembei- i.i ( ;e<ii-- 
;:ia and Hood's army. On his way throu;:li the Ton- 
federacy. he foolishly, as usual, indul;;ed in sp«*<Mh- 
makin;; and dropjied remarks as to his future policy, 
that wen* soon re|»oried to our Oovernmeiii and to 
Oeneral Sherman. Il<- bitieijy assailed <iov«Tnor 
Hrowii iind |»romised e\eiybody in (ieor«;ia that the 
steps altout to Im* undertaken would result in the 
invader bein;; driven from her sacied soil, cvcii i<> iIh- 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 241 

Ohio River. His insane boasts quickly reached our 
lines and put General Sherman on guard. 

Meantime, Sherman's armies spent the mouth of 
September in pleasant camps on the hills around 
Atlanta, engaged in recuperating and preparing for 
another campaign, though no one had an idea as to 
what its nature would be. Sherman Leland, writing 
a little later as to the movements of the One Hundred 
and Fourth, says: "We reached our new camp at 
Whitehall, four miles from Atlanta, on the 8th, when 
all became busily engaged in fixing up our quarters 
after the long and arduous campaign. We had a fine 
location and cabins were built and everything in good 
shape in a week. We remained here until October 
3d, enjoying the rest immensely. During this time 
Captain Leighton and Lieutenant F. M, Sapp resigned 
on account of wounds received at Chickamauga, Cap- 
tain Porter, of Company B, was transferred to become 
Colonel of the One Hundred and Twenty-third U. S. C. 
troops." The One Hundred and Fourth had begun the 
campaign in May, with a total effective strength of 
two hundred and ninety-six officers and men. The 
ranks had become thinner and thinner from day to day. 
The Regiment had lost in four months three officers 
and twenty-two men killed, two officers and seventy- 
one men wounded, and five missing, also probably 
killed; a total of one hundred and three, or thirty-five 
per cent of the whole number. It had been under fire 
one hundred days during the campaign, and on every 
occasion had acquitted itself with honor. On the 5th 
of September the Regiment mustered one hundred and 
seventy men and thirteen officers, less than two full 
companies, but equal in experience and discipline 
obtained by continual service, by battles, sieges, 
marches and hardships, to a full regiment of new 
troops. 

Colonel Hapeman, in making his report of the 
Atlanta campaign, says: "I cannot close this report 
without giving credit to the brave officers and men of 
the command. For four months thev have endured 



142 THE «^NE HrM-i.i.i- AND FonUTH 

tilt* raiini»ai^Mi, ami liavr alwavs iM'haviMl ilnMiisrlvrs in 
a luauiHT wttriliv ilu- lumu* «»f Aii»«'ri»aii so It I iris. ( JiM*at 
<r«ilit is thu* Major WiilimM- fni- iln- ln-avtM-y ami skill 
hf has always tlisplayiMl in liis iiiaiia;;«Min'in of tin* 
Hkiriiiish liiir. 'riw loss of rjipiaiii l>oi\. rapiaiii 
K\ iicarson ainl ("aitiaiii Fii/siiiiiiions is <l»M'|ily Irll l»y 
tin* Ivr^iiiH'iit. TIm'V wri*- ;:allani otViffis. and iov.-d 
an*i n'SjMTtiMl by their nuii." 

Tin* total loss«'s in Shninan's aiinics ilmin^ An 
jjust ami St'idfinhtT in kill«Ml. woninltMl an<l niissin;; 
nniouiitt'*! lo .'(.Lil* nnMi. litMHl's lossrs for I In* saun* 
p«*rio«l wrn- 7.44:i nn*n, wliirli iinhnh'd 'A,~'.iS iak«*ii 
I»rist>n»*rs. 'I'ln* a^^rrj^atr 1 iiion loss«*s in i In* tain- 
I»ai;:n N\t'r«' in,<»sT nn'ii. Thosr of .lolmston an<l IIo.mI 
31.'.»T!> nn-n. as ilctnininnl Wv tin* rfbrl r»*ror«ls. 



ciiArTioi: x\'i, 



Pursuit of Hood and Return to Atlanta. 



Wliih' at Athmtn Colonel Donj^las I laitrmaii was 
ordered to assume coiimiand of the PMrst Hrijiade. 
<Teiiei-al Carlin coimiianded the Division. ('ojonei 
Hapenian continued in command until November Sth, 
when ('olonel Ilobart, Twenty-lirst Wisconsin, his 
senior, succeeded him. The term of s<'ivice of s<'veral 
regiments had exjured, and the First l>rigade, under 
(Jidonel JIapeman, l)e<j;an the next campaiy,!! with the 
following oi'ganizations, commanded as follows: One 
Hundred and Fourth Illinois, Major John II. Widnu'r; 
Forty-second Indiana, Captain (J. R. Kellams; Fighty- 
eighth Indiana, M;ijor L. .1. Hlair; 'Piiirty-l hird Ohio, 
Captain Jos. Hinson; Ninety-fourth Ohio, Lieutenant- 
Colonel R. P. llutchins; Twenty-tirst Wisconsin, Cap- 
tain C. H. Walker. The entire strength of Carlin's 
Division on September 20th was 4,1!)1 men, all veteran 
soldiers. 

Up to the 20th of Sei)teniber Mood's army had 
remained (piietly at Lovejoy's, about twenty-tive miles 
from Atlanta, gla<l enough to have a ]>erio(l of rest, 
while its leader was with the rebel President endeavor- 
ing to solve the difficult problem of how to begin a 
new campaign, intended to regain what had been lost. 
It was an exc<'edingiy knotty (piestion, but ])robably 
the plan agreed ujxmi and adopted was as wise as any, 
in view of the desperate condition of ( 'onfederate affairs 
at that time. How(nw, on the 21st the rebel army 
began to show sym])toms of b<Mng much alive, as it 
move«l on that dat<' toward SluM-uian's rear, the 
infantry reaching Palmetto Station and the cavalry 
crossing the Chattahoochee. This gave an intimation 
as to Hood's ])lans, which evidently were to strike first 



M4 THE ONE Hl'NDREE» AND FOURTH 

SluTiiiiinV liiH* of roiuiuuiiiraiions with ('hattaiio»»^M. 
lliK plaiiN WW*' fiirilHT (I«'V«'I«»|mmI w Iumi ttii tin* L'lth 
(MMU'ial Ftirntil suil«l«'iil\ a|»in'artMl with t-i^^ht oi- \vu 
thuiiKaiitl ravalrv iM-fnic Ath«Mis, Alaltaiiia, ami rap- 
tuitil iIm* Miiall ;:ariis«»ii thrn*. Th«' iii!riiii«»ii to iai«l 

in III** rt'iir wai* phiiii aii»l 11 1's inoxomont rtHTiMtly 

HiiriiilMMl. PrrsiMoiit .IrlT. Davis ap|)cai-iii^ in Macon 
oil thf L'Mh. math- a tiaiiiiii;: sjmmmIi still fiirth«'r irvcal- 
ill;: what iiii.v man of st-nsr in his |»osition woiiM havr 
toiHi'ahMJ. Within t went vfoiir hoiii-s toMU'ia! SIhm-- 
tiiaiii, !»y !iM*aiis of his spit's, ]m(ss«*ks<mI a «o|i\ df ihat 
M|HMM-h. aiHJ kiH'W that lioo<l pio|»os<Ml to niartli for 
the north. ho|iinH; thus to <li-a\\ him an<l his armirs 
away from (u'or^fia in a \ain |iursuit ami disastrous 
r«*in*at, Davis havin;: Im-oii rash <*non^h to jiromisc that 
only iIh' rrtrcai of tin* ^rrai Nap«ih'oii fidin .M«»s«ow 
woiihl JM-ar any comparison to it. Itrin;; fully satistic«l 
by t iciiiJMi- 1st that llotMrsarmv was across the ( Miat- 
talnMulM-*'. Slici-man, Icavin*; ili<* rwcnticiii ( orps to 
hohl Atlanta, put tin* rest of his armies in moiiou for 
lln* rear at Marietta, conjciturin^ that Hood was aim- 
in;: for his railroad, uhich pro^ed to he trin*. There 
Were numerous ;:arrisons alou^ this road and hi'fore 

this date Newton's Division liad I n sent lo ("liat- 

tano«i;:a and Ctuse's to Kome. while all the command- 
ers at important p<dnts had heeii |iut on ^uard. Mor- 
gan's Division and (Jeneral Thomas lefi for rhatia- 
noo;:a on l he l.'!tt h as a furt her precaui i»ui auaiiist what 
was anlici|tated. Ilapeman's Uri^jade and ilie < hie 
Hundred and l^•urlh struck tents on (iciohcr '.Ul, and 
mart hi n;: in a hea\y rain reached ami crossed the<'hal- 
talitMirliei'. hivouaickiii;: at midniulii near \inin;:'s Sta- 
tion. The Imys will never for;:et liiat hrsi nii;ht spent 
without tires lieca use t he\ would not hurn. The ctun- 
fortalde tpijirters left neai- Atlanta in iln- mornin;: 
H4'<'med like palaces. This was only ilie iniiiaiixf in 
many Ion;: months of almost c«uitintious marcliiii«^ for 
mope than a lIuMisaml miles, hut it was the first step in 
the limil ;:rand march that swcjit to the sea. the irre 

MiHtilde waves of whiih it reseUllded. ;iMd like llimi 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 215 

was not stave<l until havinj;- swept northward through 
wide states lik«- an avalanche, there were no longer any 
rebel armies t<> oj»j»ose, no i-ebellion to ('on<niei-. 

(ieneral w^h(M-nian had for active operations about 
sixty-live thousand men, Hood about forty thousan«l 
as estimated. Many changes had occurred of late 
among the otticers. General J. D. ('ox comnumded 
the Army of tiie Ohio, (w-neral Thomas having gone 
to Chattanooga, (Ieneral D. S. Stanley was the senior 
Major-General of the Fourth and Fourteenth Orps. 
Logan an<l Blair being north, their (Jorps were com- 
manded by GcMKM-als Osterhaus and T. E. G. Ransom, 
the latter a La Salle County man, who had gone out 
as Major of the famous old Eleventh, and had acquired 
distinction as a leader and fighter, but alas! in a few 
days more he was obliged to yield to the conqueror 
of all, the only foe he ever feared, which in the guise 
of insidious disease, ended his life on this march. The 
march was resumed on the 4th toward Kenesaw, the 
One Hundred and Fourth making some ten miles that 
day. Sherman had signaled via Kenesaw to (general 
Corse at Rome to march at once to the relief of AUa- 
toona which was held at the time by a small command 
and was believed by Sherman to be one objectiv^e of 
the enemy, (general Corse fortunately arrive<l in time 
on the 4th and on the 5th made the defense of that 
place forever memorable. On the latter date AUatoona 
was attacked by French's Division, but unsuccessfully 
and with heavy loss to the rebels. General Sherman, 
who was on the heights of Kenesaw, eighteen miles 
distant, signaled assistance and to hold on. There 
was great anxiety as to the result, but in the afternoon 
the smoke and signs of battle had died away, and Sher- 
man received a signal message that the enemy had been 
repulsed. Later (Ieneral ('orse dispatched as follows: 
"I am short a cheekbone and an ear, but am able to 
whip all h — 11 yet. My losses are very heavy, etc." 
With nineteen hundred men Corse had repulsed and 
severely handled a whole rebel division, live thousand 
strong. The LTnion loss was 707 men killed, wounded 



:*< THE ONE Hl'NDRED AND FOl'RTH 

aii«l iiiissiii;;. <fcii«*ral <'<»!>«• n-|M.iit(l l';;i i.hrl dt'ud 
aiinl ftuir IhiihIimmI ami »'1»*v«mi piisitiifis. Tlif nuiiilMT 
of woiiimNmI was ii«n known. Tint**' batth' lla;;s w« iv 
ni|iinr«M|. .M«'iintini«' IIimmI nuir(-li(*<l on and investiHl 
H«*s4ira on tin* llMli, rn-nrirs division artiiip: as r«*ar 
;^uainl. (MluT points wrrr atla» k«M|. Imi only a f«w 
minor »»ntn< «'ii|»tnr»ML Slicniiiin f<»ll<»w<'«l ia|ti«lly. hut 
was una!»l«' lo ovrri.ikr II«hmI, w Iio. in fan. hatl ^i*«airr 
o|iJ«M'ts in vifw than wrakcnin;; his aniiv in fruit h'ss 
aiini rostiv attacks on ouf well f<iii itiiil ami hia\fl.v 
«h*f«'iMhM| positions. On thr .'ili ih<- * Mh- liinnlrfil an<i 
Konrth hivona«-k«'<l on*- inih- ftoni Maiii'tta, and march- 
in;: n«*arlv to I^i;: Shaiiiy on the tlth, huilt soiu«* li^ht 
hi-t-ast Works on a hi;:h hill near a pass whi«h it was 
di'taih'd to ;:uai-d. Il< r«- it iiMuaincd until tho stii at 
iMMMi. w ht'ii tin- Miai< ii was icsunicd and coniinucd 
until within two uiih-s of .\ckwoitli. w lni-c a halt was 
inad«'. The !M h was s|M-iit in camp. 

<icii<'ial Shci'iuan, who had hccn ciiMi<iiiplai iiiu ili** 
situation and knew that all (Icoi-^ia now lay open to 
invasion, tch'^ii-aphcd on the IMh to tlcncral Thomas, 
thtMi at Nashville, of ins iiiii-m ion lo mardi for the 
K4*a c«>ast, leavin;: him to take taie of Mood and his 
army. At the sam«' time he dis|»at< lied <Ieneial <Iiant 
to the same effect. While awaitiuii an aiiswi-i' an<l 
permission, he heard on the Hlih of llood's apjiearance 
lielow IJoiue. and turned his ow n armi<'s towards Kin^^s- 
ton. nil the evening' of that date the ( Mie Ihimlred 
and l-'ourth left camp and marching all ni;:ht camped 
Im'VoihI the ICtow ah KiNeifoia few hours. The weather 
had turned cold and hardly wttod enough could he 
ohtaiiied to make cotTe«'. The men were without blank- 
ets and sulTeied ;:reat ly. lloWe\er. at seven of the lllll 
the Ke;:iment Started and mo\iii^ on all da\. reached 
Kin;:stoii at ni<^ht. where it weni jnio Mvoiiac iuk- mile 
Went of iIm* town ill a pine ;:rove. Here rations w«'re 
iKKiied and a lar;:e mail fr<tm the north received, which 
reKiored the spirits of the hoys to their usual standard. 
<Jeneral Sherman a;;ain repeated his re<|m'sts to he 
aMowed to make the iiiar< h t<« tin- >-ea. llond failing: 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 247 

to obtain tlio siirronder of Rosaca moved off west and 
disapjieared. Sherman eontiniied to follow, eominji,' up 
with i\ portion of the rebel army at Ship's Gap on the 
16th, when rjeneral O. R. Wood's Division charged and 
carried the gap, taking as prisoners the Twenty-fourth 
South Carolina Regiment. Howard was pushed 
through Snake Creek Gap. Thomas meantime had 
learned tlmt Hood was near La Fayette. This news 
caused great excitement in tlie North, and even General 
Grant seemed to be disturlxMl, but it had the good 
effect of hastening forward all the new recruits and 
detached regiments to Thomas for use against ITood's 
invasion. The One Hundred and Fourth, leaving camp 
on the evening of the 13th, arrived within a few miles 
of Rome at midnight and bivouacked. On the 14th 
Calhoun was reached at noon and Resaca in the even- 
ing. The next day, the 15th, the Regiment crossed 
the Oostenaula and bivouacked at night near the Chat- 
tooga Mountains. The march of the 17th was a weary 
one by a mere bridle path wliich was very steep, over 
the mountain. About noon the Regiment came into 
Snake Creek Gaj) as the Twenty-third Corps was pass- 
ing through. Moving on, a halt was made at Taylor's 
Ri<lge. Some of the boys were revisiting the scenes 
of their exploits five months before, but a large num- 
ber ha<l gone to the camping grounds beyond the vale! 
There was a scarcity of rations on the 17th, and parched 
corn was in demand. However, being sent on picket at 
Dick's Mountain, Company H levied on some sorghum 
and beans and the supper was enjoyed. 

The One Hundred and Fourth took up the march 
again on the 18th, crossing Tavl(U''s Ridge and advanc- 
ing toward La Fayette. A distant view was had of 
Lookout Point at Chattanooga, thirty-five miles away. 
This sight caused cheers and brought back many thrill- 
ing memories. At night the Regiment bivouacked 
by the road. Sherman Leland relates the following 
good, true and reliable story as to an occurrence here: 
"A ceitain Quartermaster in the Brigade, well known 
to all the boys, lay down some time after dark to sleep. 



MS THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

Ilnviii^ preKumably taken oiif •;i>oil snuitzc he HUiMeiily 
awakeiHMl, ami f»*<'lin«; roM, also observiii}: the iiumu 
jiisi rising,' above the easteiii hills, he calleil out lo his 
iie^ro servant: 'Ah'e, Alee! move that lire up nearer 
uiy f»-et I' The shout of lauj;hter that greeted hiui 
brought back his KeuKes, but fair Luna eontinutMl to 
move on in her armstomed «-oui-se.'* 

Cieneral Sherman ha«l a few ila.vs pri'vious seeure«l 
a half eoiisent from the aulhoritie>; al \\'ashin;:ton lo 
his projtnt of a «-:impai;;n throu;;:h <i«'or;;ia, it being 
unilerstood that (ieiieral Thomas was to be left iu 
rharp* of Sherman's vast department to th«* north. 
Hood's army had moved lo ihc vicinity of (Jatlsden, 
Alabama, in the meant inie. and oin- aniTh's followed. 
Of the movement of the ( Mie Hundred and l-'ourth on 
the L'Oth Leland says: "Drew threi- days' rations anti 
passin;; through ( "hat too;;:i\ ille, a misciabh* jihue of 
a few Innises, near a bridj^e, we crossed the line into 
Alabama, and camped near (Jayh*svilh'. Ilcr«\ r«*«t- 
in;; from our rec«*nt toilsome marches, we lived on the 
fat of the land, enjoying l^featly the chaui^e fiom army 
rations to the food of <ivil life. lloj;s, shecji and sweet 
I)otatoes Were abniidaiit in this valley. Tin' Tiiird 
Division ran two mills and all were supjiiicd uiili an 
abiindaiico of coin meal, haitltack takinj^ a back scat 
for a time." <U-tobei- lilMh it was Icarm-d thai IIihmI 
had appeared before Decatur, .\l;il»aina. and cndejiv- 
onnl to ca|»lnre the post. Not succt'cdin;^ and being 
hhort of su|>plies, he withdrew and nearly a month 
hiter crossed the Tenness«*e at Fhu'eiice. Sherman hav- 
ing fully determined to carry out his |»lan, the armies 
were put in motion on the 2Sth for Atlanta. That 
(Jeneral Thomas mi;:ht be fully juepared to cope with 
Hood, the I'ouiMli < 'orps, umler Staidt-y, was sent to 
him at once, and a few days later General Schofiehl, 
with the Twenty-third Corps. These, with the raw 
troops in Nashville and sevei-al divisions at other ])ointH, 
together with many garrisons withdiaw ij from the rail- 
road between < 'hat t a iioo^^a ami .\tlanta. satisfied <i«'n- 
eral ThonwiH that he wouhl have suflicieni forces to m<»et 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 249 

Hood. The One Iliiiidrcd and Fonrth, breaking camp 
on the 2.stli, and erossiuj;- the (Jhattoo^a, marched three 
miles on the Rome road and bivonackerl for the night. 
On tlie 29th the Rejiiment marclied twenty miU^s nnd 
reached Rome. Diirin<>- the <hiy tlie honse was passed 
where General Ransom lay dyino", j^uarded by a detail 
of the Fifty-third (LaSalle Connty) Regiment. The One 
Hundred and Fonrth remained in Rome three days and 
was made' glad by the recei])t of thre(^ months' pay. 

It was now known among the boys that they were 
to go south instead of north, a plan that met with 
their hearty approbation. On November 2nd Hherman's 
headquarters were at Kingston, and his four army 
corps, with a division of cavalry, were strung along 
the road from Rome to Atlanta. On this date he 
received a dispatch from General Grant "to go," and 
from this hour every energy was bent to the object in 
view. The railroad torn up by Hood was put in run- 
ning order and taxed to its utmost to remove surplus 
stores of all kinds from Atlanta to the rear. The sick 
and wounded were sent back to Chattanooga, which 
was to be held. The army was put in shape for rapid 
marching. The wagon trains repaired and their num- 
l)er reduced to the minimum. Sherman proposed to 
live on the country after leaving Atlanta, which city 
was to be made untenable and left to mourn its deso- 
lation. The railroads were to be destroyed north for 
fifty miles and the countiw laid waste. The idea of 
the "March to the sea" was Sherman's own and may 
be called an inspiration. He first conceived it when 
Hood began his movement over the Chattahoochee, and 
while General Grant, President Lincoln and others, to 
whom he broached the subject, doubted, he never 
receded, but clnng to it persistently from day to day, 
until Grant, his superior, acquiesced. General Sher- 
man knew the uselessness of his following Hood after 
he had reached Gaylesville. Previously he had cher- 
ished some hopes of overtaking Hood in such a posi- 
tion that he would be obliged to stand and fight. 
Leland says: "There is a report in camp that General 



ISO THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

SIhtiikiii s«-iiI tin- Inlldwin^ < liaiiu (ciisi it nM'ssaj^t* to 
<M'iHT;il lI'Mitl |i\ <i«'iMM:il \'uiiii;^. :t l«*l»»'l otVlciT «;l|»- 
nii«i| ;ii Alhmta: •Till lloml thai 1 am liitMl «tf ful- 
Itiuiii;: liiiti ii|» aiitl want liiiii to kIo|» aihl ti^ilit. I.i-i 
hiiif llin»\v awav his )iirks ami sjunh'S ami Wf w ill do 
tlicsaiiH'. I.ct him choose his <i:i-oiiii(l ami 1 will ihi-ash 
him. hilt if h«- will not <|o that I will iikmM him alone 
aii<l whi|» him. l»Mt tell jiim also, if he peisists in iMiii- 
iiin;; awav 1*11 make a i»eff«Mi hell ..f this roiiin i-\ .' *' 
The late rietleiicU < J. MrLaiii. of Company K, ihu8 
wrote in ie«:ai<l to Sheinian's plan, lie says: "The 
first intimation we ha<l of the intemleil mov(>meni came 
to us in the ('hatloo;:a \'all<-y. Imt nothin;; <h-linite 
was known until ahoul the lime we left Kin;:st<ni to 
romeiitiate at Atlanta. I'loni ihetlay weeniei«'tl that 
<ity until we staitetl. the ipiestion was disiussed liy 
the boys. Keauie;:ati<| away down in Alahama was 
pi'ohaldy ehurkliiij: ovet- iIm- ;;ame he had pui u|i on 
Sherman hy sending I loud noiih to transfei- the seat 
of war a;:ain to Tennessee and J\entut k\. I*.ui Sher- 
man was e(pially lia|>|iy, no douitt, when he turned 
from the pursuit of Ijoutl to luareli in ilie sen. .lust 
think of it! The ;:allant Hood and his army ignored 
l»y Sherm:iii ami left to lie taken care nf h\ uld 'Pap' 
Thomas w iih one small corps aided hy some sipiads i>f 
;;reen recruits and ne;:ro soldieisl No doiihi Thomas 
will ;;ivethein jdeasani enieitaininent.'' 

Hu No\eml»er 2nd tin- < hie lliind'ed and I'oiirth 
marched for and arrived ai l\in;:ston, leinainini: ther«* 
until the iL'th. Adjutani \L *'. Stevens, who Imd heeii 
h«»ine on leave of ahseiice. returned on the 4th, Itrin;;- 
in;: letters for the hoys. Captain Koss, »»f < 'ompanv H. 
returned with him. Iiaxiii;: recovered from his woiiml 
received at Mission Kid;:e. The Ke;;iment received 
orders to prepare for acti\«' campaigning' ami all sur- 
plus articles or any re;iard«d as sinh were to he taken 
to the rear. < 'olonel II. ( '. Iloitart. Tweiityfirsi Wis- 
consin, assumed coiumand of the IMrst |{rii:ade on the 
!Mh l>y \ ill lie of seniority. The ( 'olonel was well km»wn 
to the writer, hot h having heeii (apMireil at I'hicka- 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 251 

manga, and pnt in Libby Prison at the same time. The 
former escaped tlironoh the famous "lude" and re- 
turned to Ills ((niinunid. The Latter escaping; hiter, was 
quite surprised to auain meet ("ohuiel Ilohart an<l in 
command (»f the First Brigade. The meeting, which 
occurred in North Carolina while the army lay in front 
of Johnston, was ]>l('asant. The writer remembers 
being offered a jxtsition on his Staff, but declin(Ml, He 
also wishes that he had declined some "(dd commis- 
sary,'' which he believes was surer to kill than bullets. 
The movement to Atlanta began on the 10th from 
Kingston. The One Hundred and Fourth left on the 
12th and marched to Cartersville and camped along 
the railroad on the edge of the town. The depot here 
being filled with rations, the wagons were loaded to 
their full capacity, also the haversacks and knajjsacks 
of the men. The de[>ot and town were then burned. 
There was such a sui)eiabundance of hard tack that 
the First Brigade and another, forming in line on 
opposite sides of the railroad-cut had a battle 
which caused much merriment. At Cartersville 
communication with the north was severed. Gen- 
eral Sherman received here his last dispatch, and 
from General Thomas, who bade him God-speed. The 
wires were cut as he was replying. The One Hundred 
and Fourth, marching again on the 13th, crossed the 
Etowah, as the bridge and railroad were being 
destroyed, and passing Allatoona, began tearing up and 
destroying the track by burning. The whole of Car- 
lin's Division was engaged in this work until late at 
night, when sixteen miles had been ruined beyond 
repair. The Regiment bivouacked some time in the 
night at Big Shanty, and resuming the march early 
on the 14th, soon reached Marietta, once a beautiful 
village, now a mass of ruins, having been biirned by 
troops in the advance. At night tho Chattahoochee 
was reached. 

Sherman Leland says in regard to the l.jth: "Cross- 
ing the river we arrived in Atlanta soon after noon, and 
passing on through streets already warm with the 



3&2 THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

tleslniviii;; llaiiifs, «aiii|MMl a milr tint side tin* rity. The 
wa^«»ii of tin* Ivt'^iiiiciit was smi l»a«k in liastr Inr ilu* 
l)a;4;;ii;ir iiml xaliiaith* |»a|MMs of tli«' Kt';;iiM<*ni, and 
urriviMJ just in tinn* lo irnioM- ilnni from tin* hark «ii<i 
of th«' Iniililin;: while ili«* fioni uas Imrnin^'. All iliat 
day thr aii' was r«MH \n ith fxplosiiuis of siont* Imiidinns 
used as slorrhonscs by I In* iflirls for ainniiinii ion and 
supplies, liy e\enin;i I he eniiie Imsiiiess pail of the 
city was oil tire, the tiaines li^^hiin;:: np I he sky in awful 
^raiidenr, w Idle ••\|»iodinu shells added lo i he <oiifusi<tn 
and rhaos of ruin." 

S«T«,'eanl Mel.ain sa\s: "The Tweiitieih Corps 
hejian ihe desirnrlion of Ailania and was relieved hy 
the I'ifteeiith Corps whieh was hurnin;:: ihe plare when 
w«' arrived there. Itnt soiye of the Twentieih, with a 
(h'sire t<» destroy everythiii;; and fearfnl that stun** old 
ndnd's property woidd be sa\ed. attini: on ihe iin|)ulse 
of the inoineiii, letiii'ned to Ailania and sei tiii* in 
many plares. t)nr own ainnniiution was saved with 
ditheiiliy by t he exert ions of our soldiers. Several ;i«*n- 
eral ollireis were there, but they stood batk ami said 
iiothin;;, allowin;: ilie soldiers to pursue iheii- own 
course." 

Captain Snawii wiiies. jn i-.-^aid i.i ih,- |.iii>iiii of 
IIoihI and return to .Mlaiiia: "llavin;;: followed Hood 
on his way to the total annihilation of his army at the 
hands of 'Pap' Thomas, and havinj; j^iveu him a good 
Keml ofT as far as .\Iabama. Sherman halted his army 
and the ( hie Ihindretl and I^miiiIi boys found ihem- 

KtdveS in elo\e|-, so I.I s|»eaU. when I lie ( liilMiMi::;! \'al- 

lev was rea»lied. .\«*iiher army had apjiareiiilv b«'en 
here befoi-e and t here was ail abundame of all kinds of 
forap* for man and beasi. The men uel<(»nied liie 
rhange from salt jtoik and liaiij lark io sin h iiixiiries 
UH rorn meal, fou |>, nniiion. sucei pt>i;iiiies. di-. .Many 

jror;;«Ml I lieiuselves |o | he eXlelll I hat I hey subseijljent ly 
regretted it. .\ lid stUlle, in e(inse(|ueme, beeiuuiug sick 
Were a few days later seni i.* Nashville, then'by iniss- 
iiig t he mareh to the sea. .\fier remaining msir < Jayh's- 
ville a wei'k the aiiuv was suddenlv ordered to move 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 253 

back toward Atlanta, jjjoiiij;; first t<» Rome. We soon 
began the work of destroying the railroads and bridges, 
which proceeding astonished tlie i»e(»]»le of the country 
greatly. Marietta was a mass «»f iiiins. Entering At- 
lanta on the 15th we found the city burning, the flames* 
illuminating the whole heaA^ens in the evening. Amidst 
the ]>andem(>nium caused by the flames, the yells of the 
soldiery, the explosion (d" shells an<l ammunition, we 
moved on to our camp in the subtirbs, to prepare for 
what all believed was to be a campaign to the sea, but 
no one with certainty could name the point toward 
AVhicli we were to march." 

Thus within three days after communication had 
been severed with the north, Sherman's army began 
another remarkable campaign that was to become 
Avorld famous; a topic of study and discussion among 
military men; the theme of the historian and poet, and 
the wonder of our own people, north and south. As 
events proved, it was the final one undertaken by any 
great armv on either side in the war of the rebellion. 
As a crowning glory it was to culminate in the sur- 
render of the last Confederate army of any size, com- 
manded by the very general whom Davis in his rage 
had dismissed and denounced a few months before 
because he could not accomplish the impossible, yet 
in the hour of sorest distress was obliged to call again 
to his aid. Joseph E. Johnston was, after Lee, the 
ablest of the Confederate generals. In this long cam- 
paign the major part of the One Hundred and Fourth 
was so fortunate as to be a X)articipant. The numbers 
were small, less than two companies when filled to the 
limit. There were, hoAvever, numy of the boys who from 
sickness or wounds had been sent to the rear at Nash- 
ville, and there did good service in helping to repel 
Hood's invasion, and. for these who again fought under 
their old and loved commander, General Thomas, there 
was equal satisfaction in the thought that they were 
in the battle of Nashville, Avhich utterly ruined Hood 
and his army, while adding new laurels to the fame of 
their commander. Some of our boys were also at this 



2S4 THK «»NK HrNHHKn AND F«H'HTH 

tiiiH* prisuiH'is of WAV ami «*mluriii;: nil tin* tontHMits 
of llu* irlirl prisoii lirlls. A ffW ilit'tj, (•! luM's i*S(;i|M*il or 

Wfn* tiiially «*x»liaii;itMl. Tin- wiiti-r, \\hil«* follouiiij; 
tin* •;l«»rious cantT of tin* Om* IhiiKlri'il ami Fourth in 
ii«'\\ ti«*l<ls of honor aii«l uatt-hiii;; its hatth'loni tla;^ 
waviii;; ovrr Sa\ aiiiiah aii*l It* iiiotivilh* in t h«' final arts 
of th«' ;;ran«l «liaina of war, will cntlfavor not to |os«* 
si;;lit «»f any of oiir UM-n, who. wln'i»'\«*r tln-y w»'r<', 
h«*l|»'«| to ;;ain tin* ultiniato r«*siih, \ittory ami |M'ar«*; 
tin* ^raiiin*h- of iho Nation, honor iiniMM'ishalih*: ami 
ahovr all, t In* <|niot, |M'rf«'tt sat isfart ion of havin;: fait h 
fully rontrihntotl in sonn* »h*j;r«*<* to |(r«*s«*r\<* tln*ir 
Nation ami tiovrrnin«*nt in all its intr^^rity for millions 
v**t unborn. 



CHAPTER XVir. 



The March from Atlanta to the Sea— Siege and Fall of Savannah. 



The army sclcctiMl by (Jeneral Shei'iiiaii tor the fur- 
ther invasion and e()n(iuest of Geori^ia and other states, 
was roiii])os(Ml of th<^ Fourteenth, Fifteenth, Seven- 
teenth and T\veiiti(>th Anuy <'or])s, and one division 
of cavalry, of two hriiiades, <oninian<hMl by (leneral 
Kilpatrick. The army divided into two win^s,the ri<>iit 
and left, was eommanded respectively by Generals 
Howard and Slocum. There were thirteen divisions. 
Generals ( )sterhaus and Blair commanded the Fifteenth 
and Seventeenth Corps, (renerals Davis and Williams 
commanded the Fourteenth and Twentieth Corps. The 
generals commanding divisions were: C. R. Woods, 
W. B. Ilazen, John E. Smith, J<din M. Corse, J. A. 
Mower, M. D. Leggett, Giles A. Smith, W. P. Carlin, 
James D. Morgan, A. Baird, N. J. Jackson, John W. 
Geary and W. T. Ward. The artillery had been reduced 
to sixtv-tive guns. The total strength amounted to 
55,329 infantry, 5,063 cavalry, 1,812 artillery, all equal 
to 62,204 men. The wagon train had been rednced to 
about twenty-five hundred wagons, divided equally 
between the four corps, and these were drawn by fif- 
teen thousand mules. There were also six hundred 
ambulances draw^n by twelve hundred horses. The 
total number of animals to be fed in the country 
inarched through was, including cavalry and mounted 
oflficers' and orderlies' horses, about twenty-four 
thousand, and as there was only forage on hand 
for three days, the enemy's corn cribs and fodder 
stacks were likely to suffer at once. The army 
was to subsist on the supplies found in the coun- 
try. General Sherman issued a special order on the 
9th of November designed to regulate the order of 



iuar< li. tlif luaiiiuT of foia«:iu-, aii<l tin- kiiuls i>f \tvo\\- 
♦Ttv whirh uiij:hi hv lakt-ii. lit- also ;:avr powtT to ilu" 
it>r|»H r(>iiiiiiaii<tri> jik to tlir <lrstnnti«»ii of ihoiktiv, 
hihIi as mills, fattorirs, «•(«-., liki'lv ti» In* usrtl Itv tin* 
fiifiiiv. 1111(1 onU-nMl ihai tluMf sliouhl Im* no w anion 
ilft*tni«iioii of anvlhiii;:. and a prtHMT tlisciiininalioii 
madr bflwtfU llitTirli an<l ilio poor, as tli«' foinn-r wt-r** 
IfiMUTiillv luiKiih*, whilf iln- laltiT wen- fiifinlly, at 
ItMiH! luMitial. Tin- ir;:ulai- roia;;:in'r was to Im* «loii(» 
viivU «lav hv (Iflails from rarli lui^adr un<l«*i- projMT 
(►nict-rs. Wliih- in raiiij» tin* soldins \v«mv lo be iHTiiiit- 
Itnl to jiatlnT vt'j;t'tal»l«'s. «'ir., within icarli, hni not to 
jH» anv tlistaiHf away. They ucio forhiddrn to eiiter 
dwrllin;;s or to coniinii any tn-spass. Tin* it*j,nilar 
di'tails Wfir to pro\ id*' the pi«»visions and fora;:;**. As 
an inlinx of slavt-s was likidy t«> f«dlow, tln*y were not 
to l»«' t'inouraj;«*d. 'rinif \\fi<* also provisions made 
ft»r piontM-r l»attalioii> in niaU*- roads and hrid;;es, a 
most important matter as soon as the flat eonntry of 
(MM»r^ia shonld Im* ira«lMM|. (icneral SJM'rman provided 
iu sliort for t-very possible citnt in;;enry. and adopted 
eviM'v pr«Mantion to insnie sntcess in his n<»vel and 
Ixdd eain|iai;:n thronM), tl,,. In-art i)f the reh-l ('.iiiftMl- 
t*ra»y. 

(Ml Novemlter ir»iii, liic I'lrieentli, Scvenleenlh and 
Twentieth (Virps hejxan tlie march southeast and east 
h\ dilTereiit rontes for the purpose of misleading; the 
enemy as to tin- real destination, which was lirst Mil- 
I«Mlj;eville, the capital of t leor^^ia. These movements 
pive the appearance of threatening both Augusta ami 
Miiron. and it was an idiject to kee]) t he enemy in donht 
nnlil the on*- hnndred miles to the reltel capital was 
j-ovi'ied. <Jeneral Sht'inian remained with the I'mir- 
teiMith < 'nrpK in Ailania uniil iId' Hiih. On thai date 
at ei^jii o'clock a. m. ilic lasi of ilie army left the 
iloonied city. All four corjts weic then inovinj; south- 
ward on as many roads to a common olijcct ive. The 
()n<* Hundred and Fourth marched to a place calle<t 
Lithonia, east from Atlanta, and Idvouacked ilnre in 
sijjlit of Stone Mountain. 'Pin- lJe;;imeni had the 



REGIMENT IL LINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 257 

julvance and Geueral Hheriiiau rode along b^' its .side 
or in the rear, most of the day, thus giving the boys 
a fine opportunity to study "Uncle Billy," as he was 
now calhMl. Sherman Leland says in regard to this: 
"We had three views of him, as all will recollect, first, 
sitting on the porch of a log cabin, the humble abode of 
a Georgia 'cracker,' where we had halted to rest, a cigar 
in his month, while beside him sat one of the female 
'poor white trash,' puffing away at her corn-cob pipe. 
AVe soon after passed by with as straight faces as pos- 
sible and about noon halted for dinner. The General 
and Staff i)assed us, and as we moved on after dinner 
we saw him sitting on the door steeps of another cabin 
eating his crackers and meat from his fingers. The 
third time we saw him sitting in the passageway be- 
tween the two ends of a cabin, a dozen or two negroes 
standing around and staring at him in wonder and 
awe." These plain, familiar ways of General Sherman 
were well calculated to gain for him the couhdeuce 
and respect of his soldiers, who knew that he had 
always studied their interests and comfort so far as 
lie could and had been careful not to have their lives 
needlessly sacrificed in battle. This first day's march 
was entered into with great spirit bj' all the army. 
The majority believed they ,were going to Richmond 
to help out Grant, who did not seem to be making 
much progress. The weather was clear and perfect 
and the wrought-up expectations of the men found 
expression in mirth and song, "Old John Brown" and 
other popular pieces being sung with a vim that must 
have had an effect, pleasant or otherwise, on the natives 
of the country, white and black. 

On the 17th the One Hundred and Fourth reached 
Conver's Station in time for dinner. Leland says that 
an old lady was seen here who allowed that she had 
done running away from the Yankees, for this Avas the 
sixth time, the first being from Kentucky, and now 
she reckoned she would let them go first. In the after- 
noon the Division was employed in tearing up and 
destroving the railroad for five miles. This work was 



»8 



•rii*-* <i\i iiivniti |i A N I • KiiriiTH 



thoron;:lil\ <l"in-, in<- rails Immii- ImmIiU aii«l ilu-ii 
twiNitMl ai-«*iiii<l irtfs willi («»ii;;s iii;i«l«* f»»r ilu* puriMist'. 
Al iiii«|iii;:lit tin* Kr<:iiiuMit r;mi|..M| on V«llo\\ liiviT. 
No f(irap« was to In- IwkI on tlu* KUli, Imi xUv foia^^crs 
taim* ill oil ilu* ITlli, with an alMiinlaiicr t»f swjtI pota 
tiM's ami sonu* fn-sli poik. Sonir nr^rors now ln-^an 
lo llork in. < 'a pi a in Siiawn ;:iv«'s liis ol»sri\ al ions and 
fXiMTifiuu' jis follows ill n'«;ai<l !•» iIkim: "Tin srcoinl 
ilav srvi-ral in';,M-ors <ann* m|i, a f<\\ oM intinn mm, 
lM*si«l«'s wonn-n ami rliilMnii. I was on picket ami •lur- 
ing tlif ni;;lil a party tttnsist in;;: «>f a man ami liis fam- 
ily arrivrtl. I tii«-»l to irason wiili liim. It'llin;; him 
that w«* Would lia\«* all iliai wf ronhl do lo take ran* 
of oni-sflvfs. hr had ln'iici- stay ai lunar and laisr 
somnhin;: to livt* on. Unt all lo no pnipos*'. Ih* 
s«M'nnMl to rrali/«* that in staitin;^' to f<dlow us his mas- 
t«'r would lU'Vrr pardon him. <Io he must, and did. 
Wlu'tlu-r In* and his family li\<d lo follow us to Savan- 
nah and w<*r«* «ari*d f<M- hy the < Jon crnmcnt, I »lo not 
know. It is a fa«t that w ln*n w«* rracln-d Savannah 
thrn* w<*r«* lu'twrt'ii nim* and tiii iluMisaml who ha<l 
followed in our wakr and wm- tart'tl for hy ilu- <io\- 
«*rnm«'nt. My attfiition was ain;n it-d lai<T to aiioiiiri- 
;;rou|t. It was made u|) of a woman «>f stuur thirty odd 
vt-ars. who had a humllc as lai-j^*' as a wash tul» on lu'f 
hrad and a pirkaninny in lirr arms a U-w uionihs old; 
another pt-rhaps a yi-ar n\i\ was stra|>p«*d on lirr Itark. 

and thr« tlirrs were trotting alonjx hrsidf liti. iIm- 

• •hh'st a hoy sonu* trn years (dd. .\s they passed l»y 
where .Kdjutant Stevens sat on his horse, he asked tin* 
hoy where they wer«* j;<»in;:. lie replied. 'To Savan- 
nah, sail!' What spirit h*d him and other negroes t«» 
jjiU'ss thus eoirerily our «lest inat ion? This was a <|n<*s- 
tion thai pu/zl<*d all of ns at that liim*. In lookin;;: at 
that ^i*on|i and others, ap|iarrntly stt un|u-epared for 
siirh a journey, we could not but think of the old rhest- 
lint in the month of every pro-slavery man in tin* 
North: 'What do you want to free tin* niji^crs for? 
you ronld not hire tln*in to leavi* tln*ir inast«'rs.' Mere 
wi-n- wonuMi and children, from infamv to extreme idd 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 25» 

age, startiiig- on a journey of months' duration, hoping 
for freedom at the end. Orders were issued that Ihey 
were not to be alh)wed to eiuumbcr our march, but 
if they kept in the rear and did their own foraging, 
they were not to be molested. Their numbers con- 
tinuously increased day by day and night by night 
during our march. In the north, with few rivers to 
cross and no interminable swamps to wade through, 
a journey might be made in a pleasant season of the 
year, camping out and with comparative comfort, but 
here was a motley crew of old and infirm and little 
children, setting out in the midst of winter, not ccdd,. 
of course, but very chilly at night, so much so that 
our own soldiers frequently took turns in keeping uj) 
fires. These helpless creatures had full faith that to 
follow us uu'ant for them freedom! While to return, 
or be captured, meant death! That this was their 
thought was evidenced on a certain occasion when I 
was lu-esent. The incident occurred at the crossing of 
the Ebeneezer River, a deep but narrow stream. For 
some reason the pontoons were ordered to be taken 
up when the army had crossed. The X)i'actice had been 
to leave then down until our black followers were safely 
over. The negroes began to arrive and seized with dis- 
may, plunged into the stream, alleging that the rebel 
cavalry were not far behind and that they would all 
be killed. Their pitiable condition and the certainty 
that large numbers would be drowned, induced our 
soldiers to fell trees across the stream for them to cross 
on. However, some were drowned. It is also certain 
that many of the old and infirm perished by the way. 
Certain large parties of them would attach themselves 
to certain brigades. They would learn the names and 
numbers of the regiments and generally manage to 
reach the commands during the night. In this way 
we learned to distinguish them from other parties and 
noted the fact that many old and feeble ones had 
dropped out. The uninitiated may wonder how this 
great mass of people managed to subsist on the long^ 
march of three hundred miles when the armv was 



?6o THK ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

iih\a\.s iM :i.l\;iu« »'. It is true that w«* always siM_Mired 
tin* hrst of fViTvlhiiiji and somrt iiin-s all i ln*n* was, but 
tlifv WW*' t'lHtmvii'H'tl to fora^«* foi- ilicins»*lvrs, ami 
not only l«» foraj^e provisions, but to pit-ss inuli-s, horses, 
cartH, wajfons, etc., for their use. IJesiiles, when we 
found tin* rounti-y full of pidvisions, w«' «;ave them 
nnuh that was h-ft ov«m-. ( "oni|M'll«'d to niaivh in the 
rear they wrre fretjuently all ni«;ht in tatihinjj; up, not 
darinj; to sh'fp <Milsid«> of our pirkels. IJcsidrs, we 
fretpiently niarth»*d all nij:;ht ourselves, which was 
extremely wearisonir lo all. KnM|ii«'nt ly, in tlu'sc ni;;ht 
mar«hfs wr had to hah every few rods, not even at- 
(emptin;; to lie iloun. foi- we never knew how lonjj; the 
halt woiild last. It all «lepeii»led on the widtli of the 
swamp an<l the ener;;:y ami iiuuiImms id the jtioneer 
corps. With all these delays the ne^^roes had to he 
content as well as iMii'selves." 

The march of the ( Mie lliiinlied ami I'mii-ili oil ihe 
iSth was toward < '<»vin;;ton. (Mi crossing; i lie Veijow 
Kiver it was found that the other two divisions of the 
Fourteenth ('or|»s had loin ii|) the railntatl for a «lis- 
tance of ten miles. In the afternoon tin* K«'^duu'nt 
arrive<l at rovin^Mon. which was found to be a ju'etty 
town of some lifieeii hundred people. Sei^eaut McLaiii 
says: "What aiiiacied m\ eye most was the pretty 
jjirls of w'liich the town was full. P.ui I must say 
that, with one ex<eptioii, 1 did not see a person whoso 
position and worldly circumstances entitled them to 
]>romincnce aim»n;r the rebels, who \\as friendly to our 
cause, ami I was not surjtrised at all when I heard a 
few <lays afterwanl that several of our imn w ho were 
tinw<dl and had s1ra;;^ded in the rear, were capliiied 
l»y the citizen enemy, taken to ('oNin^'tou and haiii:ed. 
In passing; throu;;h the town our ranks were closed ui>, 
the tia^K unfurled and the bamls treated the citi/<'ns 
with some ])atriotic music that, however inu<-h they 
haled, they had to listen to." At ni^dil ilie Keiximent 
cam|MMl be\ond the ]Vi'^ 11 ay lie's < 'reek, nine miles from 
CV)vinjjton. Meantime the Twentieth Corps had been 
busy in destroying tlic railroad a few miles ahead at 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 261 

Social Circle, which was fifty miles from Atlanta. 
Howard had demonstrated with the Army (tf the Ten- 
nessee and Kili)atrick's cavalry on Macon. The latter 
actually got inside the rebel defenses, but could not 
hold them and fell back on the infantry, a brioade of 
which (Walcntt's) was attacked by G. W. Smith's rebel 
force from Macon. However, this bri<iade, wliich was 
armed with Spencer's repeaters, made havoc among the 
rebels, who retreated to their works. 

The Fourteenth Corps was marching on the IDth 
direct for Milledgeville. The One Hundred and Fourth 
made twelve miles and camped beyond Sandtown, a 
place of three or four houses. Some extensive foraging 
was done in the evening. The army was now in the 
midst of a rich country and did not fail to live on the 
fat of the land. Bacon, fowls, meal, sweet potatoes 
and molasses were appropriated in liberal quantities. 
No hostile foe had before trodden this part of the sacred 
soil of Georgia and the South, and the people had an 
opportunity to realize what war meant when brought 
to their own doors. The One Hundred and Fourth 
marched twenty miles on the 20th, camping late on 
Whitfield's Plantation, the owner of which owned two 
hundred and fifty negroes and, of course, was a rebel. 
The march of the 21st was rendered unpleasant by a 
hard, cold rain storm. The Regiment made only nine 
miles and camped. The One Hundred and Fourth 
started early on the 22d; the storm had cleared aAvay 
and it Avas cold. In the distance could be seen the 
flames of burning buildings in Eatonton, where the 
Twentieth Corps had preceded us. A halt was made 
four miles beyond in a pine grove. Large fires were 
kept up all night. The 28d opened up bright and clear 
and the Regiment, marching early, halted for dinner on 
Howell Cobb's Plantation, which was AerA- large and 
splendid. When it was knoAvn that the arch traitor, 
Howell Cobb, OAvned this princely domain, the army 
proceeded to strip it of all things that Avould be of use, 
and left it in a state of ruin. The One Hundred and 
Fourth was approaching the environs of the capital 



2e THE ONE Hr.NDKED AND FOURTH 

tlil'oiii^li oil*' of (1m* rirhrsi :iii<l tiiirsi stTiioiis iif iln» 
8tal<S whifh it was cviiiciil lM'l«nj;r«Ml i«i th«' wraliliy 
rlassi'H. TIh'si* wfn* now to i-oiitribuic lo tin* siip|>(»i't 
of tin* anii> aii«l iiia«l«* t«» f«M'l tin* ri;;ors of war. TIn» 
«'in*iiiv hail iioi matl»* aii\ jnfparations foi- thr dcftMisc 
of .Mill«M|;i«-vill«u iH'ili;^ l«'i| to hrlicvr iliai Maroii wouM 
Im» uttarktHl (111 arcoiiiit «if ili<* lai-;:t' miiiilMi- of far- 
ttU'iesainl war siipplii-s tlnn-, wliirh tli«*\ w«m«* anxious 
to prrscrvr. all tin* tiiiir for;;«'Hin^^ thai SluMinan's 
army. l»v «l«'stro\ iii<^ lh«' railiojnls to .M;n«ni, »(tnl(l r«ii- 
^h'r tlirir material iisflrss. 

So roin|il<*t<'l,\ hail llirv luiii i|iiii\ iil. ihal tlu»V 
miiovi'ij all tlif militia from iIh- rapital rity, ami 
liln-rat in;; tin* convicts in 1 hr pcnitiMit iary. arnnil them 
ami sent them lo Mjhimi. Kilpat rick's cavalry sml- 
<lriily cntcieil I III- ci(\ (in I hi- L'lsl ami tin- ilismay 
ami confusion jinioii;: iIh- pi'o|i|i- ami in iIh- Lc^^isla- 
tur«*, then in session, was heaulifiil to Itehohl. The 
exit of tloverimr Hiow ii ami his hrother rebels in 
frei;;ht cars, in caiiiai^es ami on foot In-fore Kiljtat- 
rick's troopers, is saiil to have heen lomical. Their 
archives were left Itehiml. The Twentieth Corps 
reacheil the ihy' mi iln- -IM. Sii^i-ant McLain, 
<lescril»int: the march of the L';'.il, sass: *•( >iir route 
lay llirou;;li heautiful scenery enlianceij l»\ ihe spjeii- 
<li(l weather. The lamlsca|ie is neither a hroail le\el 
]ilain nor ru^'^eil mountain, hut the country is umlu- 
lalin^^ stmhleil with limber, with a creek runnin;; 
throu;;h it, ^i\in;; a lieauly such as the e\e loNes to 
dwell ujion. .\ll nalure was in her Sunday hesi. win- 
ter hail not set in here ami the meadows were as i;ieen 
as in .May. I Miring' the march we passed the planta- 
tion of Lci- (lordoii. a Lii'Ui"'ii;ini in i he nliel army. 
This is said lo hi* the iiiiesi :iml Inst kept |ilaniaiioii 
in all <ieor;:ia. The ;:arileiis niiij lawns are elegant. 
Over all presides .Mrs. Lee ( Jordoii, surroumieil wiih 
He;;ro ser\ants and e\er\ accessory of wealth." The 
i)ne lliimlred ;ind I'ouiih, mai'chini: aiiiidsi such 
Kcenes as these, at last reached the suhurhs of Mil- 
liMl^eville and under strict ordeis remaiiu'd in camp. 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 263 

But it is to be presuiiKMl that some of the hovs iiiaii- 
a|i(Ml to see the rebel cajtital tliat eveiiinii. The troo]>s 
that had jn-ecech'd them fared better in th<' matter of 
sij>htseeiiiji'. Tlie state arsenal was tilled with arms* 
of all kinds, s]>ears, lances and murderous bowie-knives 
amonn' them. Thes<' were i-ai'ried off as (•uri(>sities, but 
soon destroyed. The state ])aper, or scrip, was found 
ill abundance in the capittd and some of this taken 
alon«>- with the other thinjj;s. The evening of the 23(1 
closed with all of the left wing in an<l around Mil- 
ledgeville and the right at Gordon, twelve miles dis- 
tant. Our men found here news]»a])<M's of late date 
from all over the South. Sonn^ of these re])reseuted 
that Sherman and his soldiers were fleeing for their 
lives to the sea coast, and called on the people to rise 
in their might and destroy tlu^n. Jt seems strange 
that ])eo])le could be so imposed upon by such stuff, 
but m> doubt many were. However, the people of 
Georgia did not "rise in their might" to any great 
(^xtent. (Jeiieral Beauregard, from the safe distance 
of Gorinth, Miss., issue<l the following bombastic aj)- 
peal : "To the people of Georgia ! Arise for the defense 
of your native soil! Kally around your patriotic Gov- 
ernor and gallant scddiei-s! Obstruct ami destroy all the 
roads in Sherman's front, flank and rear, and his army 
will soon starve in your midst. Be confident. Be reso- 
lute. Trust in an overruling Providence, and success 
will crown your eff'orts. 1 hasten to join yon in the 
defense of your homes and firesides, (i, T, Beaure- 
gard," "Uncle Billy" and his boys only smiled on pe- 
rusing such crazy appeals as the above. They could well 
afford to. One hundred miles had been successfully 
travers'ed ami without any fighting worth mentiouiug. 
The army had lived high on the products of Georgia 
and were growing fatter and stronger every day. They 
had come to look on the trip as a grand picnic and 
were not getting tired, but more anxious to prolong it, 
if anything. In this s])ii'it the army again set out on 
the 24th, first, however, burning the arsenal, peniten- 
tiary and a few other buildings. There was undoubt- 



THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOl'RTH 




(•M\ aiKI riMSSIli;; I In* « M-oiHM' lil\ci'o|| ;i roVflril hrnl«;(' 
wliirli tin* riHMiiv had failrM to Imiiii. stum riitt-rtMl tlie 
JMIM'V wihmIs i«'i,'iuii and caiiiiK'd at two |». in. at Town 
CnM'k Mills. TIk- r.ii^adf, \\lii<-li had lakrii a (•i«»ss 
road, raiiif to ;i h.nisc tilh*d with ;;<mm|s w hirh iIm- 
«»wn«M' had riiiiccMJfd. The st»>fk was <*stiniai»'d lo he 
w<»rth sixtv thousand dollais. Tliosr j^uods were 



«»wn«M' had riiiiccMJfd. The st»>fk was <*stiniai»'d lo he 
w<»rth sixtv thonsand dollais. Tliosr j^uods were 
qiiitklv sampled and' some <tf them dist lilnited, e\eiv 
sohlier takin;; what lie wanted, Imi a |tailialiiv was 
shown for |iaper collars. The Ke;:^iment peifunurd 
picket dniv at this |da<e, called \\<md's IManiaiioii, 
until the afteniocin of the L*r»th. 

The left win;:: l»ein^ well chtsed ll|i mi I lie 'J.-itli the 
mai'ch was res nnn-d on t he l!(>t h, t in- < Mk- II mid red and 
I'onrih reachin;: the hiij l?iillalo swainji at imon, w hich 
was crossed with mnch ironlde, the men jtickinu: their 
way fiMM|ncntly on fallen trunks of trees. The last 
re;:iiueuts «»f the command did not ^^et tlirou;:h until 
inidni;rlit and were li^hieil on iheir wav liy torches. 
The Ke^inieiit Iiivouai ked on a sandy rid;:('. At daw n 
ofthe'JTth it started a^ain and waded aiioi her swamp, 
tluMi procee«|ed and reacheil SandersN ille ai noun. The 
rouri house, jail ami other hiiildin^^s had Iteeu hurm'd 
!»v our advance forces, the reh«*ls havin;: made some 
resistance here. There was a delay of several Inuirs 
on a<-couiit of ha\in;: to wait for the jiassap* of the 
ravalry train and droves of catih that were taken 
ahui;:, so that the lke;.:inient did not lea\e town until 
(lark and then marched until midni;:ht. (Mi the L'St h 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 26S 

the march was resumed toward Louisville. On the 
way the First Division of the Tw(Mitieth Corps was 
found to be enj.ia«;('d in (h'stroyinj; the Cieorj»ia Cen- 
tral Railroad. At nij^ht the One Hundred and Fourth 
camped at ten p. m. live miles west of J^ouisville. The 
29th was opened with an early march. The Kej»iment 
crossed the 0«>eechee River and soon after Kocky 
Creek, where, for the first time, cypress trees an<l 
palms were seen, an indication of a more tropical 
clinuite. Innumerable swamps now appeared and one 
of these was i)assed through over two miles of coi'du- 
roy road. The Regiment went into cam]) four miles 
beyond Louisville. (leneral Kilpatrick, who had been 
sent to Milieu to liberate the Federal prisoners, find- 
ing they had been removed, started toward Augusta 
and met Wheeler's cavalry, with whom he skirmished 
some time and then withdrew to Louisville. Mean- 
time the main army steadily advanced toward Milieu. 
Leland says of the 30th: "Our Brigade being in ad- 
vance, the march was easier and at sundown we went 
into camj) two miles east of Sebastopol Station on 
the Central Railroad. We found to-day an abundance 
of forage, such as pork, poultry and meal. The weather 
proved to be very warm." C. C. Courtright, of Com- 
pany G, says: "The negroes had a grand jubilee after 
dark; the boys built a platform, provided a fiddle, and 
the darkies more than hoed it down, one old fellow 
dancing on his head, and keeping time to the music." 
A short march of five miles was made on the 1st of 
December and the Regiment halted for the day at 
nine a. m. on a plantation called Nazareth. On the 
2d the march was resumed at noon and extended in 
all directions, first toward Millen, then toward 
Augusta, which Kilpatrick, with Baird's Division, was^ 
threatening. After inarching some miles and until 
after dark, the command bivouacked in an open field. 
On the 3d the Augusta Railroad was reached by the 
One Hundred and Fourth at Lumpkin Station and the 
Twentieth Corps was engaged in tearing uj) and burn- 
ing the iron and ties. Before leaving on the 4tli the 



JM THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

K«*};iiii«Mit iissisii'tl in fmilici- drsi i«»\ in;; iln- iua<l mikI 
thru iii:in-li<*«| 1*1 llaiit'isliaiii. aiiiNiii;; :il iumhi. At 
iii;;ln a hall N\as math' in a piin* f»»n*sr a f«'\v iiiiN's in 
aWvaiHM* aiitl ten niiirs from Millni. TIm- S«*vrnt<M'iitli 
t'orps «Mil«'nMl iIh* latttT jihirr on tin* '.\t\. Kilitatrirk 
lia<l ilciMMiisiralt'ti aii<l fMn;;lii Wliri'lrr at \\ aviM*sl»oro, 
su|i|Kin«Ml liy Haii-<l. It.\ this inMMMiiriii oik- ^^oitil 
(hiv's iiiarrh towartl Savannah had Immmi ;:aiii«Ml and 
\N'hr«*h'r |ii-«'\(>nl<*<l fi(»ni annovinj; th«* main aiin\ and 
the trains. 'IMu* ••ncnix roidd imi imiain nnnh h»n;^<T 
in ij^mirancr of Sh«'iinan's real ul»j«*ri ixc ( )n ih<* r»th 
th(* OiH* Hundred and l^mrih mar<h<'d roniliMMi niih'S 
on th«' Savannah road through a sparsely settled ronn- 
tr\ rov«Med >\ith swamps, and ramped afiei- daiU at 
La wton's Mills on Iteaver 1 )am < 'reek. The wlioh- army 
was tonvi'rjiin;:; on Savannah 1>\ four |»arallel roads. 

Ml l.a\\*s rehel division and some militia had I n 

thrown in fiont of Sherman at ( J^eechee < 'hnrrh, ahout 
fifty miles from Savannah, Imt ou the approaeh of 
the Seventeriilh Corps on I lie ."»ili retreated toward 
Savannah, leaviiii; their iiewly made woiUs. <Iem'raI 
Wheeler in the real- was kepi ai hay ity Kilpai rick's 
eavalry. The army was fasi ap|troarhiii|i.: the sea, and 
theeonntiy hecanie )ioorer ill appearance, with houses 
ami sei I lejiiciils fewer ami far heiwceii. Iniermiii- 
al»le pine ami cypress swamps prevailed. I'ion jsions 
and foi-;;ae liecame scai'cer, Itiit I heir jdace was siip|died 
l»y rice, which t;rew almiidantly alon^ the ii\eis in this 
part «»f the state and was harvested hy the ln>ys. The 
main roads were ;;o<m1, the weal her tine and e\ t-iyhody 
in hi;,'li spirits. .Md.aw fell hack steadily iiiiiil he was 
safe within the defense of Sa\annali. Some of his 
men liein;: taken prisoners a thrined that t he army could 
never lake Savannah. The Hue Ihiiidred ami I'oiirth 
marched seventeen miles on llie )iili all ilie way near 
the Savannah Kiver just across which the sand hills 
of Sonth ('arolina rose into view, t Mi the way a rehel 

Hteamhoat, the "Swan," was sunk l»v oi f iMir hai- 

teries. She was loaded with corn for Savaimali. .No 
ol her imideni of importance mar keil t he day. .\ i iii;;ht 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 267 

the camp fires of Sherman's army made of blazinj^ pine 
knots, illnniinat(Ml the whole eonntry, and were sur- 
rounded by as joyous a lot of soldiers as ever went to 
war. On the Ttli the One Hundred and Fourth led tlic 
advance of the Division over heavy roads which had 
been blockaded where they crossed the swamps. This 
work had been done by citizens and negroes, the hit- 
ter beiiiij;- run off a litth' later into South Carolina, 
Sergeant McLain says of the movements of the 8th: 
"After marching until noon we halted for dinner and 
wliile thus engaged a rebel gunboat came down the 
river and fired several shots at the head of our column; 
then returned up the river. That night the HcgiuHMit 
camped on Ebeneezer Island, near a very old church 
of the same name. It was built in 1761) and used by 
General Greene's army as a hospital in the lievolu- 
tionary war. The church, which was of brick and inside 
had an old-fashioned pulpit and high-backed pews, 
stood in a very picturesque spot In a pine forest on the 
bank of the river. Near by were the remains of an 
old fort built by iTOvernor -Tared Irwin in th<^ early 
settlement of the countiT. One in looking over these 
ancient relics is forciblj' struck with the antique 
appearance of everything. The forest, the fort, the old 
Ebeneezer homestead, and the church, carried the mind 
back to other days. The waters of the Savannah on 
the left flow silently by wending their way to the ocean. 
The island showed ample evidence of former high cul- 
tivation and prosperity. As one reflects on the many 
changes he cannot but wonder how many of the 
descendants of those noble old sires who built the 
church and fort, are now in arms against the Govern- 
. ment their forefathers fought to establish." 

The One Hundred and Fourth marched on the 9tli 
over roads which had been blockaded with fallen trees. 
Cannonading was heard in front. Another swamp was 
crossed and some time after dark the Regiment camped 
near the forks of a road where the rebels had built a 
Ifort. Our advance had driven them from this with 



THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 



uaii was iiiiKic on tli<' railroad t<*ii miles ii-oiii savan- 
nah. Soiur of tin* l»ovs wcni out fora;iin;; ami i»'t uriu-il 
well la«lcn with foildri-, pork ami |>oulirv. < in the lltli 
of I iiM-cmlxM' iln* (im* Ihimlird aii<l I'oiiilli, marching 
six milrs, ari'i\r<l within ti\r mih-s of Savannah ami 
roust riict «mI InfasI works. Il<i<ii sii|i|mh (<•<! l*n*s<*ott'H 
Hattt-rv. First Illinois Artili»i\. l>»-foic ilirarmy now 
ilosin;; in lav "I'air Savannah," siiri-oMmh'tl l»v fxtcn- 
sivf svstrins of fort ilirations ami th-frmh-d hv an army 
iiml«*r <i<'m'ral llardtM-. Tlif 11th closed with an 



iiiid«*r <i<'m'ral llardtM-. Tlif 11th closod with an 
almost <-om|d«'t<' lim' of invest iin-nt \>\ our foiccs. 'Tin* 
h'ft of th«' Tui'iit i«*t h ('or|»s rest od on the Savannah 
lkiv«-r. m-xt to it were the Seventeenth and I'ifteeiith 
('or|»s. and the I'oiiii eeni li on the riulil. < Mi i he TJih 
tin' <)m* llnndied and I'oMith » lussi-d ilie Sa\annah 
and ( );;eerhee eanal, ino\ed n|) a (piarter of a mile ami 
bnilt a heavy lim* of works under lire of the rehel liat- 
ttM'ies. situated <»n the opposite sid»' of a llooded riee 
swamp. The I'ifieeiit ji (nrjis. itein;; relieved hy tin* 
Seveiiieenih, marched down the (lj;e«'chee Ki\er to- 
ward I'oit .McAllister. This l>arri<*r stood in the way 
of eommniMcat ion with the tieet, which, umler Admiral 
I>ahl;:ren, had been sent with supplies to await the 
itrrival of Sherman's armv, and was then in <>ssalriw 
Sound and vicinity, helovv the fort. 

The lirsi step taken l»v <Ieiieral Sheiiuau was to 
ju-epare for the <a|»tnre of |\.ii McAllistei-. TIm' Sec- 
oml liivision of the I'ifieeuih < "orps. iimler < leiieral 
Ilazen, was selected for the assault, to vvliicji ii uiov-il 
on the l.'lth. from Kind's I5rid;:e, fourteen miles helow. 
<'aptain jiuiican ami two others of Sherman's hest 
Hcoiiis had on the e\«'nin;; of the iL'th tpiieilv floated 
down the ( l;;eechee in a skilT under cover of the dark- 
ness past the fort, ami lepurted Sherman's arrival to 
the lleet. «ieneral Kilpatiick was also s«'ut with civ 
ailrv to let tin n« liter t he posii ion, which he 1 1 id. « ieiieial 
Sherman, to hasten sn impoiiaui a moveuieiii, ami 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 269 

leaving the main army for tlie time, repaired to King's 
Bridge and on tlie 13tli witnessed the storming of Fort 
McAllister from one of our signal stations situated on 
a rice mill some three miles from the enemy. The fort 
had been built with reference to attack from tlie sea, 
while the laud side was weaker, but protect«Ml by ditch 
and abatis. Kice fields extended northward and west- 
ward bordered with timber. Late in the afternoon 
Hazen's Division was seen to advance across tlie rice 
fields to the assault in firm steady columns with col- 
ors flying. Instantly the defenders of the fort opened 
fire from their heavy guns, but Hazen's men, in three 
lines, moved briskly on until the skirmishers, gaining 
the abatis and felled live oaks in front of the parai)et, 
were enabled to pick off the rebel gunners. With 
shouts and yells the soldiers rushed over the obstruc- 
tions and into the works. The garrison of two hun- 
dred and fift}' men, under Major Anderson, then sur- 
rendered. Thirty-six heavy guns were among the tro- 
phies. Just as the lines were moving to the assault 
the smokestacks of a stamer were descried coming 
up the river below the fort. The signal officer was 
notified of Sherman's presence, and soon after of the 
capture of McAllister. In this afl'air Ilazen lost ninety- 
two men, the rebels about fifty. Sherman resolved to 
visit the fleet that night, so, accompanied by General 
Howard and several of his Staff w^ho acted as crew, 
he started down the river in a skiff'. On the way, 
learning from our soldiers below that General Hazen 
was at the McAllister house, a landing was made and 
a late supper eaten with Hazen and his Staff*. Major 
Anderson was also present as a guest. After supper 
the party inspected Fort McAllister by moonlight and 
saw the dead and living lying side by side, some to 
wake no more, others dreaming perchance of the fierce 
assault and victory. Sherman and party then em- 
barked, and after going six miles further, reached the 
boat Dandelion, a tender to the regular gunboat "Flag." 
It is hardly necessary to say that the reception by the 
officers of the Dandelion was hearty and that there 



iTO THE ONE Hl'NDRED AND FOURTH 

\\a> j<>\ all r«>uii«i. (i«*ii«ral Sli«'riuaii thcii Icaiiicil the 
lalt'si news fiHMii tlu* Noi'tli ami iibmit the mails and 
sii|i|>lirs au ail ill;: his aniiN. Tin* icsi of i In- iii;:hi was 
s|M'iit ill iiMfivii'Ws with <J«Mi«*ial F«>si«'r ami A<lmiral 
Diihl^nii. Thr 14th was jjivfii to the coiiiplctioii nf 
aniiii;:«'imiils f«ir fuiwanlin;: supplies to Kin;:'s ln-i«l;;t' 
till lln* « >o,mtIhm', fur ilisiiilnil itui to llic aniiv. Sh«*r- 
man ih»*n nMiiriUMl to llo\vai«rs h«'a«h|Marl«'i*s. 

M«'antiim' siimc prrliminarv ni«iv«'m«*nts had liccii 
l>(*};iiii liMikiii;; to the riMlnrtion of Savannali. One of 
these was an ailemi»i to close llard<M''s only avenue 
of rs«ap«' l»\ poiiioMii ovrr I he rivrr and |>laiik cause- 
way into South Csirolina, hut this failed. 

t Ml the ni^iht of the ir)th Colonel llt»l»ail, with the 
(hie llumlied and Foiiith ami two other r«';iinients of 
his Hri;;atle, made a reconiioissance !<• ascertain t he |>os- 
sibility of crossing; t he swamp, or siilniieriied rice lields, 
hetwiMMi his position :iml the rebel lines. The b<»yH 
wad«il in for a considerable distance. In places the 
water was <leep, reaching; to the armpits ot some. The 
route taken was found to be impracticable, ami the 
enemy becoming; alaiMiied ami ojienin;: hie, ilie coin- 
inami was ordered back t«> camp, where it aniveil wet, 
cohl ami disiinsted with tJeoiM^ia swamps. 

The next ni;;lit Lieutenant .lames M. \\ ri;:lil, of 
<'oinpaiiy I, a bra\e and venturesome ollicer, deter- 
mined to tin*l some wa\ of ciossin;: the swamp if it 
could be done. lie set oul alolie oil a tlitTereiit route 
from that taken the ni;:lit befoie, and suc«eeded in 
reachin;: a h»w lyin;; bank of liriii i^iouml at the e«l;:e 
of the timber, which he snpp<>seil was the boundary 
of the swamp ttii the enemy's side, ami on top of w hich 
was an old rail feme. 

Lieutenant \\iii:lii's |ui\ate e.xpt'dition beinn; re- 
ported to < 'oloiiel llobart, the latter, on tin* afternoon 
of the r.Mli. oi-dered Majoi* W'idmer to cross on the 
route discoNeied by \\'ri;:lit, and reconuoiter the woods 
on the rebel side of the swaiii|t thai iii^^ht to liml «>ut 
if tluTe was room to form tin* Hri^^ade on lirtn ;:roumI 
bet we<*ii the swam |t ami the enemy's main line of works. 



REGIMENT IT.LINOTS VOLUNTEERS. 271 

which were in the woods an<l out of sij^ht from our side 
of the swani]), excepting- a lunette for three ^uus, which 
was ou tiip rebel ed^c of (he swaui]) and in full view. 
(Ndonel llobart t(dd Maj<U' WiduuM- to use his own 
ju(lj»nient as to the number of nu'u to uuike the trip, 
to take the whole Kef^iment if he thouj;ht it necessary, 
or <;(> alone if he wanted to, but, ;it all events, to get 
the recpiired infcn-mation that niiiiit. 

The Major selected Captain Proctor, Lieutenant 
Wright, Mark Purviauce and William Frink, all of 
Company I, to go with him. Each was armed with 
two revolvers, and carried a liglit pole with which to 
feel the depth of the Avater, and all went bareheaded, 
so as not to be readily distinguishable^ from other 
objects in the dark. The night was extremely dark 
and the party proceeded to work its way across the 
swamj) with the utmost caution, as no part of the route 
taken was more than three hundred yards from the 
rebel lunette, and it was knoAvn that the enemy at night 
had pickets out on several dikes that extended i)art 
way across the swamp. 

At length the bank found by Wright on his former 
trip was reached, but it was discovered that a canal 
or feeder for the rice swamp, abont twenty feet wide 
and tilled with water six feet deep, lay between the 
bank and the nuiinland. How to cross was the (pies- 
tiou. By using his pole Major Widmer found a sub- 
merged log lying across the feeder, and on it, he, Ca])- 
tain Proctor, and Lieutenant Wright ])assed over, leav- 
ing Frink and Purviauce to guard the crossing. The 
ground was carefully ex])lore(l up to the rebel line of 
works, and it was found there Avas room to form the 
Brigade between the feeder and that line. After an 
absence of more than four hours the party returned to 
our side of the swani]). Major AVidmer, reporting to 
Colonel Hobart that the route was ])racticable, was 
ordered to select one hundred men of the One Hun- 
dred and Fourth to lead an assault on the rebel works 
the following night. Lo(dving to that end he had poles 
prepared to use as sleepers for a bridge across the 



m THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

* 

fiftlrr, 1*11 whiih rails froia ilu* tdil fi-iuf wi'ie to be 
laid; lonlu'K wiTt* also iiuule, to be U8e<l if necessary, 
and ilu* dt'tarliiiH'Ui was hrld it-atly t«> luakt* tln' assault 
whi'UrXfr tU'dfj-fd. Tln'it' is no duiilii ii \n»hi1»I liavr 
Imi'Ii sut«fssfiil, hill lln' «*variiaii<»ii nf tjic ciiciiiv iliat 
iiijjlil I'l'iidniMl it iiiiii«M«'ssar\ . 

S«M»ii afi«T «»iir anii> irarlicil ilif rii\ (oloiu'l 
IluWarl rrri'ivi'd liis hn-vi't as ltii;j;atli«'i-( Jtin'ial f(»r 
his a«tivitv diiiiii;; tin* si«*;;«*, and he r«»m|iliiii<'iit<'<l 
Major WidiiHT's party l>y y;iviiij; tlnMii a l»ain|iitt at 
his h«'adi|iiai-t('!s. wliirli was nijoyrd l»y all in i iim* 
anii.x st\l«'. 

I) mi 11'^' III*' I iin*' ln-t utMii i in- PJi li and 'Jlsi tiic nuc 
liuiidn'd and l^mrili in addiiion to takin;:; jiaii in iId' 
advt'iitiin' of (h<' ir.ili, was fully (MM-upied in jx^Jit'diii^j 
its liin* of a inilf in l<n;;th. Naii(tw dikes ran amiss 
llif rirr swamps and butli aiinics walclu'd tin* ap- 
|tr«iarln'S to ihcsi*. Tlify wri'«* also «onimand«Ml by 
artilliTy. Tlwrr was nnirli fora;;inj; donr in lln* «ouii- 
try around Savannali. bni pending; iIm' ariival ol sup- 
plies tlM' boys liulb'd rict* to help out the rations. 

( '. (\ < "oiiit lij^hl, s|H*akin;; of this, says: "\\ «• 
poiindi'd lor hulled) lire in mess ])ans with the butts of 
our ;:uns; liowevei-. not bein^ able to uei all the hulls 
off, when i-aiin;; tin- ri<e some ol ii siialrhed all the 
way down." Leiand notes that the army at this lime 
looked well ami hearty with hardly a case of sirk- 
n«*HM in till- Ke;:iment. lie also says: "(in i lie Hlih 
we rereJNed uiir llisi mall from the Norili. In the 
evening w«' heard a rebel band playing 'l>ixie' and 
*l|oiin'. Sweet lloiin-.' As ilie lovely sii'ains came 
IJoatin;,^ to ns across the water some of us felt blue. 
While here I weiity-seNeii rnion soldiei-s came in. 'Phey 
had b«i*n jtrisoiiers of war for over a year and joined 
the rebel army as the <piickest way «»f n'achin;; our 
liin*s." 

Frank W . Hums, of Company I, postmaster of the 
I''irst Division, says: "The lar;;est mail ever received 
by m»' was at Savannah. It look a six-mule army 
Wii;;oii lojided to the bi;; canvas covei* !o carrv if . Tlirci- 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 273 

hundred dollars' worth of staiups which 1 obtained for 
the Division was only a fraction of what were wanted 
for the first mail out from Savannah and 1 was kept 
busy franking- letters that there were no stamps for." 

General Sherman had sent for heavy siege guns, 
and was preparing to assault the rt'bel works, which 
after careful reconnoitering it was decided coukl be 
done successfully. By the ITth his supi)lies were com- 
ing in from sea in great quantities. On that date he 
made a formal demand through a flag of truce on 
General Hardee for the surrender of the city. On tlie 
18th an answer refusing to surrender was retnrncMl. 
General Sherman, directing Howard and Slocum to 
continue the preparations for assault, left at once by 
sea for Hilton Head to confer with (ieneral Foster and 
arrange with him to send General John 1*. Hatch's 
Division to Savannah for the purpose of operating on 
and taking possession of the old plank causeway on 
the South Carolina side, which was Hardee's only ave- 
nue of escape left to him. This nuitter was setth'd and 
Sherman set out on his return on the 20th. Being 
delayed by low tide he did not arrive near Savannah 
until the 21st, and was met on the way by a staff 
ofticer with tlie news of tlu^ fall of Savannah that 
morning. Hardee had retreated across the river into 
South Garolina during the night of the 20tli with his 
army of about fifteen thousand men and the light artil- 
lery, after blowing up some of the public ])roperty, bnt 
vast quantities remained and were captured by our 
army. Among other trojjhies were two hundred and 
fifty cannon which he left unspiked; all the railroad 
rolling stock; thirty-one thousand bales of cotton 
l)elonging to the Confederate Government, and much 
other material. Early on the morning of the 21st our 
pickets had discovered that the I'obel works were aban- 
doned. Upon hearing this Slocum and Howard 
marched their troops in. Geary's Division claimed 
to be the first to reach the heart of the city. The One 
Hundred and Foui'th, crossing the rice swamp in front 
on a dike, marched to the Ghimney Fort and bivou- 



L*:4 



■v " NI)KK1> .\V'> loiKTH 



arkttl UIuliT the « t(l;il> ;ill«l livr «>aKs ;il<MIIul l.;i \\ I < in's 

lioiisi*. On till* L'L'ikI (III* Kr^hiifiit iiiarrliiMl ilii-ti\i::h 
iIh' priiu-ipal strtnMs of tin* til v aiid was iliariin*«l wiili 
its bcaiilifiil a|i|>«sii-aiK-f, so (lilTci-t'iit fritiii aiivtiiiii;: 
stiMi iM'foif. Tlifi'i* was a drciiitMllv iropiral air aboiii 
fV<TVt hilly;. Tin* lions«'s with l»ro;i(l ami latii««'<l vnaii 
lias, till* vanis till«Ml wiili i-ar«' tlo\\i>rs in Mooni, tli«' 
palm and oninp* iihm's, wnr intnvstin;; sijilits i«» 
Im'IioM. Tin* livi* oaks. (iiaiMMl with Spanish moss (Til- 
iaiitl^ia) ailoi-n«'«l tin* str«i>is anil paiks. It wonhl Im* 
hard to drscrilM* tin* f«M'lin;is of satisfariion that p«*r- 
vadiMl all on this irinmphal mar< h, the tilting snpn'l 
to tin* (■anipai;:n lM*;;nn t*arl\ in NovcmlH'i-. ami with 
sonn* mis;:i\in^. Tin* rrsnit ha<l Imm-ii attaim-d with 
out anv hattic on tin* thn'** hnndn'd mih's' Jonnn'v 
and provi'd ihr wisdom of (icmM'al Sln-rman w Immi Im* 
i«»n««*iv«'d tlu' project that was to add to his fame as 
a t-ommamh'r aii<l strategist, e\eii moie than did the 
Atlanta rampai^ii. 'rin* < Mn* Ihiiidied and I'onith 
ha\in^ shared in the army's triumph on the L'L'ml, 
niai'ched out two miles imrihward and wfnt into camp. 
(Ml the march from Atlanta the loss to Sheiman's 
armv in killed, wtuimled ami missin;:: amonnted in the 
a;ij;r«*;;ale to Ttil men; \,'.\'.is jiiisom'ts were ca]>tnred. 
As on the fall of Atlanta the North had heeii excited 
to the hi;:hest pitch of enthnsiasm, so the anmnmre- 
meiii that Sherman ami his army had arrived safely 
l»ef«ne the walls of Savannah, was j,Meeted with new 
rejoi«in;r. to find more emphatic expression two weeks 
later, when the cits had fallen. There was donhle 
cause for the National u'ratit'ide and iiappim*ss, foi- 
the s|M*edy downfall of the uieat lehellion was assnred. 
The liatlle of Nash\ille had heeii fon;iht on the l.'ith 
and Hit h of l>eceml»ei-. and a si^mtl victory obtained 
by the army nmlei- tieneral (leoi-^e II. TJionias. o\er 

the rebel (ieneial II I, who had with him the ohi 

Army i»f the Tenness«*e, that b«»re on its banm'is the 
historic names of every ;;reat batthdield fimn I>om'l- 
son and Sliiloh to .\tlanla, ami had learned tin* art of 
war under Albert Sidney .bdiiision. Heaiirei^ard. l?ra;:ii 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 275 

and Joseph E. Johnston. The two armies were about 
equal in numbcis, but a part of General Thomas' army 
was composed of new recruits, negro sokliers and con- 
valescents from the vast hospitals of Nashville. Gen- 
eral Thomas, assuming the offensive against Hood's 
veteran troops posted on the hills around Nashville, 
defeated them in fierce assaults, extending <n'er two 
days. The results were most decisive, the enemy los- 
ing a large number in killed and wounded, thirteen 
thousand prisoners and nearly all of their artillery. 
A feeble remnant of a few thousand found its way 
back to Alabama in a demoralized condition, but the 
proud and almost invincible Army of the Tennessee, 
with its glorious record, went down in ruin at Nash- 
ville before the "Kock of Chickamauga."' As a fair, 
open test of American valor and a battle on a large 
scale that was fought and finished on an open field, 
that of Nashville stands alone. The One Hundred and 
Fourth had its rei)resentatives there to the number of 
seventy-five, soldiers of Sherman's army, who had been 
wounded or sent back on account of sickness. A pro- 
visional division of the Fourteenth Corps, composed of 
convalescents, had been formed under General Steed- 
man and rendered good service in the battle. Ca])- 
tain C. K. Brown, of Company C; Lieutenant S. V. 
Arnold, of Company A, and Lieutenant P. Talbot, of 
Company B, commanded each a company. Lieutenant 
Arnold, of Company A, says: "There were about four 
hundred of our Brigade in the battle. After it was 
over we followed Steedman to Decatur in pursuit of 
Hood's remaining forces. There some brisk fighting 
was done. The Fourteen Corps detachment was then 
sent to Chattanooga and the several companies assigned 
to patrol duty from that city south and east. My com- 
pany was stationed at Ringgold, Georgia, where I acted 
as Provost Marshal from January 20th to February 
2-tth, ISn."). Besides myself there were Sergeant Frank 
Pickens, O. Riley and Fuller, of Company A; also many 
others from different companies of the One Hundred 
and Fourth. T will add that I performed at Ringgold 



r7« THE ONE HL'Nl»ia:i» AM» K»a ItTH 

uiv iiuist ilirticult aiitl ilaiiy;i'nni.s srrvice tlurinj; the 
war, as wt* wi-iv loiislanily iai«lt*d bv Clatewood's aud 
MrlKtuald'H baiuls of jfuiTiillas. Thev weiv restive, aud 
knowing fM-rv f<M»i of ilu* ruimiry, we were kept on 
thr al^rt waithiug ilieiii ami tli«*ir spies, and proiett- 
iuj; «»ur stores. To t»nr «;reat d«'li«;hi, on Manli JTith, 
lM»r», the delaeliinents were ordered to rej«»in Sher- 
man's army. <J<»in^ by way of I'arkersbnrj;, West \ ir- 
jjinia. .Vh-xandria, and by sea to .Mntn<'h<'ad <'ity, N. 
i\, at hist wt' r«-a<-h<*d oiii' roniiiiands ai (iohlsboro, in 
time to help elose tin* war nrar Kaleij;li." The battle 
of Nashville, tin* niairli to tho sea, and the fall of 
Savannah an* all to be r«';::ai(h*d as |»aris id one ;;reat 
nn>v<'inent that settled forever th«* fate of tin* ronfe<l- 
eraty. .N«» jxreat ami or^^MMz«*d rebi*! army now re- 
inaim*d in all the sonthwrst to be eon<pn*red. The 
"marrh to the si*a" had dfirionst rated the weakness 
«d tin* Smith and the f»dly of its fnrther resislam**, 
Only the lildshill^ blow n<*i*<led !<• br ;ii\<'II to L«1*'8 

army at Hi<hmoml. ()n <Jeneral Sln*iiiiairs arrival at 
Savannah he had been refpii'sted by <Mn«*ral (irant lo 
transport his army, w lM*n Sa\aiinali shoidd br takt*n, 
to N'irj^iida, bnt on fiirihtr icilcctitm another roiirse 
\va8 pnrsned ami Sln*riiian's army left to sweep like a 
whirlwind northward tinini^ih tin- States of South and 
Noit h ( "aiojiiia. 

Tin* army remained in and m-ai- Savannah diirini; 
tin* ;:r«*at«'r part of .lamiary, lSt».">, enjoyiij;; a well- 
eariH'd r<*st ami pr«'|>arin^' for am>ther eampai;;n. Dnr- 
in;: 'his time the ( )m* lliindr(*d ami Fourth lived in 
eomfortable (piarters built bv the men, ami im|)i*oved 
tlie opportunity to s«*e tin city ami surrounding; «oun- 
irvat leisure. On Januarv IMli Tolouel llapeman went 
home on a thirty days' have of abseu<-e ami .Major 
Widnn-r eoinmamled the Ke;:iment. Captain M. ( tsman, 
of ('ompany .\, ami dereiniali <irove, of t'ompany K, 
ln'in;: taken sick, were sent lo the hospital. Tin* lat- 
ter, who had been a '^'ood soldier, unfortunately died 
on Februarv !Mh. The writer, while Shermau's army 
was mart'hin;: to the sea. Ikin iui; esrapeil from the i-ebe| 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 277 

prison pen at Columbia, S. C, on the evening of Novem- 
ber 28tli, was also marching through the swamps of 
the South, arriving after ten days' journey by field and 
flood, at the mouth of the Santee River, S. C, and was 
rescued by the U. S. Steamer Nipsic, from hell. Going 
north and reporting at Washington, he returned after 
a short leave of absence to Charleston, S. C, which 
had just been evacuated by the rebels. Remaining 
here a month or more, he was put in command of the 
First Battalion, Third Brigade of the "Coast Division," 
under General John P. Hatch, who commanded the 
Department. Ca])tain M. Osman, who also arrived 
there, comnmnded anotlier battalion. In April both 
were ordered to join their regiment, then marching 
through North Carolina, and thus were enabled to 
witness the death throes and attend the funeral of 
Johnston's army near Raleigh. While in prison the 
writer became acquainted with Lieutenant Byers, of 
the Fifth Iowa Cavalry, whose famous song of "Sher- 
man's March to the Sea," composed by him in prison, 
is deemed so appropriate as to merit an introduction 
here. 

Oui' camp-fires shone bright on the mountain 

That frowned on the river below, 
While we stood by our guns in the morning 

And eagerly watched for the foe, 
When a rider came out of the darkness 

That hung over mountain and tree, 
And shouted, "Boys, up and be ready, 

For Sherman will march to the sea." 

Then shout after shout for bold Sherman 

Went up from each valley and glen, 
And the bugles re-echoed the music 

That fell from the lips of the men; 
For we knew that the stars on our banner 

More bright in their splendor would be, 
And that blessings from Northland would greet us 

When Sherman marched down to the sea. 

Then forward, boys, forward to battle! 

We marched on our wearisome way. 
And we stormed the wild hills of Resaca. 

God bless those who fell on that day! 
Then Keiesaw, dark in his glory, 

Looked down on the flag of the free, 
But the East and the West bore our standard 

When Sherman marched down to the sea. 



.:» THK ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

Still onwiinl we preitsed, till our banners 

SW.-I" ' ■" 'rom Atlania'K Rrini walls. 
AntI ' "f till' patriot dampt-nrd 

Th. • !•«' iho traitor'8 flag falls. 

Uut wf paiibcU not to we«'p for the fallen 

Who Bifpi by KMch rivor and tree. 
Yet we twined them a wreath of the laurel 

A» Shernjan niarche<l down to the »ea. 

(). proud wa8 our army that morning, 

That Btood where the pine proudly towers. 
When Shernuin said. "Hoys, you ar» weary — 

This day fair Savannah is ours." 
Then same we a song for our Chieftain 

That etho<*d o'er river and sea; 
For the stars on our banner shone brighter 

When Shernjan had marrhed to the sea. 



while ami l»la»k, were piotecltMl and tln'ir ri^rlits 
rt'8j)ect<»(l, vrt tilt* n*ln*l itajtcrs in tin* Soiiili r«*pn*s»Mii«'(l 
that i-apinc and i>illa;:«' |>r<*vail«Ml, the uhjcct Immh;; t<» 
k«*«'p alive the Myiiij; eiiiixMs of ilw icJM'JIiMii aii<l tin* 
spirit <»f hati'tMl. The iiiinisti'is nf the ;x*»!<p<*l <>f J<*ku8 
<'hrist Were nut nmliily iiii1»n<Ml with luve for their 
enemies. (Micuf ihciii, as Shcnuan Lelan<l relates, 
ealleil on (leneral Sliernian an*l askt'«| if he would \t" 
allowed, in his piil|>it, to |tray for .lelT haNis. •'( N-r- 
tainly," n-plied iIm- < leneral, ".letT. Ha vis ami the d«'vil 
— !»oth lu'ed jiiayin;: for." Caplain Strawn «onnilt- 
iiles the following' iiiter<*sl in;; narrali\e of his impiis- 
sioiis and experiem-es on the mairh !«• the sea: "Thf 
eanipai;;n from Atlanta to the sea remains on my mind 
as a kind of half-forp>t ten dream, now ;;ay and li;:ht- 
s«nm', now ironhh'd and ;ri't'wsom»\ We had no !it:ht- 
in;; Worthy of tin* name, l»nt occupied oinscJNcs chictly 
in inarehin;; from one fi-riilc \;iMi\ lo anoihrr, remo\- 
in;: the snlistam-t* of iIh- land on our way toward 
Savannah. Supplies for the army were ahiindanl, Init 
We had to colled theiii. Details of fora;;ers were sent 
out daily to ;;athei- in the fai of the land. Stran;;e 

Hllpplies We|-«' >o|nelinies SecUfed on I he sly. aud selil 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 279 

lioiiu' as souvciiii-s. Unc iiiaii was i'«']>«»i'1('<l lo have 
sent home eonsiderable silver plate. Another bronjiht 
me for transportation a horn comb! It is bnt jnst to 
say, liowever, that most of our men scorned to lay 
hands on anythini; of value not really needed for the 
.army. There were some notable exceptions. It con Id 
not be expected that among- so many tens of thousands 
there would be no rogues, gamblers, thieves and rob- 
bers, before they joined the army. Their natural 
inclinations remained — to get money without earning 
it; therefore, it is not strange that, now and then, they 
disgraced themselves and the army. T have said that 
we found our line of travel well stocked with food 
supplies, the collecting (d' which occu])ied much of our 
time. There was one other matter that helped to 
amuse and vary the usual routine. This w^as the 
destruction of the railroads leading to our rear. If 
the embankments of the roa<l we desired to destroy 
were high and steep a whole brigade sometimes placed 
itself along the line and laid hold of the rails, and, at 
a given signal, heaved the whole outfit down the grade. 
If the ground was com])aratively level we had tongs 
and other tools for the purpose in view. The rails were 
wrenched from the ties, which were then piled up far 
enough apart for the rails to reach; other ties were 
then piled underneath and fire set to them. When red 
hot the rails were seized with wrenches and twisted 
out of shape; sometimes they were wound around 
trees if convenient. On the latter part of our march 
food and forage were not so abundant as at first. We 
had to use rice as a substitute for bread, most of it 
unhulled if not in the straw, too. Within a short time 
after going into camp, one could hear the pounding 
of the improvised pestles and mortars separating the 
hull from the kernel. This substitute f<u' bread was 
very healthy and nourishing, but we welcomed the 
arrival of the Government cracker, facetiously called 
by the boys ^hard-tack' and 'Lincoln platforms.^ 
Savannah, which on arrival we invested, was ditficult 



-•so THK ONK HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

«)f ii|>|iroa«-h, iioi tuily on artoiiiit of its «lrf»*nsi*s, ton- 
KiKliii;; of viisi fart li works ami forts, iiiouiittMl with 
liiilKirinls of caiiiioii. hut tli<* rebels lia<l tiooded all of 
the laiiW ap|>roarlies l»v iihmiis of the ^real tlitches 
iuterseetill*; the rire liehls ill all tlireriioiis, ami whirh 
hail heeii iiiaih* for the purposes of irri;;:at ioii. The. 

opposite eiuls of the dikes Were j:^liai*(le(l hv raillioll 
sii|tportetl hv iiifaiiliv. These dikes were oiilv wide 
eiuMi;;h for I wo or I hree soldiers to travei'st- at t he saiiu* 
time. The One llnildl'i'd Mild l-'olirtli will reiiieinher 
w«'ll its experieme Mile daik iiiulii in line nf hai i h*. 1 1\ • 
iny: lo wade throii;:h ihe flooded rice tield ill our from, 
hopin;; lo surprise the eiieitiy aiitl iiiaki* a lodgment 
in their works. We aihaiired as sih-iitly as pttssilde, 
splashing' lhroii;;h the waier. Tin* rebels hearing: the 
n«ds«« opened on us, hut did no daiiiaj;e. Hut as tliev 
Were apprised of our a|»pi-oa(h we fell hark to «lrv land. 
A few days after I he eiiemy ahaiidoiied Sa\aiinah an<l 
with Im Hindi till Ilea I'l s w«' look u)) t he line of uiairh into 
the «ily. 1 have ne\er silire ihell alleiupled lo lead A 

pokey horse hilt what 1 am reminded of an imidenr 
that orriirred lo me while on this marrh. I was pull- 
in;; aloii;; a \f\\ slow iia;: hy the hiis. w Inn 1 was 
hailed hy I'hil Hawk, of <'om|iany (I, as follows: 'I 
say, <'a|t, why don't you ;;ei a sled and ha\'e someihini: 
to pull?* We wi'ie inieiisely iiileiested ill Saxaiiiiah, 
of whirh We had heard so miith. < in Sunday many of 
ns Went to rhiirrh and for ihe tirsi lime since leavin;; 
home, heard inside a house dedicated lo the worship 
of (iod, an oldfashioiietl sermon. We did not infer, 

however, fl-iuil I lie liearliliess of our leci'plion hy the 
few preselil, ihe deactilis aild paslor, ihal lhe\ Wfle 
especiallx ;:ralitied hy our |ireselice. Ilavillii removed 
ram|> lo a new localil\ we found on dearini: olT the 
hriish ami trees that the ;;rouinl oecu|»ied was a mil- 
itary cam]) diirin*: the last war with (ireat l>riiaiii. 
The rid;;<*s of the coiion liehls were jdaiiily \isihle, 
tin-re heili;; he|e ||o flost to raise and le\el ihe i:round. 
The trees illl dow II showed tiftv liu'js. The ( Mn- lluil- 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 281 

dred and Fourth remaiiied some time in this camp, 
and as it rained most of the time we welcomed the 
order to march toward Richmond." 

Sergeant Fred G. McLain, of Company K, who evi- 
dently kept his eyes open while on the march through 
Georgia, thus pictures the home of a "Georgia cracker" 
living in the "piney woods" section of the State, lie 
says: "I will iioav describe to you the homestead of 
one of the 'poor white trash.' I will give it without 
varnish and you nmy draw your own conclusions about 
the people and the manner of living of the great major- 
ity of the chivalry. As you pass along the road you 
come to a little clearing ranging in size from lialf an 
acre to ten acres, according to the tinancial condition 
of the owner. This is planted in little patches of cab- 
bage, sweet potatoes, corn, negro beajis and turnips. 
Seldom does the list differ from that given, as the tastes 
of the people are very much alike. You may see a 
house near by in the timber; if not, follow that path 
and Tou will find one down at the spring which may 
be half a mile away from the garden. Around the door 
stands a family of eight little towheads, youngsters of 
nearly the same age; before them stands a little runt 
of a Georgia co\v, full breasted on the back, with her 
head sticking straight out, resembling a portable corn 
crib with the door wide open. Near her, tied to the 
wheel of a little one-horse wagon made after the pat- 
tern so much in use in the mountains of Pennsylvania, 
and called by Uncle Sam's 'pups' regular 'schooner- 
fashioned rockaways,' stands a Georgia pony to match, 
or in lieu thereof, a yoke of male corn cribs keep com- 
pany with the cow. In a little pen in front of the house, 
or rooting in the ground near by, will be seen three 
or four twenty-pound slab-sided porkers just as inde- 
pendent as their owner. There is a shelf fastened up 
against the side of the house on each side of the door, 
which the owner must have made; in fact, I think he 
built the house, which is of small pine logs, and the 
casings of the two doors are fastened on with pegs. 
The chimnev is built of sticks instead of bricks and 



Jtt THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOl'HTH 

j»iH»s Up nil I In* oiitsidi* of tlu* Inmsi'. TIm- n»«»f is iniuk' 
of rlii|»lMi;ii-.|s ami ln-M «lt»\\ ii witli ioiij^ poh's wliich 
run a« loss tin- iu«if fium um* si«U* to ihr «>tln'i". 'i'liifi* 
shflvfs oiitsiili* of the liousr roiitain tin* rnM-korv waiv 
uwhI ill tlic«lairv, whiih is roinposfd mostly of ;:onnls. 
You sirp up to tin* «lo<»r anil ask f«»r a <lriuk. The 
ladv «>f tlic liousr liaihls vou a small ^MMir<l wiili a 
loiij; trooktMl liaiKlIt', and iiifoniis vmi liiai M lie spring 
is just Im'Iow.' Strpplii;: <lo\\ii in \\\v sprinjjj you jjet 
a \U'\\ tif tin* bark of tin- Innisr, wliitli is just likt* the 
front, dirty as it «an Ik*. Kcinrnin*; to tin- hous<* to 
thank the lady, tin* oppuii nnity is finbratrd to cxain- 
iiif tin* internal arran^^'incnts. In tin* cmtrr of tin* 
hoiisr oil both sides is u door. At oin* (*inl is tin* tire- 
pla««' and on ••m* side of it is a slab with fonr im*;,^s in 
it thai s«*i\«*s for a kiidnn table; on tin* oiIht side is 
a (timimni board table to eat on. In the other end 
of the house is tin* bed and a loom, but in cast* there 
are I wo beds, they are pla<'e<l in tho corners and the 
loom stands on the poreh. There is a baby «radle in 
the middle <»f the floor, ami sometimes iwtt, wiih three 
or four rhairs scattered around aiiy\vli(*re. In con 
clnsi<»n. I will say that kittheii, dining-room, bed -room 
and parlor are all in oin*, like the Irishman's jtalace." 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



The March Through the Carolinas— Battle of Averysboro and 
Bentonville. 



The One Hundred and Fourth remained in Savan- 
nah until the 19th of Jannary, 1865, occupied in vari- 
ous duties, such as going on picket and building breast- 
works, as the city was to be garrisoned by General 
Foster's command Avhen Sherman's army resumed its 
march. The continuous rains had prevented the on- 
ward movement that had been initiated on the 14th 
by General Howard with the Seventeenth Corps, on 
Pocotaligo, S. C, twenty-five miles distant. This place, 
an important strategic point at the time, was seized 
and held with a loss of only ten men. General Slocum 
had also crossed the river with two divisions. Thus 
the army had begun to impinge on the sacred soil of 
South Carolina, the state that our soldiers had always 
desired to visit, regarding it truly as the birthplace 
of the rebellion and the home of the most virulent 
rebels in all the South. The same causes that delayed 
Sherman operated in favor of the rebels by giving 
them time to collect the scattered fragments of their 
armies; to enforce a rigid conscription which embraced 
everything capable of bearing arms, except their slaves, 
from the cradle to the grave; and to concentrate the 
heterogeneous elements before Sherman. It therefore 
became the latter's policy, as usual, to deceive the 
enemy by the exercise of his favorite weapon — strategy. 
Beauregard, Bragg and Hardee were all in South T'ar- 
olina watching, and endeavoring to ascertain the prob- 
able object of Sherman's first attack. It might be 
Augusta, Charleston, or Columbia, but they were kept 
in doubt until the Union coluiuns were ready to strike 
in any one of the three directions with equal facility 
and certainty of success. Pending the resumjition of 



»i THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

active i>|MTalions tin* rdtcls iiuiuo\t«l tin- liiiM- in 
i»l)sii-iiriiii;i i»N far as inissilili- tin* roatls ^H\ Slicriaairs 
KUppustMl liin's «)f advaiHf, rvidcnilv not «*v»*n yet 
uiulerstamliii;; that ShernuiirM ai-niy knew how to luiihl 
roads in apparently th«* most iinpossihh* phucs. Said 
a relirl sohlier to tht* writer on this p<»int : "It Sh«'i- 
niaiTs ai'niy had •4;one to hrll and wanted to nian-ii 
over and th»M-e was no othiT way, tliey woidd roi-dni-oy 
it and inareli on." This man. who was a fain«ui8 rebel 
srotit and ti«:htri\ as I had h'arned. mad(» the I'emark 
wit h a prifiM-t randoi- 1 hat impirssed as \n ell as amused 
me. Anoihef lehel sohlief having sn^j^esteil at one 
time that a lailioad tunnel should be blown u|) a eom- 
rade i-e]died, "That will do no p>od; SluTinan rarries 
a duplieale tunnel in his jtocUet." Ilowevel-, the fatt 
leiuains that the rebels who had for nearly a year wit- 
nessed the continuous onward inarth of iln- riiiou 
armies tinder Sherman, first to Atlanta, ami iImmi Io 
Savannah, be^^an to think there was no obstacle lou 
;:reat for them to surmount. And ii was oidy by the 
most frantic and «*xtreme measures on the part of the 
rel)el jjeiierals that t lu- semblam c nf an army w as raised 
in these last days of i he war for the purpose of pio- 
lon;:inj: what the leaders knew was the death stru^^- 
^le of their rause. Drowiiiui: mmmi willtatehat straws. 
On the JMh of .January the rare ot Sa\aiiuali was 
turned iiMT lit (ieiieral I''oster. wim pre|»aied !<• gar- 
rison it with a di\isioti fnun \iiLiiiiia cnmuiaiidtd by 
< ieueral < iro\ t-r. 

The ( Mie Hundred ami l''o\irlh received marching; 
orders on t he |*.li h and proceeded to pack up. The IMM h 
o|M'ned u|) rainy, but the jie^inienl turned its bark 
on Savannah at eh-veii, and wended ils way ahui;: t he 
west bank «»f the Savannah lii\er toward Sister's 
Ferry, wheiv Sherman pni|iitsed in cross a part of his 
army, .\fter a wet. loilsouic march of ei^hi miles it 
camped in the wouds. <'ourtri^ht says: **\\ »• lay down 
to sleep at nine, but awoke at iuidni;:ht dr«»w ned out . 
There Were three inches of water in our i«'n!, and also 
in the icuis of i.ih.is. (heiiiiire, .Marian and m\self. 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 285 

liaviug procured some wet wood, succeeded utter iiiucli 
whittling aud blowiiig iii starting a tire by wliicli we 
dried our clothing, lu the moruing felt cross aiid stift'." 
Owiiig to coiistaut raiii, the iiext three days were speiit 
at this camp aud corduroy roads built for our trains. 
The 24th was cold, causiug one of the boys to remark 
that "glory was a good thing to cover one's self with, 
but not so warm as a bhiuket." The Regiment moved 
a short distance to higher ground. The weather being 
clearer on the 25th march was again resumed over 
better roads, and going sixteen miles, the One Hun- 
dred and Fourth camited in the Nick-a-Jack swamp, 
tired and hungry. The 2(Uh was rainy, but the uuirch 
was continued for ten miles. The roads Were again 
bad, through a i)itcli-pine region full of swamps and 
needing to be corduroyed. During the halts tires were 
made with the pitch pine to dry the clothes of the sol- 
diers, which became black and dirty from the smoke. 
On account of the delay occasioned by bad roads only 
half a mile was made on the 27th. Passing through 
Springfield on the 28th and crossing the Ebeueezer 
River, a halt was made after going eight miles. Sis- 
ter's Ferry was reached on the 29th and the Regiment 
went into camp, remaining until February 4th on 
account of high water in the river and swamps, mak- 
ing pontooning and much corduroying necessary. On 
the latter date the river was crossed and the One Hun- 
dred and Fourth invaded the sacred soil of South Car- 
olina. A camp was made near the steamboat landing, 
where rations and clothing were distributed to the men 
during the 5th. 

The entire army, then engaged in the endeaA'or to 
escape from the swamps and floods of the low coun- 
try in its immediate front, was constituted as follows: 
The right wing, of the Fifteenth Corps, General John 
A. Logan, and the Seventeenth Corps, General Blair. 
The left wing, of the Fourteenth C<irps, General Davis; 
the Twentieth, General Williams; the cavalry division 
of General Kilpatrick, and Corse's division, tempo- 
rarily attached. The aggregate force Avas ()0,0T9 men 



tM THE ONK HLNl>ia:U AM> K« -l KTH 

of ihf ihitf anus, iiifaiun. aiiilN rv and lavalrv. Tlic 
w a^iMi iraiiiK iiu«l aniiiials iiiiiubcr<Ml tin* saint* as «»ii llit* 
iiianh fn»iii Atlanta. Tlioiv was foiajje f»u* seveu ilays 
and pruNisinns fur iwmtv. Tin* artillnv anionntrd t«> 
hixt vfij^lit j;uns. That »»f tin* Fi»uii»MMit li (\u|>s was 
iu chargi* of Major riiarU*s lloii;:liialin«;: laftiMward 
<MMi«'ral| of Ottawa. Frw will ever ft»rj;«'t him, with 
his Ion*;: i'<i| hair han^^in^ down on his shonldns in 
t-nrlv hnks. Thr rnnnv's infant rv »MrM|>i«*d thr Mm- 
<»f tin* Salki'hatrhir Kivt-r, while \\h««-l«i's »avah\\ 
liovcr«Ml around \\n* hea<ls and flanks nf uui- colnnins. 
Till* ri;:ht inoviMl at onrr to l»n*ak thr rrlud liin* and 
soon rlMssrd tlo' liviT ill tin* farr of inilrll opposit i<»n, 
lint iiti lM*avv fj«ihtiii;;. .Mt*antinn* tin* h*ft wiii;^ was 
toilin;; ahmj^ fr«nii Sistn's F«*rrv. drlayrd liy rain, 
mud aind ronstanl riiiihirux in^. Its mux riiM-ni :i|i- 
|M'ariM| as a thifai tn Anj^usta whih* tin- uhjcniNr was 
<'<dninl)ia. Thr lalirr, with < 'harlrsion, stood in rtpiai 
daii;:rr of a visit from Shrrman, and thr rrbri ;;rn- 
rials wrrr hrld ill niirrrtaiiity. On thr 7th thr rii:ht 
rrarhr«l thr railroad iradiny: fiom < "harlrston !•• Am- 
;:nsta, and i-xprrtrd to tind this inipurlant linr strnnt;ly 
drfriidrd, loit it w as not. and lakin;:: possession, How- 
ard's inrli prorrrdrd lo irai' up :ind <lrsn-o\ 1 hr rails 
and tirs. This was doin* for a distaiicr of Ijfty iiiiirs 
in thr most toniplrlr mannrr. <i<*nrral Howard rrlairs 
that whilr ap|*roarhiii^^ thr railroad in linr of batilr 
rxjMMtin;: a Ji^'ht, hr saw a man coiiir frarinj; toward 
him oil a whilr horsr ;;ni<lrd Ity a ropr hriillr. Thr 
tjriirral lr(o;;nizrd liiiii as olir of his "fora^^rrs." .\s 
hr rainr nrar hr ralird out, "llnrrv up, Cirnrral. wr 
liavr ;;ot thr railroad." It is hardly iinrssary to say 
that iJriirral Howard was both snrprisrd and «::rati- 
tird. Hy thr *Mh thr Irft winiT Imd r«>mr into linr at 
Itarnwrll and virinily. 

Thr t »nr Ihindrrd and I'ourili. Iraviii;,^ ramp on thr 
<llh, man-hrd trn iiiiirs, four of which was thronjxh a 
Mwamp whirh had brrii rordnioyrd. Soon aftrr noon 
thr Kr^'immt passrd ihroiij^h Kobrrtsvillr, bnt thr 
town had brrii biiriird b\ troops in llir aihanrr. It 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 287 

raiued very hard aDd a halt was made fur the iiij^ht 
near the fm-ks of the Orangebury lioad. The storm 
continued all of the 7th, but the Kegiment marched 
ten miles, often stopping to remove the trees which 
the enemy had felled across the road. It did not take 
long to clear these away and going on the Regiment 
camped after dark at Lawtonville. This ]dace had also 
been burned, A part of the Brigade became lost in a 
swamp and did not reach camp until late. The 8th 
was spent at Lawtonville, and foragers being sent out, 
returned with an abundance of forage, hams, uKdasses, 
potatoes and peas. Leaving camp at seven (j'clock on 
the 9th the Regiment made a long march of twenty 
miles and halted at Mathew's Bluff. Starting eaily 
on the lUth night found the command near Barnw»'ll 
Court House, The foragers came in loaded with sup- 
plies, showing that something besides hell could be 
raised in South Carolina, though from the numerous 
coutlagrations along the way that much talked of place 
might be supposed to have its location there. Lelaud 
says of the 11th: "We marched through Barnwell, 
which was being destroyed, and camped at a saw mill, 
having made eighteen miles. As we passed, a man 
who was trying to keep the tire, then burning his house, 
from spreading to the fences and buildings, one of the 
boys asked him how his house caught tii'e. Rather cool.'' 
The different corps moved in near connecticm on the 
11th, the Seventeenth striking for Orangeburg, an 
important place, which, when secured, the communica- 
tion between Charleston and Columbia would be sev- 
ered. The division of General Gile.s A. Smith entered 
the town and found several houses burning which had 
been set on tire before the arrival of our men. The 
tire was put out. A large building tilled with orphan 
children sent from Charleston was given protection by 
General Sherman, The depot was burned and rail- 
road destroyed. The One Hundred and Fouith marched 
on the 12th to White Pond Station and beyond, destroy- 
ing its allotment of railroad (the Charleston and Au- 
gusta). This road was wh(dlv ruined to within twelve 



2M 



'NE HUNDKK 



FOVKTH 



iliih's of Aii;;usia. (iriuTal .sininian on ihe coiiijiN'- 
tioii of tlu* uork (lirr<-t«Ml liis aniiv toward ('ohmihia. 
lliK iiiovfiiu'iits thus far had bmi so t'oiifiisin*^ lliat 
the rt'hfl pMuTals kiu'w not whfiv t«) nuM't liini. How- 
ever, lh«*v rvidiMillv thon^^ht hr would not fail ti* stiikt* 
Cliarh'stoii and |ii«'|iaiMMl to nMriv»* him thrir, as th«*\ 
«li(I also at Au;:usta. lint thcv (ouhl not tlicn i on- 
centrate a heavy fon-r at any jioiul. <'oluuibia was 
h»ft uiipuiided «'xc«iti l»y \\ ad<' I lani|tt oil's and Hut- 
ler's ravaln. 

On tin* loih of Fi'hruary the < Mi«- Ihindn-d and 
Foiirtii niaD-iicd to ihr south )ii:in< h of th<* IMisto 
Hiv»T, airivin;; ihciT ai iioom. In ih*- afternoon t ht* 
lv«';:iMi»'nt riossctl o\ri- and ;^oin;; iiv<* ndh's caniiMMl 
at llulhii-d's .Mills. TIm' men dirw thr«M* days' rations 
hen*. whi<h, with what was «li-aw'u fi-oin the rountiy 
for tw«*iily niih's on «arh sidr, assni-rd them a;;ainst 
the daiiiirr of starvation. Tin' foraj^ns, rallril "Imm- 
nn-rs," k»*|»i tin* whoh* army w«'ll siij»pli»'d wiih all tin* 
ronuti-y alToiilrd. ( Mio day a itaiiy of them xisiiin;; a 
plantation, proriMMh-d to |c\y on the poultry, pork, 
rows, «'ir. rinally they canK* t<i tin* small ont-huild- 
in;: usrd for smokiny; hams. This was localt-d on the 
sidr of a hill, and «'nt«Min;: from tin* iii>im'I- sid*', tln-ir 
t*a;;«*r «'Nrs diioctrd upward, w line a lot of hams hun^j^ 
on the raftrrs, thry did moi uoijt*' ihc loos*' planks in 
tlir floor, < Mh* of the hoys, sicppiiij^ tin llu* rnd of om* 
of t lu'Sf, was um«'r«*moniously jutrhcd into tin* ««'llar, 
fallin;: into a ho;;shrad of s<»r;;huni, and t h('r«*aft<*r was 
ralird hy that nanu'. Whet ln*r our ;;ay "Iniminrr" was 
nMidcrt'd any swe«*ier in person and disposition l>y the 
novrl hath, d<'|M»n«Mit saith not. Kains lurxaih-d on 
till* 14th, hut the <)n«' Hundred and l-'ourth made a 
iiianh of twenty-one miles, crossinj; durin<r the day ih«' 
north hramh of the Kdisto Kiv«*r. .\t ni^dit a halt was 
made at t he W'ateree I'errv t 'ross Koads. ninetoon miles 
from t'oliimhia. The w hoh» army was now ron\eru:in<r 
on that rity. the rapilal of the State, and met with no 
^piMisition rxre|>t fnuu ravalry. Tli.- ( Mie Hundred 
and I'ourlh. marehin;: until foui- jt. in. of ilu- iriih. 



REGIMENT IL,LINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 289" 

halted, and while preparing the bivouar, expecting 
to remain all night, received an order to niarcli to Lex- 
ington Conrt House. This ]>hice Mas reached at eleven 
and the rest of the night spent there. During the day 
a few men were captured by incautiously venturing 
too far away from our lines, among them Lieutenant 
Chaunell, of Battery C, The Regiment acted as l*ro- 
vost Guard in Lexington until noon of the Kith. It 
then resumed the march and guarded a train to the 
Saluda Kiver, Here the rest of the Brigade Avas found. 
Going one mile further the command bivouacked in the 
swamp until the morning of the 17th, when, starting 
again, Rockville Postoffice was passed, and having 
nuirched ten miles, a halt was made at Spring Hill 
until the 10th. The canij) was in a cedar grove and an 
im]>r(>venu'nt on many previous ones. General Sher- 
man says in his '^Memoirs" that on the 16th he camped 
near the old prison camp opposite Columbia, known 
as "Camp Sorghum," where he saw the remains of the 
mud hovels and holes made by our men when prison- 
ers. Possibly he may have observed the one built by 
the writer. This "pen" was situated about three miles 
from the city, across the river. The Seventeenth Corps 
arrived there on the 16th and camped on the bank of 
the river. The Fifteenth Corps was four miles above. 
The left wing of the army was directed to turn north 
again. On the ITth the Fifteenth crossed the Broad 
River on a pontoon bridge and occupied Columbia.. 
Generals Sherman, Howard and Logan accompanied 
the column. Hampton's cavalry had retired, but before 
leaving had set fire to a quantity of cotton, and from 
there the fire spread, aided by a verv' high wind, until 
before the next morning eighty squares of buildings 
in the heart of the city had been consumed. Our sol- 
diers under Howard's orders assisted in the endeavor 
to stop the flames, but without avail. It was asserted 
for a long time that the soldiers fired the city, but this 
was proven to be untrue in the "cotton investigations" 
later. While in the city several of our escaped pris- 
oners who had been confined there waited on General 



M9 THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

Shci'iiiaii, iiiiioii;; MilnTs Adjutant liyt'i's, Nvhi»s«' faimius 
hMii;; Slifi'iiiaii llnMisaw for tlir lii-st tiiiii*, and ihrirsult 
>\"iisthat he altarhiil the Li(Mit<Mianl t<» liis Staff, wlicr*' 
In* n'hiaiiKMl until I'avrttrvilh' was I't-aclird. Hy«*rs 
was t luMi SIMM to \\ asliin^iion as a ln-arn- of «lispat«h«'s. 
I)nrin«: lh«* isth and I'.Mli tin- stat«* arsrnal. with vast 
«|nantiti('s nf shot and shell, was drstroyiMJ, also many 
fonndrics and nia«hin«* sJiojis. <'olnnilda was rrdnct'd 
to a stiiti* of iMiin l>y tlir L'Oih and Sonih <'ai'o|ina had 
by this t inn* irali/.fd soim- ol i he fiiiiJs of srcrssion and 
r«*lH'llioii. Tin* ri^iii win;: thru Ih^;iii fhc niarrh 
toward N\'innsl(oio. As onr rcsnli of Shfinian's 
niovrnn*nts < 'liaih'sion. which had Immmi ahh* in irpcl 
«*\rrv attack, was ••va«iiatrd on tin* listh (►f I'diniaiy 
by Hard***', ami ai onrc orrnpicd l»y (irncral l'i»shM's 
troops. toMirral llaidfo hast«*n«*d uiih his furccs to 
N'oiih ('arolina lo <^('\ ahead of Sherman's rojiinms. 
Alioni this lime (ieiieial .lose|di K. .lohnston, w ho had 
been abnsed ami mistreated by President dtlT. l)a\is, 
was, in tin* new and threatenin<; stale of (onfederaie 
affairs, called lo i In* command of all tin* forces in Soul h 
and North t'aiolina, as the only relM*l i:eneral capable 
of accomplishing: anything a;:ainsi Sherman's vicio- 
rions aiiiiy. Thns the main jtait of Sherman's army 
faiiltMl to sec rohimbia. hm undei- oidei-s marched 
toward W'innsbopo. Tin- one Ihimlicd ami I'oiirih 
Icavin;; camp on the P.Uh, ciossj'd the i.road Ki\«'i- at 
Threshley's Mill and bivouacked at (libson's Meeiin;: 
IIouKe. Alex. <'4»yle, of t'oinpaiiy 10, bill dciailed al 
regimental head<pmrii*i's, and who had been sent iinl 
fora^nn;:, came in with ti\e tine mules ami four horses. 
A soldier of t ho l]i;:hlyei^hi h Indiana w as accideiiially 
nliot here. ( )n t he LMH h t he Ue^imeiit broke cam Jt before 
HimrJKe and inarchin;: six miles crossed l.iiile |{i\ei- 
and bivouacked at I'beiiee/er <'lMirch. Iler** tapiain 
Koss, who ha<l been sent out with a |tarty of f«>ra;:ers, 
rame into camp in the evenin;;, brin^iii;; anion;; other 
thin^K Keveii innles and a span of horses attached to a 
HilverinoniiljMl carriap-. in which was pack<'d away 
lianis and shoulders. • The Ke;:iiiieiii , supplied wiili 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 291 

about thirty i)a(k mules, started the next iiioriiiiig well 
loaded with sii})i)lies and all were in a happy mood. 
Lelaiul leiiiarks in rejj^ard to the 21st: "Crossed the 
Little Wateree KivcM* and reached ^\'innshoro at noon, 
in time for dinner. Before our arrival a milliner in 
i(»\vn, declaring- that the Yankees should not get her 
stock of gooils, set them on tire, and a strong wind blow- 
ing, the entire city was soon in flames. In the after- 
noon Ave marched Ave miles to White (Jak drove, on 
the railroad, and camped after a march of seventeen 
miles." Courtright says: "The foraging on the 21st 
was gt)od. The foragers brought in besi<les the usual 
suj)plies, a lot of tobacco and wine. Of the latter smuk^ 
of the b<>ys had too much for their own good.'" From 
Winnsboro the right wing* was deflected toward Che- 
raw and Fayetteville, North Carolina. The left wing 
moved for Eocky M(uint, preceded by the cavalry. (Jn 
the 22d the One Hundred and Fourth broke camp be- 
fore sunrise and passing through Youngstown reached 
Blackstock on the railroad, and stopping long enough 
to destroy five hundred yards (its allotment) mov(Hl 
to the main Chesterfield road and camped. Marching- 
early on the 23d past Gladden's Grove to Kooky Mount, 
fourteen miles, a halt was made just in time to pitch 
the "pui)" tents before the rain, which had been threat- 
ened all day, came down in torrents. This continued 
all night and the whole of the 24:tli and 25th, obliging 
the army to remain in camp. Leland says concerning 
the event of the 26th: "The Brigade moved down to 
the Catawba River and camped at the mouth of liocky 
Mount Creek. Xick McCormick, of Company B, came 
in at night with his left wrist shattered, and reported 
the foraging detail that had been sent out in the morn- 
ing all captured. He escaped by swimming Fishing 
Creek after being wounded. The party was as follows: 
Captain W. C. Ross and John Mellon, of Company B; 
William Buckley, Company A; C. G. Phillips, Company 
D; C. Brock, Company F; J. H. Misner and J. C. Carues, 
Company G; W. Lakin, Company 1; M. B. Bushnell, 
Company K. On the 27th Major Widmer, command- 



»2 



THK «>NK HI.'NIJHKD ANI» Fol'RTH 



in;: iln* < Mir 1 1 II III I r«M I ami F» Mirth, was sciii i»in l>v ( u-n- 
I'lal llMbari willi tin* K«*;;iiin'ii! it» ft»ia;;«' ami limit for 
tin* jiartv. It was IrariuMl that tin* f«>raM;,.|-s lia<l lM«n 
('a|>tiii*(i| at Stnuhl's .Mill uu Fisliiii;; ( 'rrrU." Tlic iiaiii*' 
of .lohii K. .MtMiitt, of (\iiii|taiiy II, who rs(a)MM| with 
.M< < 'oiiiiitk. shoiihl Im' a«M«M| to the al>o\r. Tin* ( Mi«' 
Ihiiitlrrtl a IK I Foil It h, w hit*' tuii on this «'\iKMlitioii, did 
Jiot stM* tlu'ir (-aptiii'cd < omi adis, Init t*iu*«niiilcrtMl pliiii y 
of rclM*! tavalrv and tlid sonir skiiiiiishiii;:. Imt the lai- 
t«T did Hot ran* to a|tpioa«li too iirar t iu- sii|M'rioi- i ith*s 
of our I toys. ( 'a plain St i au n rdatrs t In* follow in;^ iiiri- 
dt'iit that otiincd: "A 'roniiart' sii!-;:«'on who hid 
UctMiiiipaiiit'd IIS ariidi-niaijy ;:oi lM-i\\«fii our mmii and 
tin* irltrls. Itcroiiiiii;; |ta iiic-st lickrii In- niadf a dash 
for tin* KouinnMit and nsin;; his spurs nioio than hi-; 
«*vrs, ran his hoisr into a ditch and was pit( lied lM*a<l- 
lon;: into tin* r<M| nnid, hfini: lomph'trly jdastrird with 
it. ('atchiii;: his horse an<l |»itkiii;L' n|» his ai<Miin»' 
iiMMils In* taiiM* toward lis as if all Wlifflfi's caxaJry 
was at his In-fjs. Mis haste and coniicaj appoaram-e 
canscd all in laii;:h, thoM;:h he himself failed to s<»e 
wln-re I In* fiiii came in." 

The incessant and liea\y rains had so swollen the 
< 'at aw ha t hat t he |>ontoon lirid;;e < oiild not he anchore<l, 
in fact had heeii carried away, and the whole I'oiir- 
teeiiih Cttrps remained is«>laied on i he wesi i>aiik iiiiiil 
the 2Sth. The Twentieth Torps, lioweNcr, had critssed 
iM'foie the Ineak, and was then in advance at llan;:iii;r 
liock, in «amp. The Ke;;iim*nt crossed the ri\er in the 
afternoon of the I'Sjh. ('ajMain Sti-awti nieniions i he 
followiii;: cinioiis event: "While on our way fo ihe 
pontoon we came across one of those rude rail pens 
hnill after the fashion of smh structures in the hack- 
wimmIk to k«M'p 1ioh;s from disiiiihiuu .i:r;i\es. Ai liisi 
we supposed that some man had lou;:h( his last li;:ht 
and was Imiied there, hut on close inspection, an oliicer 
was fftiind to he lyin;; <ui to|i of the ;;rouiid dead 
driiiik. Who he was, <u' how Ioul: he had heeii iheie 
hefole he hecniiie conscious, we ne\er learned." 

The ( Mie 1 1 Mildred a lid I'ouii li on Maicli 1st i: nan led 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 293 

the train throiijih to Hanging Rook and were much 
dehijed by bad roads, only fourteen miles being accom- 
plished. The Fifteenth and Seventeenth Corps reached 
(jheraw. On the 2d the liegiment after going half a 
mih' halted until nine, and then moving forward 
marched fourteen miles to Wharton's tavern. The 
roads Avere so bad as to make constant corduroying 
necessary. The advance forces on entering C'lu'ster- 
tiehl skirmished with liutler's cavalry. Tiie forMgers 
wei'e not successful in ol>taiuing anything. (Jeneral 
Sherman here learned that Hardee had retreated across 
the Great Pedee Kiver. Cheraw, occupied by Uo^^ ard, 
was found to be full of rebel su]>])lies of all kiiuls. 
Among these were t\v<Mity-f()ur cannon, two thousand 
muskets, and thirty-six hundred barrels of gunpowder. 
The peojile of Charleston had also sent their valuable 
hcnisehold goods to Cheraw for suppose<l safety, but 
probably soon realized that nothing was safe from 
Sherman's army. Among their numerous assets were 
many cases of the finest old Madeira, which were duly 
taken care of and distributed. General Sherman gives 
the following interesting colhxjuy between himself and 
a negro on the way to Cheraw. The General asked: 
''What road is this? "Him lead to Cheraw, master!" 
"Is it a good road, and how far?" "A very good road, 
and eight or ten miles." "Any guerrillas?" "Oh, no, 
master, <ley is gone tAVo days ago; you could have 
played cards on der coat-tails, dey was in sich a hurry!" 
On the 3d the One Hundred and Fourth encountered 
the worst roads it had yet seen, but toiled slowly along 
in the rain, halting at noon near Oxhaw for dinner. 
Crossing Lynch Creek and moving on the camp was 
reached at Blackleys after a march of fourteen miles. 
On the 4th the Regiment marched fifteen miles and 
during the day crossed the state line into North Car- 
olina. Foraging poor. Here General Sheruuin issued 
an order to the army calling upon all to be mwlerate 
in North Carolina in their foraging- and treatment of 
the people, who had been forced into the rebellion 
against the will of the majority. He theref(^e relied 



m THE t>NE Hl'NDKED AND FOIHTH 

U|M>ii tln' Koldicis lit slniw iln- |Mi.|il.- <if iIh- Siiiic ili:il 
thfv liiiii i-fsptMi for tluMii ami \v«ml«l takt* «iul\ siuli 
supplirs as wt'H' lUMi'Ssarv for siil>Kisi«Mir«'. h is Im*- 
lif\r«l that tln'onlrr was oIm«v<m1 jirriiv i:<in r;ill\ . (Mi 
ilir r»ili ili«-<>iir lluinlnMl ami Fourth iiiairlu'tl in rrar 
of llir ("••rps to within oim* au«l a half iiiih-s of tin* 
<ir«*at TtMltM' Kivcr. ainl i-«'iiiaiiHM| in *Miiip until the 
"ill, waitin^^ ft»r tin* pontoon to In- laiil. This ln-i«lp' 
was thiown at K«'u:«'iit's l'«'ii_\. uiuf Miih> alioNr < 'In- 
law, and roiisistftl of foitv-luo |>ontoon hoats, four of 
whirh w«*f«' \\a;ion hoxrs tovcimmI with ranvas. < Mi 
till' 7tli tin* Kr^^inuMit ifossrd the INmNm' at on<* o\hMk, 
iiiairlnMl foi- awliilf towani UocUin^ihani, tln-n taking 
I hr I'a v«'t tr\ illf io;n| t hioii^ili t In- piin- \N ootis to .la to! is'. 
ranijMMl for tlir nii^dit, liavinj; rovcifil ilfictn iiiih's 
hrtwi'cn ten ami six o'riork. IJut tin* i«M<»rtl of the Sth 
hrat all pirN ioiis ones. LrlamI savs: "\\ f start<M| at 
six a. III. ami lialtrd for diiim-r at «'l«*v«'n a. in., Iiavinj; 
inanhrd tiftmi inih-s in liv«' Imnis, which «*lirit«'t| tin' 
miiaik fioin (o'ln-i-al Slicnnaii, who was with our rol 
niiin, t hat "it wastln-d st inarrhin;: I «-v»-r saw ." Itut 
w«« had two ohjtM-ts in vi«*w ; liist, to ;;ain tin- I'aviitc- 
Nilh- plank rojnl lM'foi*«' the 'rwcntifth i'tujis ami tak«* 
t he ad \ a mo. A ml second I v, to |tic\('iii t ho fin'in v's cav- 
alrv fioiii Imiiiiii;: I'dm-'s bridge o\ci- howiiinu rpock. 
\\'«* accojMplishod lioih piirposi's. Aftci- diiinci- wo 
cfossrd the clerk aild Weill into taiiip at the tliiitv- 
foiirth mile post from I'avet te\ ille, having: inarched 
tNvent\two miles throui^h a steady rain from the lime 
of start in;;. " While i he nne II umlreil and Fourth were 
thus makiiii: »|uick time for the "idiject ive," <';iptiin 
Stiawn had heeii sent out after «r«»ssine the Fedee in 
roiiimand of ;i lar;;»* IhmIv of foia;;ers and directed to 
march tow aids Jiockin;;liaiii. llesays: "I wasdirected 
to secure, if possilde. a lot of lloiir. The ca\aliy, as 
usual, were ahead, hut we had m* tioulde in ke«'pin;j: 
up with them. .\t iii^xht we camped a few miles from 
Kockin;;liam. The next inornini; we were oiT liriuht 
ami eail\ for the town and arrived in time to see the 
cavalrv tU'ivt* out s«une rebel troo|>ers. < )f course our 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 295 

cavalry gobbled most of the Hour and left us scant 
pickings. Wliile searcliing diligently for what might 
be hidden in (Uithouses, oiio of our b()ys found a cjuau- 
tity of coined silver stuffed under the shingles on the 
X)lates that held the rafters. Now, this was not strictly 
something to eat, but tliei-e being no one to claim it, 
and it being certain that siuue one with m* better right 
would carry it off, the fiinler kept it, but had much 
trouble to carry the bulky stuff' into cam]), where I 
learned that he disposed of the booty to another sol- 
dier who had a 'pull' on a baggage wagon. One of the 
boys informed me that on the march he threatened to 
throw it away, when one and another offered to let 
him divide. On our return to the Brigade I found that 
thc^re had been some anxiety about us as we had gone 
quite a distance from the route of the main army and 
were nearly surrounded by Wheeler's cavalry at tiines.'^ 
(xeneral Sherman, who was with the Fifteenth 
Corps, reached Lanrel Hill on the 8th of March. The 
Twentieth Corps followed the Ponrteenth into Fay- 
etteville. The Seventeenth Cor])s was on the right and 
Kilpatrick's cavalrj^ guarded the left of the array 
toward Wadesboro. Hampton's and Wheelei-'s cav- 
alry were in his front, but he drove them steadily be- 
fore him. General Sherman, while at Laurel Hill, sent 
Corporal Pike, a trusted scout, in disguise, to work 
his way down the Cape Fear River to Wilmington with 
letters in cipher announcing his ap]n'oach. This Cor- 
poral Pike was with Thomas on the Chickamauga cam- 
paign and well known to the writer. The One Hun- 
dred and Fourth marched twelve miles on the 9th and 
bivouacked at Montrose Postofifice. Courtright, who 
had been out with a foraging party and lost his way,, 
reported to the Regiment. The march was resumed 
on the 10th, and after going nine miles, a halt was 
made for the night thirteen miles from Fayetteville. 
On this date, Kilpatrick met with a surprise from 
Hampton's troopers, bnt escaping Avith a part of his 
men into a swamp, he reformjed them and charging the 
enemy recovered his camp and most of his artillery. 



5M THE ONi; Hr.M'i;i;i> and k< h uth 

Tin' FumMrriiih rorps was tin* liisi ii» arrive in 
l-'avfii«'\ill«', wliiih it did on the lllh, an<l was fol- 
lowed by tlu' r«*Kt of tin* army. As our troops iMHiinl 
tin* imumiiv niid«*r Ilard«M« Irft. «iuss«mI the ('a|M' l^-ar 
and litirn«M| i he lirid;;:*-. Tlii' < Mir 1 1 iiiidi-«i| and i'uiirtli 
r«'arhfd tin* rity about noon and afirr hailing foi- din- 
ner wiMit into ramp, wImt«* it rmiaincd until tin* l."ltli 
of Marrli. 'Pin* boys thus had an opportunilN to \ it-w 
this brautiful and important jilac*-. Tlif old rnil<*d 
Slatrs arsiMial was |orat«'d lu-ic aud had Ihm-u us«m1 by 
tin' n-lu'ls as a manufartory of arms. Ilrfon' h*avin«; 
i H-noral Shniuan ordn-rd it s dost nut ion. Tho ollico of 
till' *M >b»<«*rN«*r." a xirulout rebel new .s|iaper. was also 
burned. The at laiiiiMeiit by the artuy of a |>oint so 
near the theater of ojieraiioiis in \'ir;:iiiia. aud oiu» 

%vlii*riM-ommuni<-atioii.s*could I |Miied with the North 

anti home, aud mail rereived, was a source of joy to all. 
^^'ilulin;:tou had been raptured by tleneral Terry's 
for«-es on I'ebruary l!lid. About noon of the li'ih the 
shrill whistle of a steamboat was heard «»n the ri\er. 
It was Sunday aud this salutation froui lie- «>iiiside 
■World breakiiiu ou the Sabbath stillness seiii a thrill 
of ^dadiiess through the ariuy, whieh kiu-w well its 
meaniu^'. The bearer of ^lad tidinj^s steanu'd into jhui 
and its raptain bote dispalclu's bu- ib-iu'ral Sheiiuan. 
<'orporal IMke had tpiieUly perbuiued his errand and 
this the answer. .\t si\ p.m. the boat returmd to Wil- 
niiii;;tou with h-tiers from «ieueial Sherman to \aiious 
liij;h oHiiials. In one to Secretary Staniou In- said: 
"The army is in sjiletnlid health, condition ami sjtirits, 
thou;^h we have had foul weather, ami r<ta<ls that 
Would ha\f slopped travfl to alnmsi an\ other body 
of men I ever heard of." Well mi;,dit ^Jem-ral Sln-rman 
be proud of his army ami satisfied wiili the results 
achieved on this march of m-arly four humlred miles 
from Savannah. The obstacles emonnleied were many 
and mostly those of nai ure. The rains had been almost 
<-ontinuous since slailin;.j. The swamps ami lowlamis 
were thioded. Se\eral u'reai ri\ers m-eded to be pon- 
toom-d. N«-arl\ c\ef\ mile of the roads was c(»rdu- 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 297 

royod. Besides the important cities, with their arse- 
nals, miiiiitions of wai-, and pnblic property, and rail- 
roads, captured or destroyed, the effect of the move- 
ment resulted in the evacuation of Charh^ston and, 
remotely, the fall of AVilmington. But not less por- 
tentious to tlie rebels was the result in the new dan- 
ger threateninrj- Lee's army in A^irgiuia, only some two 
hundred miles distant. Sherman having disposed of 
Johnston's army, estimated at this time to contain 
thirty-seven thousand uumi, could march to the assist- 
ance of General (irant. Truly, the rebel leaders were 
being slowly driven to their last lines of defense and 
knew not which way to turn. General Sherman con- 
sidered the possibility of Lee's abandoning Richmond 
and marching to form a junction with Johnston. Tn 
this event General Grant would follow Lee wherever 
lie might go. But General Sherman, having, with Sclio- 
tield's Army of the Ohio, then approaching Goldsboro, 
nearlv ninety thousand men, felt able to meet and cou- 
<iuer any combiujition that could be brought against 
him. 

On March 13th the army, having rested for a day 
and replenished somewhat its depleted supplies of cof- 
fee and sugar, other articles, particularly shoes and 
clothing, not being available, set out again on the 
march and was directed toward Goldsboro. General 
Johnston was supposed to be concentrating his forces 
near Kaleigh, but there Avas a possibility of his attempt- 
ing to intervene between Sherman and Schotield, and 
this made a speedy junction with the latter desirable. 
The One Hundred and Fourth left camp on the 13th 
and, crossing the Cape Fear River on a pontoon bridge, 
marched out some three miles on the Raleigh plank 
road and bivouacked. Sui)plies being scarce, c«)w peas 
formed for several days the principal article of diet. 
The Regiment remained in camp on the 14th, as some 
boats had arrived from Wilmington with su])plies, 
which were transferred to the wagons. The loth was 
rainj^, but the march was resumed, and after going eight 
miles the Regiment went into camp. The army was 



IM THE ONE HL'NDKED AND FOURTH 

iM»w <liK|M»sti| as follows: 'I'Im* Si*vi*i»tiMMitli Corps on 
ihr ri;;lit, tin* Fifl«'<*iit li iH'\t. ami tin* FoiirtrtMit li ami 
'rwfiii i«Mli oil I lif h'ft. wiili Kilpal rick's cavaliy \>\•^t■ 
i**r(iii;^ that Ilaiik, wliirli il siMMiinl |iiolial»lc iiii;^lit !)(> 
altarkiHl. All tin* liaiiis wiMf iiio\»mI on iiiirrit>r roads, 
fiii'tlifr i*aiHt towai'il ( ioMshoro. Siociinrs coliiiiin 
iir«MmffnM| ri'sistaiiro as it a«lvaiirr(l intrtli ami tho 
.i\ali'\ «li«l roiisiilrral»l«- skiniiisliiii^ in front, raptiir- 
iii;: aiiioi|w^ oilnTs, ro|«tm'l AIImti Klictt, a tfirlMat«Ml 
S«Mitli ('ai'olina liirrat«*i-, \n lio was miicli chajiiincd. 
Il«' luitl (-oniiiiaiiil<-*l a lii-i;:a<lf, iImm ariiii;; as n-ar 
;:nartl. It Immii;.' a|ipari-nt that I lir «'ii<iii\ w as in si ion;; 
for< I- in front, Sloriini iiio\«mI witli i-aiiiion on iIh- Hlih, 
until a|ipi'oarliiii;r A v«*i-\ sImuo. I laidrc's aiiiiv was 
foiiml orrnpviii;; a stfon;^: position mi swainpv uioiiml 
Im'|w«'«'|i tin* <"api* l'«*ai' ami South Kivci^i. ili-mial 
SliiMiiian. who was on tin- loft, diroctiMl an iinnnMliat«*' 
attark. <M'm*fal Sjocnni deployed .Jaekson's and jiait 
of VN'afd's divisions in linni, w hile a hripulc was sent 
far ai-oiind on the left to take the enemy in the ttank. 
The latter nio\cinent fesnited in diivin;; them in font 
fioiii their first line and the captnre of Khett's Ini- 
;:ade t<i;;et her with Macliet h's battery tif t hiee i^iins. A 
;;eneral attark was now jirepared for l»y foiinini: 'l'«' 
tirst and seroiid divisi(»ns of the I'onrteenth ( "orps on 
the li'ft «»f .laekson. Kil|»atriek heiii;: sent to sei/e the 
Iteiitoiiville road was driNfii liark hy the division of 
M« Law's. The atta«kin;: foires, then ad\anriiiLi. drove 
Hardee's army within his inlremhmeiils and w as press- 
ing him elose w hen ni;:ht eanie on. In the disposal for 
attack the One lluiidred and I'oiirth oreiipie<l a posi- 
tion in the fioiii line, loit was scarreiy eii;.:a;.jed ami 
lost no men < Mi the nioinin;: of the iTth il was found 
that llartlee had aliandoiied his works and retreated. 
Hiir losses in the hat t le of A \erysl)oro were t W el\e o ni- 
ce |>i and sixty ti\e men killed, and four hundred ami 
>»eviMit y-si'Veii men woiindid. The enemy left one hun- 
dred and seMMit \ ei;iht men d4*ad on the tield, the nuni- 
Iter of wounded not known. Several hundred prisoners 
Wen- taken. The arm\ roniinued liie mairh toward 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 29» 

Goldsboro <»n the 17tli, the Fourteenth Corps leading. 
The One Hundred and Fourth marched six miles 
through s\vam]>s and ereeks and <am])('d. The roads 
traversed on the ISth were bad, witli many ch'e]) creeks 
to Avade, but tlie Kegiment marched fourteen miles. 
Some of the foragers brought in good supplies of hains^ 
chickens, turkeys, and sweet potatoes. 

(leneial Sherman, believing that Johnston's army 
had retreated to Smithtield and would not furtlier oj)- 
pose his march to Goldsboro, joined Howard's column 
and pushed hard for that place. The roads were bad. 
and the lines were well stretched out, but Sherman 
was anxious to meet Schotiehl. He apparently h>st for 
the time his usual caution in allowing the two wings 
to be so widely separated in the presence of his wily 
antagonist. The latter had by forced marches effected 
a junction with Hardee at l>entonville, where lie had 
caused several miles of works to be erected and was 
ready to fight, offensively and defensively. Well posted 
as to Sherman's movements a trap was prepared by 
Johnston, which added new credit to his skill as a com- 
mander. Two isidated divisions of the Fourteentli 
Corps were approaching his lines, two more were sev- 
eral miles distant, the rest of the left wing was scat- 
tered for ten miles in the rear. ITe proposed to attack 
and destroy these in detail. Howard was known to 
be too far away to afford immediate assistance. That 
Johnston did, not succeed was owing to conditions aris- 
ing which he could not control and Avhicli developed 
later. The left wing, under Slocum, marched early on 
the 19th of March, Carlin's Division leading. ITobart's 
Brigade was ill advance and had proceeded leisurely 
along for some three or four miles toward Bentonville, 
meeting with some show of resistance from Dibbrell's 
Cavalry, as was supposed, from behind rail bai-ricades. 
These were driven oif, but the character of the oppo- 
sition indicated heavier forces behind. Major Wid- 
mer, who commanded the Regiment, advanced care- 
fully in the woods on tike right of the road, when his 
attention was called bv Sherman Leland to what 



300 THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 



aii<l t lu* iiftioii lifciiiiic «;<*ii<T:il in fioiit of i he ( Mi«' 1 luii- 
thctl aiiiil FiMirili ami I lie Hi'i;:ailc. .Majoi- W'idiiK'i- ntn- 

M'ilMltfS tllf follnNX i|i;r amitllll of lilt* lialllr uf Iti'llloli- 

\ill<- nil till- IMili, aii*l tin- part lakrii in ii hx ilw ( »ii*' 
IIiiikIi-imI and Fourth and lltdiari's liri^radr: -*Tlir Itat- 
1 1<* of (lif null was ill I lie iuiiiii'«' «if a sniprisc !«• ('ar- 
I ill's Division, ami rsjMTially to I lidtait's I'.i i;;ad«', \\ Idle 
oil t ln'inanli. Kailv in t ho iiioinin;,M In* Uriuadr started 
oiii nil th«* road to <Johlsl>oro by wav of < "ox's 
luid;;«* in tho foMowin;.^ oidoi-: Ninoty-loiin h (Hiio, 
Kij:hty-tM;:ht h Indiana. Thiit \ i hiid Ohio, Forty-srroml 
Imliana. Tw fiitylirst W'iscoiisiii, ( »no llnndiod and 
i'onrth Illimds, tin- fiist ihifo rc^iimt'iits coniposin;: 
w hal was t Iumi «alh'd i h«- riuhi w Iiil; of i he |»ri;;ad«'. and 
tin- last tliior the jclt uin;^. In advance of the ridnmn 
and sjiieadin^ ri;^ht and left o\ er t he connt I'V, weie t he 
nsiial dt'tails of foia;;ers, who, thus faf on the lonj; 
niai'rh from Sa\annah, had lieeii aide to lniish away 
any liodies of rehel ravalry that atteiii|)ied to ini|MM|e 
our (no^iiess. \\ hen t he l'rit:a<h* ^^ ii>* almnt t hiee miles 
out on the road a seatteiin^ mnskeiiy lir half a mile 
or so ill advance was heanl, w hirh ;iiadiiall,\ increased 
until it assnined the |>ro|Mirt ions of a li\ely skirmish, 
and as the Hri^aile a|iproached the scene it was «lis- 
roxeied that the 'iMimmeis' had for once ^ot hold of 
Hoiiiet hin;j t hey could not uet away with. 

"The |{ri;:ade, under i hi- dirertion ^>\' (leiii-ial «'ai- 
iiii, was |>rompil\ l>rou;:iii into line of hattle on i he 
ri;:hl (east> side uf the road, the ri;;ht w in;^ in advance, 
the left win;: ill leserxe. The ii;:hi will;:; was then 
oideri'd to c|iar;:e, which it did in handsome st\ le, dii\- 

iii^ the enemy from his lii f rail harricades, and 

folhiw in;: liiiii rapidly across sonie open tields and into 
heavy tiniher lieyoml. As soon as the harricades were 
■ .inied the left wiii;;. still in line of hattle dlu* Oue 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 301. 

Hundred and Fourth being the left regiment), was 
ordered to join in tlie pursnit, whieh was maintained 
for more than half a mile at a very rapid pace, some- 
times on the double (piick, and until this wing had 
nearly arrived at a point where the Goldsboro road,, 
which for soni distance ran almost nortli, turned east- 
ward. Here the left wing was ordered to halt, the 
One Hundred and Fourth being on the left side of the 
road, and the other two regiments to the right of it,, 
all in line fronting noi-thward, and still in heavy tim- 
ber. 

"The right wing of the Brigade had pushed on sev- 
eral hundred yards further to the north and away from 
the road as it turned eastward. To its front was an 
open field, on the further side of which, in plain view,, 
was a line of earthworks stretching across the held 
and into the woods, right and left, but how far could 
not be seen. In fact, as it was afterward ascertained, 
the line of works to the right bore southward so as to 
cross the (loldsboro road a short distance east of 
the turn in the road. Behind these works were the 
old veterans in gray, ready to give us their warmest 
reception ; and here in the timber was our little Bri- 
gade of twelve hundred men, facing what proved to be 
the wlude of Johnston's army, but still supposing it 
had nothing but cavalry to drive away, and tlien 
resume its march. 

"The left wing had halted but a few moments, when 
a rebel battery in their line of works opened tire, sweep- 
ing with shot and shell the road coming up from the 
south through the timber. The wing was then moved 
east of the road about two hundred yards and again 
brought to a front facing northward. Just as the 
movement was completed General Garlin discov.Ted 
the enemy was advancing on the right Hank of this 
line. He in person ordered me to move the One Hun- 
dred and Fourth to the rear, change front to the east,. 
advance and prevent the rebels from turning that flank. 
I did as dire(;ted, throwing Company F forward as skir- 
mishers under Captain Strawn, who soon struck the 



903 



THE ONJ. HI M>Ki.l« AM" KiilKTH 



oiirtiiiiiii;; vv\u'\ skiniiisliri s and a warm t'\<i\\[ «mis(mm1, 
n*Mi)tiii;; ill sioppiiij^ tlir «'iii'|iiv'k athaiirr on that 
tlaiik. Ity tliiK iii(iviMiii*ut tli('<>i)<> lliiii<lnMl ami Fourth 
«i)>taiii(Mi a positiitii in h<-avv ti!nh«>i- alMMil tivc hiiii- 
<ii-r«l \art|s to ih«' ri^ht uT (h«- itiail. aiiti fntiiiiii^ cast- 
wjirii. In a shoii time Ih** Thiid Hri^^aih* nf ('ailiirs 
Uivistnii caiiK* lip (III the ii;;hl <>f 1 he < )ii«' i I uiuli-cil and 
Foiirih, thiiK I'Xti'ndin^' lh«' lint' uT haith' soulhwai'd 
thr h'n;;th of that lni;:adr, and lh«* Tw «'iil \ liisi Wis- 
«-onsin raiiK* inio lini> on the h'ft of our Kf^zitut-ni, and 
thr Forty-s«n'«ind Indiana on Hn- l<fi of the 'r\N«'nt,\- 
tii-st W'ist'onsin thr liin' of ihcsf iwo rr^iinicnts i-oin- 
iii;; soiiifwhal to tin* \M's1, l»iit imi i iinii<-rt in;;; with ih- 
otln-r uin;: <'f lli" |{ri;:a<i»', iho ;ia|> luin;: jtaitiallx < ov- 
«t«mI, howrvrr, hv a foni-;:Mn iKillciy of oiii- l>i\ision. 
Tin* S«M<ind Ihi^iatjc was put into linr to tho h'ft of 
Mohan's Hri^xadr, and t hns < arlin's I >i\ ision, in a sin^^h* 
liin* of halt h' \N ilh a <i;\\t in t h«' niithlh*, faird t he tMiciny. 
As soon as ih«*sr disposit i«ins had Imm-ii math- <i«'in'ial 
< 'aiiin oidcird i h<* oi ht-r w inu of uuf Uii^xadt* to ciiarj^c 
tin* rrJH'l woiks in ihcii- fioni. I'roni ih<- jtositittii of 
our K«-;;inH'ni von could not s«»«' th«' uioNt'un'Ut, hut tho 
4-oniiiinous roll of niusUrtiv and houniin<;; of artillery 
told US that oiif roniradrs of that win;; w«'r»' (Mi;ja;;«M! 
in a dt-adly ronlrsi with the tdd for. The rhai'iir was 
vi^^»|•onsIv inadr and wt-H sustained, luii mci with a 
Idoody H'pnisc u hfii the assailants unc within a few 
ftM'i of ih«> irhcl works, tin- l'i;:ht v oi;,dil h hhliaua suf- 
feriii;; most se\»'i-f|\ in Uilli'd and wouudi-d. 

"I think it was ai this sia;;** of ihe halile «Mn«'ial 
<'arliii tame to the ronrlusion that soinethinu; more 
than ravalrv was o|)|M)sin;,r his inarch, auil thai h<- had 
a serious t);:ht on hand, l-'ioni the NiuldMUii resist- 
ati<'«* of the enemy in their fi-oiii, ihi- hoys of < Niinpany 
I' had already made the same disro\««iy, and Captain 
Sirawn had lepnrted to mr that he uas li^jhlin;; in- 
fant rv. 

**'rh»- One Hundred and I'oiiiih remained in its last 
ineiitioned position for se\iial hours, iluiin;: whieli 
lime. h\ direction of (Icm-ral llohaii. the line of hat- 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 303 

tie threw up a slight line of works. The skirmishers 
were coustautlv and sharply en<;;ij;e<l with the rebels, 
the firing being rapid and continuous for a skirmish 
line. Company F's ammunition becoming nearly ex- 
hausted, and their guns foul, I relieved that Company 
by Companies A, B, C and E, under Cai)tain Dewey, 
who pushed the rebel skirmishers clos(n' to their main 
line, and who, in turn, were relieved by Company D, 
under Lieutenant Kood. 

"After the other wing of our Brigade was repulsed 
the game on our side appeared to be a waiting one, 
though the skirmishers kept up a (•i)nstaut rattle. The 
fio-hting was wholly in the woods and but little could 
be seen of what was going on, right or left. J^ome time 
after noon, I think about two o'clock, a tremendous 
firing and cheering brcdce out over whe?;e the other 
wing of the Brigade had made its charge in the fore- 
noon. It required but little experience to know that 
one side or the other was making an assault. But 
which side, and with what result? In a few moments 
I noticed the firing and yelling was moving south- 
ward, indicating that the rebels were on the charge 
and had smashed Carlin's lin^. I at once directed Jacob 
Overmire and Philip Hawk, two as brave and trusty 
boys as ever pulled trigger, to go to our rear (west), 
get as near to the road as they could without being 
seen, and let me know what was going on there. In 
about fifteen minutes they came back and reported 
that a heavy body of the enemy was in our rear mov- 
ing southward and driving everything before them. 
I aftei'ward learned that this force and the troops 
participating in the rebel movement numbere<l about 
ten thousand men. 

''Before Overmire and Hawk returned the Twenty- 
first Wisconsin and Forty-second Indiana had let go 
their line, and drifted by the rear of the One Hundred 
and Fourth in squads, thus leaving the left tiank of 
our Regiment 'in the air,' and my skinuishers in front 
were also being driven in, showing that the enemy 
were moving on us in that direction. When I received 



)M iiii. ...NK Hl'NI>HKl' AN!' FoL'KTH 

Ovrrmin'*' aiul Hawk's i«|Mti'i 1 \\«*iit tn tin- unict-r 
roiiiiiiaiHlin;; tin* n*t;iiiu'iii in*\( lUi tlu* ri|^lii, wliirli 
was still in liia*. tohl liiiii tin* silualioii wr wi-if in, 
and proposi'ii that wt* ab«»ul face both ifjiiim-nis, tix 
havoiMis an<l rhaip* thi* irhfls then in «Mir n-ar, strik- 
in;; thrill «iii ihr Ihiiik, ami with a vrll ami a vollrv at 
tl»»sr ran;:** \v<- \\«nihl ;:ivr th«- '.luhiiiii«-s' siuh a shovi* 
WfstwanI as woiihl niahh- iis t«> ^fi <»ui i<i i Ik- souili. 
Tlif Mnim- jliM-liiiiii;: to taUr jtait in t he rhar;i«-, at uin*': 
iihivimI his n';:iiiiriM i»tT hy its iii;ht Ihiiik. ami was 
siMtii «tiii «>f sij^ht. 

••Uni- little lvfL'im''iii "f t-i^hl onicns and oiir huii- 
tlr«-<l and lift\ iiifii all i«dd was tln-rc alt»ii<' with I li«* 
fiKMiiv tlusiii;:: ill on its from and h*ft llaiik, and a 
lu*a\ V foir«* passinji anoss its rrar, noi nioic than four 
hiindnMl vanis distant, Imt. Iiw kilv for tin* K»*^inn*iit, 
oiii ttf si^hl owin;:: to ili<- ihirk ninh'rinnsh iiitnvcn- 
iii;:. 'I'ln* situation was an oxtnni«*ly nitiral oii»-, and 
1 think •'M-rv man in the lic^iiiimi iimh-rstood ii just, 
as Wfll as 1 «lid, v<*t all ht-havrd lik<* tin* v«'t«*i-ans tlu*y 
were, and await«*«l orders, lint no onlers oanu'. The 
onslan;;hl of tin* leln'ls had Imm-ii so sudden and vio- 
h'lit that it swept lhe(NNisioii and luiiiaile e«uiiiiiand- 
ers and tln*ir stall' oMici-rs awa.v in the general rout. 
What was to l»e dnm-? M v skirmishers were all driven 
ill. I km-w iliMi in leii iniiiiiies, |terliai»s live, t he enemy 
Would he on top (if us, and would answi-r tin* <|Uesiioii, 
so I derided it : *A 1 1 eiit itui. ha 1 1 a lion ! lii^ht fate, ftu- 
ward, niarrh!' and we moved <dT in ;:ood order to the 
south, 'riiroii^ih heavy tiniher. underhrush, \ines and 
a <lense swamp where the water was o\er knee di*ej>, 
we marehed nearly half a niih* |tarallel with the rebel 
assauliiii;: rolumn, but un|)er(-ei\ed by them, until we 
arrixi'd in nnu"e n|M'n woods, wlier<' to our lefi we roiild 
see the lilies of the Seroinl IMvision of our ( "oips, and 
to our rij;ht (west) about two hundred and lifty yards 
distant, was the left Hank of the rebel line pushim: <m 
south. The chaine to ;,dv«' the «'iieiiiy a blow was loo 
tempiiii'^ to be lost. I ;;ave i he (■oiumamls: '( )n the 
ri;:ht, b\ tih- into line!* ami '<'<Miimenre liriui:!* I'ile 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 306 

by file the boys stepped into line and opened up the 
old tune on their rifles with a vim that soon compelled 
the enemy to give us their close attention. 

'^e held our position until they swung around our 
left flank, and then I ordered the Regiment to fall back 
to the Second Division. Thus ended our fighting for 
the day, and it turned out to be the last time the One 
Hundred and Fourth delivered its fire in line of 
battle." 

The battle of the 19th was fought mainly by eight 
brigades of our army and Kilpatrick's cavalry against 
Johnston's whole army, which had been carefully or- 
ganized for attack behind his works. The evening 
closed down with our forces in ]>ossession of nearly all 
of the ground that had been lost, the last charge being 
made by Cogswell's Brigade of the Twentieth Corps 
which arrived late. As the rest of the Twentieth 
arrived the line of battle was extended to the left with 
Kilpatrick's cavalry on that flank. General Sherman 
had heard the cannonading and late in the day was 
notified of the nature of the battle, Howard's head 
of column w^as then ten miles from Goldsboro. Gen- 
eral Sherman at once turned back the troops toward 
Bentonville. Early on the 20th Generals Baird, Geary 
and Hazen arrived on the field with their commands, 
Later two divisions of the Seventeenth Corps arrived 
and the right wing was deployed until its left connected 
with SlocTim. These movements occupied all of the 
20th, and at night the army confronted the enemy in 
his works, which were strong and built V shaped with 
the angle projecting to the Goldsboro road. Mill Creek 
protected the enemy's flanks. The columns of Slocum 
and Howard faced these lines. On the 21st, w^hich was 
rainy, nothing was done until noon, beyond some artil- 
lery firing and skirmishing. General Sherman says 
in his "Memoirs" : "In the uncertainty of General John- 
ston's strength I did not feel disposed to fight a gen- 
eral battle, for we had been out from Savannah since 
the latter part of January, and our wagon trains con- 
tained but little food." However, about noon. General 



Mt THE ONE HL'NDKKI> AND FulRTH 

MowiT, who, SlHTinan savs, was "fVcr rash." a«lvaiHMMl 
hiK division aii«l hrfakin-: ihn»u«:h iht- rxtn-nn- irhil 
li*fl was pushing sur»»-ssfullv f«»rwanl, wImmi Shrrm.-m, 
fi-arfiil (»f a iniir»MHrai i<»ii agaiiisi him h> th«* nuMiiy, 
onh'n-.l him ba»k whih- h«- ni-ia;.'.'.! tin- aliriiiiMii i»f 
Ihi* whole rebel line willi a smmg skirmish lii*'. <J»mi- 
eral SlHTiuaii says fraiiklv: "I iliiiik I maih- a mi8- 
takf tluM'f, ami shoiihl lapiilly li;iv»- fnll.»w«'«l Mower's 
\vm\ with I hi' wh<»h* of ih<' ri<.Mit wing, whiih woiihl 
have brotight on a g»*m*ral batth*, ami it runhl not 
have resnltiMl otherwise than sueressfuUy to iis, by 
reason of our vastly suprrior inimlu-rs; liui at the 
mttmrni, for th«* n-asons given. 1 lUt'lcntMl to make 
juntti«»n with (Jeiirrals Terry and S* lioti«'l»l brfon* 
«*ngaging .lohnston's army, tin* strength of whi<li was 
utterly unknown." Tims by lark of good jmlgment 
on that ocrasion (irnnal Slicrman lost tin- golden 
opportunity to utterly ruin .lolnision's army. Tiie day 
closed with our lim*s (dos«' up to the cmMny. nu tli»' 
morning of the li2tl it was found that .lolmsion, with 
his army, hail gone, h*aving nothing behind Inn his 
pickets and tlied<*ad and wounded. 

Thus ended the battle of IJeUtolixiiJe. ronsidered 

liy Home historians as one of ijie de»isive battles id' the 
war, but We ran only » all it a niittoi- luie id that riass. 
It had been fuiiglit mainly by ejglii brigades id' our 
army ami Kiljiat rit k's cavalry on the I'.Mli. and against 
I he whole of doliusioii's army. The w ell-de\ ised jdans 
of the t'oufederate leader hail failed, partly fiom lark 
of eouperaiiou by his troops, rom|»osei| of the com- 
mands of Bragg, I lardee, ( 'heat ham and S. I). Lee, and 
jiartly on account of the splen.lid fighting ami stejidy 
resistame of ("arlin's and Morgan's divisions until the 
Twentieth < 'orps <-oulil be broiigln into llie field. The 
character of the fighting on both sides was eipial to 
jiny show II on previous occasions, while the geiieial 
ship of Slociim and his subonlinafe commanders was 
most coininemlable. No doubt the result was a bitter 
disappoint nieiit to .lohustoii. who could not hope after 
this to have such decided advantages in his favor. 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 307 

GeiU'i'jil Slociiin's losses were ns follows: Nine ofli 
cers and 145 iiicii killed, 51 orilceis and SKi ineii 
wounded, and 22G niissin«>. Aj;iL»i'eoat(^ 1,247. The 
rebel dead buried by Slocimi numbered KJT. Pris(Miers 
captured, :>:iS. The losses to llowaril's ri<;ht Avini;' were 
2 otiicei's and 35 men killed, 12 olVicers and 2S!> men 
wounded, and TO missing. Au:Lire<;ate, 107, Grand 
total losses, 1,054. Howard (•a])tured 1,287 prisoners 
and buried 100 rebel dead. The rebel losses, aecording 
to General Johnston, amounted to 2,'.WA. This, how- 
ever, is underestimated, as shown by the reports. 

The One Hundred and Fourth, which felt the tirst 
force of the atta(dv, and, as usual, acquitted itself with 
credit, as did the Brigade, suffered tlu^ fidlowing cas- 
ualties on the 10th: "" Killed— Kichard M. Ilhiibart, 
Company K. Wounded — A<ljutant K. (\ Stevens, Cor- 
poral N. Baker, Company A; Corporal Seneca Gallup, 
Mons Olson and S. I). Bassendale, of Company li; T. H. 
Markley and Albert Harris, <'ompany ('; Corjjoral ^I. 
J. Lane, Company I); Cor])oral A. L. Mason, Company 
F; Sergeant W. Misner, G. D. Misner and P. A. Hawk, 
of Company G; John Coyne, of Company I. Total, 14. 
Major \Mdmer was hit by a ball with sufficient force 
to tear off" the heel of his boot and cause a slight bruise, 
and several others experienced similar narrow escapes. 
Adjutant Stevens, Avho was struck in the side by a 
spent ball and suffered severeh-, would not go to the 
hospital, but renuiined on the field. In regard to the 
character of the fighting Leland says: "After our lines 
were established the rebels charged in five or six lines 
and when repulsed kept repeating their charges. One 
of these, which the Adjutant and myself witnessed, 
was made in the face of seventeen pieces of our artil- 
lery, until seeing the folly of such w^aste of life the 
rebels withdrew to their works." Captain Strawn thus 
relates his experience on the skirmish line and some 
incidents of the battle. He says: "Our Regiment had 
at Bentonville the most lively affair we had partici- 
pated in for some time. On the morning of the 19th 
we w^ere marching along by the right flank feeling very. 



SM THE UNE IHNl'Ki;!' AM' KoiicTH 

ctuuforial»l«- ami liapi»,v, wiih tin- 'lniiiiMirrs,' as usuaU 
ill advain-f. I may as \\«-ll ii;:li» Ihm*- it-mark lliat the 
*m*inis ImmiiMi" \n as sii|)|m>simI to hr a il<'\ il-mav-rarf 
K4U( «»f ffllow who matif mtiliiiij; of small tlilVunllifS, 
bui if rt'al «nirs (-onfi-onirtl liim in his 'i'i*\as sircr fash- 
ion oi r«»amiiiy; at lar{j[<* ovtT tin* rouiitiy. In* was as 
fast ai« tin* afon'sai«l st«'«T in hnntin;i his In-nl. Ahont 
«'i;;ht a. m. Manh IJMh. tin* nnm<*nnis Immnnis in luir 
flout tann* hnnxin;: in on ohl «io\vhail lioist-s ami 
iiiiiU's, itnuonmin;^ iln* «*n<*mv to In* in fnll foirr in tin* 
woods, fnmi whrn»<* tln-v had just nia<h' ilnii- hasty 
ami nmli;:nitii'<l «*.\ii. Tin- lv«*^Mnn*nt was imm«'<liat<*ly 
thiowii into lin** of liaiilt* Ity Major W i<lm»'i-. W't* did 
not r»*ally rxiM-ri iln-if was mm-li m*<'d of it, lint latrr, 
wlu'ii a <*anmm bail <am»* |don^hin^ tliioiiiih tin* ti«*«*s 
ovfi- oiir hoads, saw iliai l>nsim*ss of a stTions natnre 
was on hand. Tin* (hn* llnmln-dand I'onrth advanml 
on t In* rii^ht of i In* road, and I \\ as smt out in com ma ml 
of tin* skirmish linr. \\ lii'tiifi- this was composrd of 
nn'n from onr Kr^^imt-nt ajon*- I do not r<*m<*inli) r. Init 
I itTolh'rt distim-tly that we had mtt j:;om* far wind 
wt' r«T«*ivi'il tin* Jilt* of I he r<*lM*l skirmish<*rs, a|»|>ar- 
t'lilly fjitsr upon ns. h did not take lonLr for t'\»*ry 
man. without a tiinniiand. io seek i om-i- hrhiiid iIm* 
n«*ar<*si i rco oi- snjilint: ;nid ili<*n ktM-jt up a shar|t look- 
ont for a rrln-j iinifoini. This wa*^ m»t always safr, 
foi- disc«»v«*riiij: a Idnt* Idon.sc ;i lew p;n»'s in fi-.ini. ;ind 
snpposin;i it lu'lon^nl to uni- of niv nu-ii, 1 liitil to 
frstrain on«* of my hoys from liiinu :ii ii. I had hafdiy 
spok<*n w hoii a pnIT «if smokt- arosi* ami a hnllfl from 
tin* ;:nn of the man in tin* hhn* Idonso harkrd tin* sa|>- 
lin;: wln*r«* my skirmisher sIo.mI. Thf rflicl dr<»|»ii«*d as 
In* tii'cd ami nawlrd awav. Imii I did not laniion any 
on<* a^ain m»t lo liri- io tin- from. This was ahont ten 
or •*h*v«*n a. m. and Itriwcrn this ami two p. ni. our 
nn*n had )*\p<*nd(*d sixty roumis of cart ridi:fs. When 
the last cartrid;:** was ranim*<l lioun- and I had sfiit 
for nn»i«* w«* wt'r«* ii'licvcil li\ amitln-r skirmish line 
and iTJoincd tin* I{c;;inn*ni. I was near Major \\'idiin*r 
w In-n In* was si ruck li\ a huili-t . < Mn- of iln- li..\ s i all»d 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 309 

out, 'Major, are you hurt?' 'X-o-o/ lie replied, with 
a look of disgust I shall never forget. The lighting 
continued until evening with a number of casualties 
to our Regiment." 

When on the iiHuniiig of the 22d the relxd works 
were found to be empty and Johnston's army in retreat, 
Geueral Sherman order(^d pursuit to be made, but soon 
recalled the troops and directed all to march f<u* Golds- 
boro. This ste}* was quite necessary, as ammu- 
nition and rations were scarce, the men ragged and 
many without shoes. The One Hundred and Fourth, 
striking tents (])U]) tents) at nine a. m., moved off, and 
marching leu miles reached Cox's bridge over the Neuse 
River at dark, where it went into camp for the night. 
General Sherman, who had arrived, met here General 
Terry with two divisions of the Tenth Corps. The 
march was resumed on the 23d and much foraging 
done by the hungry men on the way. Goldsboro was 
reached in time for the army to i)arade through the 
city, after which the One Hundred and Fourth camped 
on the north side. Leland says: "We had completed 
probably as long and eventful a campaign as any 
known in military history in modern times. On enter- 
ing Goldsboro we passed in impromptu review before 
General Sherman's headquarters (i. e., his tent-flies) 
for the benefit of the eastern troops in the city. We 
were a gay looking set to be revieAved, some having no 
shoes, some no hats, and all in rags, while a great many 
had hams or shoulders swung on their muskets. As 
the pack mules came along General Sherman, slapping 
Schofield on the shoulder, said: 'There's my line of 
communications.' The boys inarching badly General 
Sherman said to the officers, 'My boys don't march very 
well, but they will fight.' On the campaign no orders 
were received restraining the men from destroying 
from the time we entered South Carolina until we 
reached North Carolina; then we were ordered to stop 
burning. The first house we saw on entering the for- 
mer state was destroyed, and probably one in ten 
escaped after that. The rich were put in the cabins 



310 THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

of tlif iir^rtM's; tlM'ir tatilf ainl ruin w «•!•«' »isim1 for 
rations. iImmt f«Miri*s for «iii»liiiuv aii<l raiiin lirrs, aiul 
tlifir barns ami lotioii «;iiiK fur lM>utin*s. It st*iMin'«l 
to In* »li*rnHMl that South ('ai'oliiia. having: s<t\\ ii t h«' 
wiiul. slioiihl ira|» th«* whirlwiml." 

'I'hr T\N ••lit vt hii«l i 'oi|ts was i h<ii in < JithKlim-.t ami 
thf miit»Ml sti«'ii;;:t h t»f all tin* aiiui«*s aiii<Miiii4Ml i«t one 
hiiiKli't'd t hoiisaml iikmi. ( >ii tin* 24 th the < Mi<- 1 1 iiii<li-«-<l 
uimI Fourth, ^oin;: on a ftua;:iii;; rxinMlitiou. icniiinMl 
with an aliun*lanr«- of corn niral, ]Mitato(>s, nit-at, an*! 
fVrn honov. (Mi tin* iM.th tin* in»'ii woio niado ^la«l l»v 
tin* arrival of an moi luous mail, tin- tiist lorriviMl sim-c 
lmvin;x Savannah, two uioulhs hcftu-**. ('<»urtri;;ht 
siM'aks of ^ifttini; t hilt \ six l»'it«-rs ami savs In- wrote 
lliirt v-«'i;iht. Till' r«'j;ular ih-iails foi- pirUri duly woi** 
math* ('V«Mv day, hut t hrr** rt-maim-d amjdt' I imo f«U" all 
to oujoy llio I't'st and |ih'asur<'s (o In- roiiin! at (odds- 
lioio. (Ml A|»iil lid rloihiii^ was issued to the Kejii- 
nieiii. Hetwecn that date and the KMh tin- ;:allant 
Imys who had fought at the liatllc of Nashvilh-, Lii-u- 
ti'iiant Arnold and others, also many iero\ered froui 
8<*ver«* wounds, anionj^ them Serjieani \\ ni. II. (luiard, 
returned to the Ke«^inieiii. (Ml Apiil (Ith ollicial news 
was received <tf the fall of Kit huioiid and its or«u|»a- 
tioii l»y (leiiei-al 'Iraut's arm\. I.ehuul says: "The 
afternoon was s|tenl in rejoieiu^. ami alioul one hun- 
dred thtuisand rheeis went u|i. hi say nothing.: of the 
'old r(Uiiniissary' that went down aniou^ the ollicers. 
I heard a dispaleh fioui < Irant io Sheriuan read, order- 
iii;^ him to uiove as so(Ui as |iossilde and liel|» hrin;; 
the war to a r|os<*. In the eveninji the air was lillefl 
with rorkets ami ini|u-om|itu tireworks. < Mie of the 
favorite devices was to |uil powder in a « aiit«M*n, then 
luiry it and li^lil with a fuse." The army reiiiaine«l at 
(oddshoro until April HMli, during' which lime it was 
re<loiliei|. reor;^ani/.ed a lid put in shaiM' for aiioihei- 
campai;:n. which all the men felt was to close the war 
and reiurn lliem in iheii' hoincs ami ilie pursuit^ of 

peace. 



(CHAPTER XIX. 



The Last Campaigrn — March to Raleigh — President Lincoln's As- 
sassination — Johnston's Surrender — End of the War. 



General t^hennaii, wht» h;ul ^miv to City Point on 
March 2r)th to confer with (Teneral (xrant, meantime 
leavinii' (leiieral Schofiehl in command of tlie army, 
returned to (rohlsboro on the 30th, and set vigorously 
to work on ])reparations for the next campaign. He 
made some changes in the organization of his army. 
The left wing was styled the Army of (Jeorgia. Gen- 
eral Joseph A, Mower was put in command of the 
Twentieth Corps in place of General Williams. The 
Tenth Corps, under Terry, was added to the Army of 
the Ohio, which was called the center, and commanded 
by General Schoticld. The right wing retained the 
old title. Army of the Tennessee, The cavalry was 
still commanded by Kilpatrick. The left, center and 
right contained respectively 28,0()3, 26,392, 28,834 men. 
Grand total, 88,948 men. The artillery numbered 91 
guns. General Carlin was superseded in command of 
the First Division by General C. C. Walcutt. The First 
Brigade, commanded by General ITobart, contained the 
same regiments as heretofore. Our own and the For- 
ty-second and Eighty-eighth Indiana had marched and 
fought together since leaving Mnrfreesboro in 18()3. 

On Monday, A])ril lOtli, Sherman's armies were 
again set in motion toward the enemy. Johnston 
was then at Smithtield, but on Sherman's approach 
retreated through Kaleigh. The left wing was directed 
to the latter city, fifty miles from Goldsboro, The One 
Hundred and Fourth marched twelve miles on the 10th 
and camped. Sergeant William Harrold, of Company 
C, was wounded by a torpedo which had been planted 
in the road. The next day the Regiment acted as train 



II- THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

guanl. Soiiu* Kkirinishiujj was done in from ;in«l occa- 
8iiiii:il raniinnadiii^' was lH*anl, During tin* ni^'lit of 
tlir lllli (iiMinal SlH/niian n-crivrtl won! fnuii (Jt*ii- 
eral Grain thai L^f aiul his; army liad surivmltTeil to 
hiiu on tin* iMli of April. This w«*lr<nin' in*ws was 
aiinMUiUMMl t«( thr arm} in Mi«hMs on ihi* llilii, and 
caus«Ml «;rfat n*joiriii;4;. All roiisidi'i»Ml that iln* ••iid 
of tJM' war was iirar at hand. The t|iifs!ioii iIm-m was, 
will .It»hiiston surn'nd«*r — ami whfMi? As th<' arini»*8 
caiiu' nearer to Ivalfiu;li. .lohnston rrtirril to (JnMMis- 
boro. TIh* (>m* Ihimlifd and I'oiirih ramiM-d on the 
evtMiin;; of tin* 12th at Stallinjj's Stat ion. Inland savs 
ill rr^Mi-d to tin* i:itli: "\\«* starifd at four a. m.. antl 
walUin^I rapidly brat i li. Tw cntiiM h Torps into Kah'i^di, 
arriving; ln*foiT 10 o'riuck. Marchini; up tin* main 
stiii'i to the iniio of 'Hail < olnmhia/ a hall was mad<* 
at ili«' tajtitol and onr anus stacked mi iIm* sipiare. 
As d»Mails for prt»t(M'tlon were calltMl f<ir l>y tin* riti- 
zens, j;nards w«'r«* s«*nt with iIhiii. so that in a short 
tinn* the nii«' lhindr<M| and l-'ouith was scaltrrrd all 
ov<*r town. Kalcijjih was tin* pr«Mti«'st looking «ity we 
bad s«M'ii in the Sontli, tin- honses were mostly larjje 
and in ^nutd condition, the ^aitleiis fnll td llowers and 
the air fra^^ranl e\ery wlier**." The pleasure derived 
from sneh surroundings was no doubt increased by the 
expectation that all the marrhinjj; and linhtin^^ was 
8oon to rml. The I'MftJM'nth ( 'orps was reviiwtd un the 
14th by ^Jeiierals Sli»rman, Howard, SltMuni. Terry and 
liOj^an. (Jeneral SlnMiuan, siandinj;; on the st«*ps of 
the capitol, was all smiles and alTability. l>ef«»re his 
arrival he had been waited u|>on by a ••ommittee of 
the prominent citizens of Kalei^h, who brspoke his for- 
bearance and that of thr army. Their coutidem •• was 
not mis|da<-ed. In ihc afternoon of th)' 11th the < Mie 
Hundred and I^Mlrlll, which had be^nin to ft'«*l ai home 
in Kalci;xh, was mtli-icd lo march toward the fnmt 
on the llillsboru road, and ;;oin;; •'ii,dn miles, camped 
at Claiborne Station. The inar«h was resumed on the 
loth at six, ami continued all day. Holly S|>rin;^'s was 
rea<dHMl at ;ii;;ht and it be;;an to look as if the war was 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 313 

not over yet. On the 16tli the Regiment, after nuirch- 
iug all the forenoon, was halted and went into camp 
near 'Martha's Vineyard and not far from the Cai)e 
Fear Kiver. General KSherman had on the 14th re- 
ceived a note from Johnston requesting a conference 
to consider terms for the surrender of his army. Gen- 
eral Sherman in reply named the 17th of April as the 
date when he would meet the rebel (Jeneral. In 
the meantime hostilities were sus])end»Ml for forty- 
eight hours and the advance columns held in abeyance. 
On the morning of the 17th as General Sherman was 
about to leave for the outposts between the two armies, 
he received a dispatch from Secretary Stanton that 
President Lincoln had been assassinated, an attempt 
made on Seward and his son, and that it was supposed 
a like fate was intended for other high officers. Gen- 
eral Sherman, filled with sadness and astonishment, 
enjoined silence on the operator, and proceeded on his 
way to meet Johnston. He was accompanied by Gen- 
*eral Logan and some others. The party on reaching 
Durham, twenty-six miles from Raleigh, left the car, 
and taking horses furnished by Kilpatrick, marched 
up the road some five miles. A soldier went ahead 
with a white flag, and soon after the rebel flag ap- 
peared, followed by Generals Johnston and Hampton. 
The two chieftains after an exchange of compliments 
retired to a small farm house near by. General Sher- 
man then showed the telegram he had received to Gen- 
eral Johnston. Sherman says: "I watched him closely. 
The perspiration came out in large drops on his fore- 
head, and he did not attempt to conceal his distress. 
He denounced the act as a disgrace to the age and 
hoped I did not charge it to the Confederate Govern- 
ment. I told him I did not believe that he or General 
Lee, or the officers of the Confederate army, could pos- 
sibly be privy to acts of assassination; but I would not 
say as much for Jeff. Davis, George Sanders and men 
of that stripe." There was mut-h more conversation 
on this subject and the effect on the country and par- 
ticularly the armies, as Mr. Lincoln was very dear to 



m THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

th«* sulilii'PS. TIhu folliiw «m| a iirtlimiiiaiv talk as to 
ttTiiis of suntMnli*r. afhT uliiili a fiiilluT iiirrtiii;; was 
Hrniiij:«Ml for ilu* iifXl <la\ at noon. I'arh t Ikmi ilcpai'tetl 
for his li<'ii<l(|nari«'rs. < Mi his it'tuiii \*> liah'i«^h, <ieii- 
«*ral Shriiiian aiiiiMiiiii-«Mi tht* sa»l iirus to his ariiii<'s 
ill S|M(ial I'ifhl <»r<l«'r No. ."»<». \NIm*ii on ih«* isih the 
orth-r wjiK resul to the sohlii-rs and they rralizeti its 
iiicaiiiii*; the s»«mh' i»r«*seiite<l was <nie iievn- in !»«• f«ir- 
^joiti'ii. raptain Siiauii savs: "Snrh a linn- I hojM' 
never to s«*<' a;:aiM. Mm who u«m«* hahitually jtrofaiie 
forpit to swear, ttsirs ran Mown from eyes ninis«M| to 
w<*<*|iiny;. Kvery wh«*r«* men were stHMi to wei^p who 
hiitl never llinrhed in the white heat of battle. The 
cahiniity ton« h<<| ih«' innermost reeesses of the heart 
(►f every sohlier. The soldiiMs declai-ed that they di«l 
Hot want peart' and uonhl take no more |>rison«'rs. \\\\\ 
tlie jM»i;inanr\ uf *^v\t'f jiracinally subsided, and when 
.]«dinston had suri't-mh-red, w«* ln-^aii to Ion;; for h<"m<'." 
On April iMh <ien<Mals Sherman and -lohnsion 
a^ain met and signed a "Mrmoi-amhim, *>v l^asis of 
A^'iiM-meiit," providing: f«»r th«' surrcuth'r of dohnsion's 
iirmy. <ten<'ial Sh«-rman insisted on snhmitlin^^ this 
for ratiti<-at ion to jiis ( iovernnicnt, and the document 
was sent at onr« l»y a trusty messonuri- lo W'ashin^'- 
ton. Meaniimc fht- stahi i/im of iht- armirs was i«t Im- 
niaintaint-d. (MMu-ial Shfi-man, as appears fr<UM his 
h'lt«-rs. piddishi'd in his "Memoirs," ])a;;«* ."{ol, s«MMns 
to have enlertaiiM'd no d<>uhi of ilic promjM at»|uies- 
cenre of the ( Jovt-riimtiit !«• ihc icrms a^r«'«'d u|»on. 
Hut he was doomed to disappoint men i. lie had unfort- 
unaiely allowed some «ivil and pojitieal tpiestions to 
find their way into the "a;:reeiuenl." «|m'siions w hirh 
had during t he mnferenee jieen art fully raised l»\ .lojni 
Bt«»n. Hrerkinridee and Kea^an, and these at oner found 
<d>jeetion in the Mispieious mimis of the new I'resideiit, 
Andrew .lolmson. and his aeule Seeieiary of War. Stan- 
ton. The latter at oine te|e;.Maphed <Jrant as fcdiows: 
"The President desires that you pim ted immediately 
to the head(|uariers of .Mai«u' < leiieral Sherman and 
dir«Mt o|M'ralions a^'ainst the enemy." (hi A]uil L'lth 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 315 

General Sheiiiian Avas surprised by the sudden an«l 
nnannounred appcarauc** of (}eneraK( rranl in lialei};h, 
who informed him of what had transpired and directed 
him to notify (leneral Jcdinston that the truce would 
expire in forty-ei*;ht hours. In another note to John- 
ston Sherman <lemanded his surrender (Ui tlie terms 
given General Lee. General Grant saw and ap})rov(Ml 
of what was done, and late in the day Sherman received 
an answer from Johnston requesting a conference on 
the 26th. This was hehl-as before near Durham, and 
the final terms of surrender arranged and executed. 
General Grant ai)proved of all and returned to Wash- 
ington on the 27th. In the first agreement General 
Sherman had, as usual "init his foot in it," though he 
"meant well." A man of his character, temperament 
and position, given to much talking and writing, as 
he always was, will do such things occasionally. Also, 
the politicians at Washington were ever ready to im- 
prove an opportunity to reduce those whom they con- 
sidered were becoming too popular. The correspond- 
ence and discussion that ensued, and the abuse by the 
newspapers of General Sherman, would fill volumes. 
The chief actors on the scene are dead, but a perusal 
of the history of those events reveals the meanness, 
jealousies, ambitions and weaknesses of those who 
attacked Sherman for his mistake. General Grant had 
a nobler nature and stood by his old friend, as he always 
did by any one who had gained his confidence. He 
did not take command of Sherman's armies, but return- 
ing to Washington found Halleck and Stanton issuing 
orders to army commanders to move without regard to 
any one but Grant. The announcement of the final 
surrender by General Grant and his advice induced 
those gentlemen to subside, and the excitement raised 
by overambitious patri(>ts died away. 

During the negotiations the armies in their camps 
speculated on the rumors of surrender afioat and quietly 
awaited the result. Discipline was not relaxed, and 
drill by battalion or brigade, also x>icket duty, were 
kept up as usual. On the 24th the writer, who had 



SIC THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

boon •»ii <liH \ ill ni:iil»*>i«ui. r«'j<'iinil ili«'«Mit' lluinlr«'«l 
aixl Fourili ;ii th«* fnnii, tliuiij;li siill siilTiMiii;: from a 
rln'oiiir ilisfusr roiit i-ai-l<*<| ill llu* piisDii liflls nf the 
SiMilli. (Ml the LTmIi Coloiirl I la|MMiiaii. wIk* hail Immmi 
absfiil uii li*av(% i-i*iiirii«-<l ami assnim'il tMiumaml of 
tlic K«';;:iiii<*iit wliirli lie liail Inl so loii^ ami siirr<*sK- 
ftill\. Caitlaiii Usmaii also irporitil uii ili«- saiii«' <l-iii'. 
On April L'sth .lolmsion's siiiirmloi- was ft>rmallv 
aiinoiiiircil ill onliis. (o'lirrai Slicniiaii. ralliiii^all liis 
army ami rorps t-ommamlrrs to^«*tli<'i' in Kal«'i;;;li, 
siat«'«l to tliciii his ai'i'aii;:*'im'iits for i In* disposition of 
his aniiics. (oMHTals Silioiirld, T<*nv ami Kil|iat ii«k 
wt'i-f to i-iMiiain in North < "jin.lina. while ihi- ri;iht ami 
Ifft win^is Wert- in iiiairh I'oi- Kitliiii«>ml. 'i'o <i<MieraI 
Schotii'hl uas roiiiiiiitt«Ml tin* task of parojinnr .Juhn- 
ttni's inrii. ami tin* sann* diitv »h'Vol\»Ml on <I«'n- 
«Tal W'ilsiui in (oMU-^jia ami I'lorida. Tin* t«»tal nnniiMM* 
Thus siifi«'ii<l«T«'<l ami jiaroh-d aiiionnt«Ml to S'.»,L*70 
nifii. All tin- anus ami wai- mati'fial u«'r«' also 
sniirmhTotl. TIm' waf was ov«m-. No iifrat <'niiff(|- 
orato aiiiiios anvwht'ir irmaimMl »*ast of the Mississ- 
ippi, ami oiijv a U-\\ fiauinciils west of ihal fiN«'f. 
This was tin* fniil of .lohnsioirs siirit'mh'i'. ami it was 
hafd for ns to i-ralizc at hfst. that tin* fud had coim' 
and tin* \ast afinirs of tin* rnimi wtif to he diss«dM*d 
and i-»*h';iatod to tho pni-siiils of p< ;n i-. Tin* <Mm* Ihin- 
difd and I'lMiith had niadt* its last mairh lowai-il tin- 
♦MH'iiiN I tin* Idond of its niriiilx'ts had dam|M'm'd tin* 
soil, and its stained ^nd Inilh't-torn tlau had waved 
amid the smoke of the last hatth- at l'>entoii\ ilje. In 
leavili;^ folevel" the scenes of its toils and <lan;;ers, 
niairlies and Watt h*s. extendiii}; over nearly three years, 
the Hue Ihindred and I'oiiith would ever he aid«* to 
n*rnll with sat isfart ion :ind pride the leroHeii ion of its 
past i-arei-r ami i he hiimii;ilde fame it had won. 

"Wf \l\f In <liM'(lh, not vj'urK; In thuuKlitM, not l>r»'alhB; 

In r«M<linKH. not In (lKiin*H on a illal. 

\V«* mIiouIiI <onnl linn* tiy lii>art-t)irol)H." 

On III** LMMh of April the < Hie Ihindied aii<i 1". Mirth 
«'Kri»rted I he I rain lo < 'hiihoriie Stat ion niid on i he .",»M h 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 317 

rejoined the division at Morrisville, where it was mus- 
tered for pay, received its mail, and starting on its 
homeward march made twelve miles that afternoon. 
Before leaving we learned of a little "sell" perpetrated 
on General llaird the night of the 27th. Leland thus 
relates it: "It seems that the order announcing John- 
ston's surrender was received by General Walcutt, 
commanding the First Division, before reaching Gen- 
eral Baird, who was stationed at Holly Springs. Gen- 
eral ^^'alcutt was so elated that he sent word to every 
regimental commander to have his men make as much 
noise as possible until morning. The men lired by vol- 
ley and the artillery boomed. Baird hearing the 
unwonted noise, started to the relief of the First Divi- 
sion with two brigades placing the other brigade in 
line and ordering it to throw up a line of breastworks, 
as he had no doubt our division was attacked and it 
might be necessary to fall back. After going three 
miles a soldier from the camp of the First Division 
was met who explained matters. For a time the air 
was sulphurous around General Baird and he swore 
that ^little Charley Walcutt had put up a game to fool 
him.' Nevertheless he was pleased with the news and 
marched back to bis camp." 



< ii\i'ri:i: x.\. 

Off for WanhlnKton— IU<i- With lh«- Twentieth Corps to Rlch- 
monil— Th»* t;rand K.-vlew— Mu»ti-r out mikI R.turii Horn.- 

Tli«' iiian-li uf tlu' Fonrt«M«utli mikI 'iNVfiii i<i Ii (".miis 
to liirliiiKMiil was iiMi (lrv«»i(l ol iiitcicsi. as ii lav 
within iIm' liiH' »»f o|MM-ali«>iis of tlir rasiciii aiiiii«'s in 
pairi, Iml was iiiaiiilv «i'lfliiat<Ml fur tlir »|ni(ki!«'ss with 
whirli it N\as inaMf. '\'\i*' ^i"i\ Ixraiin- < iiiirin that 
<J«'n«'ials I>avis aii<l Mmwim- niadf a Imm as to which 
rMi|»s woiihl i-t'aih th«' lat«* icIm-1 «ai»ilal tiisi. 'IMmm*** 
had alwavs Imm-ii nnirh livaliv ht'twrrii thr two and 
l«»th n'snlvrd til d<> th«'if ln'st t»ii this (Mcasinii. Th*' 
< Mk' llniidi'i-d and l^||||-lh, w hirli had t-;ini]M-d mi ih<- 
Nriisi* Kivt'i- on the ."UMh td" April, ciosscd «-ail.v on the 
nioiiiin^' of Ma.v 1st ami at noon n*a«ln'd tin* Tar l{iv«'r, 
when a halt was luade f«ir dinn«*f. Wadinj: t hat sii-ram 
the |{r}.din<'nt inairln*d tmtil ni^dit. whi-n it wmt into 
bivoiiar one inih* hi'vond Oxford. N. < '., having ina<le 
t went \ -foni- niih's. < Mi Ma\ 'Jd thr Ki'uiin«Mit stai-icd at 
davli;,dit and niairhini: lapidl.v jiasst-d ihron;:h Wil- 
lianishoio Ml nooii :ind ii-at-hcd \'ii'<j:inia soil at toin- 
p. ni., ;:oin;i into ramp ai ni^ht m-ai- Tavloi's I'fiiv, 
on ihf Koaind<f Ki\<'f. Thf day's niairh of twentv- 
Kcven inih's had ln't-n niadr inoir s«*v«'f«* by the rxtfenie 
Ileal and dnsiN lojids. Thr fad was inalh'd that on»' 
year a;:o SlnMinan's aiiny had h'fi < iiaysv ilh-, ir.\., to 
li('i:in tin- Atlanta t;ini|»ai^M. What stupcinJoMs 
ehan^'cs had tak«-n plarc in that linn! \\ ho tlnMi roiijd 
foretidl tin- fntni-c of lliai ariii\? W'ln-lln-r ii would 
march on to \ irtoiy of ilcfciii ! Tin' most saiii^uiiH' woit- 
silent, and <\<-n i'lfsidi-nt Lin<-<dn ami (n-noral (tiant 
had ;:ia\«' foais as to tin- smecss of the nndciMakin;; to 
rrdn«r Atlanta. I^ni limr pi-ovfd the basrlrssm'ss of 
thene fears, ami aflfi- rontinnons niaithiii;; aind ti;;ht 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 319 

ino- for one hniidred and Iwciity days, pi-oud Atlanta 
fell ; thiMi f(dIowed the lierce piirsnit of 1 lood, the inareh 
to the s<^a and iiortliwaiMl, to ti.nht the last decisive 
battle and receive the sniTender of the last rebel army; 
and all within a year! Now peace reij>ned, and we were 
marchino- home, a fact hard, indeed, to realize, but 
accepted with satisfaction by the majority, however 
strange it seemed to this army of veteran soldiers. 

On the 3d only fourteen miles were covered, owing 
to delay in laying pontoons across the Roanoke. We 
camped at night seven miles beyond Boydtou. In 
passing through we saw a tine university building, now 
empty and deserted. The 4th of May was cel(4)rated 
by a march of thirty-seven miles and all previous rec- 
ords eclipsed. The Twentieth Corps was somewhere 
in the rear. We had gone through Luneuburgh Court 
House in the afternoon; this was a most forlorn look- 
ing place. The camp was made at Nottaway Falls. 
During the night it rained, and on the 5th the roads 
were not so dusty, and it was easier to march. We 
arrived at Nottaway Court House at nine a. m,, where 
we first saw a detachment from the Army of the Poto- 
mac ; the men, who were dressed nicely and wore paper 
collars, seemed astonished at the ragged appearance 
of Sherman's boys and their long, swinging mar<h, 
while the mule train, conducted by the "bummers," was 
an object of particular interest and remark. From 
Lunenburgh the march was resumed through a ham- 
let called Denniiisville, and we camped after dark at 
Beaver Pond, having made thirty miles. The TA\en- 
tieth Corps, which had been all day on parallel roads, 
was coming up closer, but we were ahead. On the 
6th we crossed the famous Apponuittox Kiver at ( lood's 
bridge, and marching twenty-eight miles went into 
camp at night fifteen miles from Kichmoud. The coun- 
try^ we passed through seemed rich, but the boys did 
no foraging, paying for what they wanted, though milk 
at fifty cents a ])iut and onions at five cents each seemed 
a little high, but the natives evidently had the impres- 
sion that they were being paid in rebel shinplasters. 



ao THE o.Nh jn .Ni'Ki.l' AM> KOL'RTH 

Tlu' Ttli t»f Mav was iiM-iiioiaMf. lifsmiiiiij.'^ the march 
al ftMir a. in. tlifOm* liuii<inMi ami Ftuiilli ii^'aclird ilu* 
.laiiu'S KivtT at Hellt* Islf. «»|iin»Kit«' KicliiiioiKl, at eijjflit, 
tliiMi lialttnl until aftrr <liiin«-r. Hryond tin* historir 
riv»T rosf tin* <Ioum's aiitl sjtirrs of tin* lat«* iflM-l »a|»- 
itol and Urfon* us fair li«'llf Islr, a phui* of intrn*st, 
iMTaust* it was nn«' «»f tin* ju-isMU lirlls wlirn* so niauv 
of onr Koldiors had suffcri'd and diiMi from starvation 
and iilt r»'at m«ni. Urvond lh»' riNri- was the famous 
('infam«>us| Lildtv Trisiui, MJiich now «lisj:;rar«'s ( 'hi«a^o, 
and is cxhihitrd for protit. in th«* afternoon of tlie 
Ttli tlic (Mm* Hundred and ^^*urth moved up tlie river 
three mih's and went into ramp. The Twentieth Torps 
was one day's mar«h In-hind. The I'ourtecut li had 
marched in six days, as vaiiously estimate*!, from one 
humlied Mild eiy;lity-seveii lo om* hundred and ninety- 
two mih's, or thirty-twi* miles per day. 'JMie east«'rii 
armies around Kirhmoml had heard we were lomiuLr, 
Imt eould hardly believe the anuouiiremeiit of arrival, 
kiiowin;; the dale of our leaNiii^ Kaleii^h. Aju'opos 
t<» this Major \\idm»*i-. who ruuld not resist his <dd 
hahit, a<-<|uir«'d nw i In* sUirmish line, of ;j:oin;; ahead. 
i*o«le into Kiehmoiid early on the luornin;:: of the Tth 
with K(\. Ilerrick, i^. M., who was hxdcinjj: f«>r rations, 
wet or dry, and in prospecting: around they entered a 
restaurant where some Potomac soldiers were discuss- 
in;; tin* rum<»i's afloat that Sherman's army luul ar- 
ri\'«*d. The dis|»ule ran lii^h and our forav:,.|s listened, 
much amused, until tinally iIm' .Major threw in a slmt 
l»y sayin;:, "Well, ;:<'iit lemcn, wo are here and repre- 
sent a pari of Sherman's army, which is camped over 
the river." Those fellows coidd have he. u knocked 
down with a feather, and when they had recovered 
from the shock were ready to stand lre;it or he treated. 
Wln-n we had rested a day on the hanks of the .lames 
all were ;;lad thai the lirst sta«ie of the iKuneward 
march was tinished, lhou;r|| whih- «»n the way many 
"could not understand why in h II we had to march 
so fast now the war was over." The One Hundred 
and I'ourth remainetl in camp until May llth, and 



REGIMENT II.LIXOIS VOLUNTEERS. 321 

those who could obtaiu passes iiiipi-oved the oppor- 
tunity to look over Richmond, and some who had been 
prisoners revisited the bastiles of Libby, Castle Thun- 
der, etc. The writer was too sick to go and had little 
inclination to look upon those scenes of former sulTer- 
ing, but was pleased to hear that "Dick Turner" and 
"Little Ross," two of Jeff. Davis' minions in Libby, 
were then enjoying themselves there, this time as pris- 
oners with Uncle Sam as keeper. 

On the 11th of May the army again moved on 
toward the National capital. The One Hundred and 
Fourth left camp at seven and the head of column 
reached the pontoon bridge across the James at nine 
o'clock a. m., soon after passing over and then marcli- 
ing through the streets of Richmond with banners fly- 
ing and bands playing the National airs. The people, 
among them many ex-confederate soldiers, filled the 
doors and windows and lined the streets anxious to 
see an army, the achievements of which had amazed 
the world. The impression produced by our soldiers, 
who conducted themselves, however rough they looked, 
as soldiers and gentlemen should, was evidently favor- 
able. Seven miles from Richmond we crossed the 
famous Chickahominy at Bottom's bridge, and marched 
over ground occupied by McClellan's army May 20, 1862, 
which army was officially reported May .*)1, 18()2, 
to contain 141,173 men, with 109,522 present for duty, 
yet Richmond was not captured. At night the One 
Hundred and Fourth halted after dark in a ploughed 
field, and before the tents could be ]>itclie(l a hard 
shower, with terrific thunder and lightning, came uj), 
wetting everybody to the skin. The attempt to pitch 
tents was useless, and rolling up in our wet blankets 
we passed a comfortless night. On May 12th, after 
marching half a mile, a halt was made until noon. 
Later the Regiment marched through Hanover Court 
House,' where Patrick Henry delivered his famous ora- 
tion that has made his name immortal. Reaching the 
Pamunkey River in the evening we were delayed by 
high water and all night crossing. On the 13th marched 



3^;: THE ONE HLNDHED AND FOURTH 

tifleiMi iiiilfs tliitnigh tlir .swamps \vIk*iv .M«< Icllan's 
ariiiv ll«>uii«lnv«l, and laiiipetl on l*ok* Cal Crei-k. Made 
iwt'iitv inilrs oil iUv 14tli, ovi-r hisi(»iir grouiul ami 
haltril at Noriln-ast < 'i-tM-k. At noon on tin* ir)ili the 
Kf^'iimMii liali«Ml for diiim-r tifi«M'ii milrs from tin* Kap- 
itiaii ami tin* saim* tlisiamt- from iIm* hatl Irlirltl «»f tlio 
\N iMfiin'ss. In tin* aft»*rnoon \v«* mafrlnMl towanl Cnl- 
pfpptT i 'onrt I lousr, on a road alon;; t lu* «Ml«;e of hallle- 
lirlds forr\»'i- mcmoialdf. Soim* «»f onr olti(«»rs fxani- 
in«'d iIm'S*', Imt found nonr tin* like of \\lii«li Slu-i-man's 
arm\ had not stoinhMl and taken. At ni;;lit tin* U«*;;i- 
intMit went into Idvouac at \'«*i'<li«M'svilIp, havin;; 
mai-riicd ri^litiM'ii miles. lOarlv on the Ulth, at seven 
a. m., w«'iearhed the Uapidan at Kaceoon I'oid. How 
• •ft en dnrin^' t hn wai- we liad heard an<l read. "All <|niet 
on the Ka|)idan." We wde near the hatilefield of 
<"<Mlar Monntain. A it'm|Mti;ir\ fnnthrid^e was Iniili 
at the ford, hill it soun hroke down and then the sol- 
diers wadt'd the slieani and niai-thin;i on hailed f<»r 
dinner mar Powell's Mountain, in ilie afternoon we 
passed the old winter (|iiarters of the Armv of the 
I'otomae. The day's march was t w cnty-t hr< e miles. 
The ITtli of May was ver_\ hot ami after rit^ssin;: tie* 
Kappahannork at Kelly's i'ord and mairhin^ until 
three, a short hall was made mi a«ronnl (»f tin* lu*at. 
We then moved on and learhed t'edar Klin, near t'at 
leti's Station, where we hivoiiaekeil tor ihe iH;.;ht. 
livery fool of the ^iioiiml was historie, havin;; been 
fon;;|il oM-r hy hot h armies. ( Mi t he JSi h, leaving: ramjt 
at ti\e a. m.. Wf soon crossed Kread liiin and heard, 
thirty miles distani, ihe ihiimler of ailillery, which 
announced the apjiroach to Wasliin^;toii of Sherman's 
army. The Ion;;, sullen boom of the mins sounded 
pleasant to oni* ears and quickened the lift* Idood of 
every soldier. Manassas Junction was jiassed at ten 
a. m., and marchiii;: across the plain of .Manassas, we 
came to the faimtiis Tlnll Knii. waded that stream and 
ale dinner on the hallleljeld. Un the m.iii h we saw 
the remimlers of former hhtodv contests in forts and 
earthworks. Iml the (Quaker i;iins that fooled Met 'lei- 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 323 

laii had beeii removed. Centreville was reached at four 
p. 111., aud we went into camp just in time to avoid m 
severe rain. Tiie day's march was twenty miles. Tiie 
next day, the 19th, ended forever the long marches of 
the One Hundred and Fourth. Starting at sunrise we 
passed Fairfax Court Mouse at ten a. m., and in the 
afternoon cami)ed on Arlington lleiglits, above Alex- 
andria, and in full view of the National capitol, which 
this Regiment and army had fought so long to save. 
We were on the princely domain of the Lees. All 
around us and beyond the broad I'otomac lay spread 
out to view, the grandest panorama tliat ever greeted 
the eyes of man. This was the month of May, and 
nature had decked the hills and valleys, and plains 
witli her h)veliest adornments. Kul this was not all 
that met our eager eyes. Here was the capitol of the 
Nation, the type, center and representative of the 
National life. (Irouped around the ('a])itol City, on 
every hillside and plain, covering thousands of acres, 
and extending even beyond our vision, rose the snowy 
white tents of half a million of veteran soldiers of 
the Union, w^ho had fought for long years to preserve 
for themselves and their children, and their succes- 
sors, all this fair heritage. No soldier could look 
unmoved on these scenes or fail to have implanted in 
his heart a deeper love for his country and flag. A 
lesson in patriotism was then and there given, far more 
imi)ressive and lasting than could be learned in books 
for a thousand years. What matter for proud con- 
gratulation that the battle-scarred remnant of the 
One Hundred and Fourth could say, "We were there,'' 
and he]i)ed to achieve those deeds that made these 
things ])ossible and had their glorious and propc^r end- 
ing in the final marshaling of the saviors of the 
Nation at Washington. 

THE GRAND REVIEW. 

The One Hundred and Fourth passed the 21st, 22d 

and 23d of May quietly in camp on Arlington Heights, 

engaged in brushing up soiled and well-worn uniforms 

and in polishing their arms and equipments, prepara- 



824 THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

un-y lu ihr lui-eam of il..- uionuw. Tlu- ;in.iu-s of 
the Polcuiuu- pasHCHl in ivvi.-w on iho l!:M, l.ui tlios.- 
annifs ha.! always b.n-n so nrar tin- capiiol an, s<. 
..firn s,M.n that nn.iv ycMu-nil intoivst was fell in Mn-r- 
luM.rs aiinv. all Loin- anxions to see the veteran 
le-ions wIm'.so i„oNvnn-nts w.-re ever nivsternnis as 1 Im-n 
eounnere.! boil, n.an an,l nalnre in the Atlanta rani- 
l.ai'Mi iln-n were lost to view in the lea], to the sea au.l 
a.uCl ihe swamps of (Ji-or-ia an.l ih.- rarohnas, to 
appear a|j:ain later, luit ever virtorious. Tln-re was a 
.lesire t.. sei' what kin.l <.f nn-n tln-se Wi-re who ha. I 
,„;„1.. ,„arrh.-s e.pial to thos,- ..f Can.hvres an.l Alex- 
.,„,l..r, an arn.v that with .lannti.'ss -rip Inul se./e.l 
h„hl of tin- iniH-nnost re.-.'sses ..f the -r.-at rebelhon s 
heart ami laid hare its failin- pulsatnms. '1 !'<• LUh of 
Mav was nshere.l in l.ri-ht but hot. Kvery sol.her felt 
that ho ha.l one more .Inty ..f a pnhlii- iialun- t<» por- 
furm The One llun.lro.l an<l Fourth was early astir 
ami soon after sunrise form.-,! ranks ami took up the 
lineof marrh. Crossin- iln- Ion- l,ri.l-e ovr t he Polo- 
,nar the Ko-iment rea.h.-.l i ho virinily of tlu' capif.! 
ahout ..no o'.l.M-k ami -..in- an.uml ihive sides of that 
imiM.sin- strneture, im.ve.l up P.-unsylvania aveiim* 
t..war.l th.- Whil.' IL.uso. (Mir Division f..rin.'.l the 
rear ..f tin- wl.oh- mniy, nn.l lo,.kin- .lowu ih.- av.-nu.' 
we eoul.l s.'.' th.' .l.-ns."- mass.'s ..f s..l.li.My inovin- f<.r- 
vvar.l with stea.ly ami m.-asur.'.! sl.'i>s. Half a inilli..n 
peoj.le looke.l ..u ill a.linirat i.'U at tin' .la/./lini: sp.'.-- 
ta.lo, ..m' har.llv .Mpuih-.l sav.- l.y tlu' imp.'nal i>a- 
-oanls ..f amieiit K..m.-. when she hrou-ht entiiv .ap- 
Uve nath.ns l<. a.h.rn her triumphal i.n..essi..ns: l.ul 
Koine f..u-ht f..r .-..mpiest ami -h.ry. this army f..u<jhi 
for the mainteiiaiire of a nation ami tli.' .I.st ructi..n 
of a wi.k.-.l n-l..'lli..n a-ainst -overnni.iii. law ami 
..nler. I'ifiy th<.usaml hay. .nets llasli.'.l in tli.- sun- 
li;:ht as the masses swept ..nwanl. ]»re.'e«le.l l.y the ...n- 
• im-i-in^r -enerals with their stalTs; tin- h....m ..f artil- 
lery ami the exultant strains of martial music hurst 
»i|M.n the ear :in.l impart. •.! a.hlit h.nal inten-st to th<« 
^r.ii.-. Wealth ami rank, h.-auty ami faslii..n ha.l -ath- 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 325 

ered there to shower flowers and plaudits of welcome 
on Sherman's army. In one particular the people were 
disappointed. The idea had prevailed that Sherman's 
was an army of "bummers," that during its mighty 
campaigns, far removed from its base of supplies and 
cut off f(>r mouths from communications with the 
world, discipline had been relaxed and it had become 
indiflerent to military restraint and laws, but when 
the first coliunn wheeled into line straight as a tight- 
ened cord, followed by others, and in each serried rank 
but one footfall heard; and as the eyes of the people 
took in the compact formation, seeing no stragglers 
and nothing wrong, but all soldierlike in dress and 
bearing, there was a sudden revelation, and cheer upon 
cheer greeted the veterans. "Distinct as the billows, 
yet one, as the sea," the army moved forward to the 
Presidential Mansion. There President Johns<jn, sur- 
rounded by all the great statesmen and generals of the 
Nation, reviewed the passing thousands. The "Bum- 
mer Brigade" formed a novel feature of the great dis- 
play. This was led by a sable warrior on a small don- 
key, followed by a motley collection of mules, big and 
small. An occasional horse was seen, evidently kept 
for osteological study. That the men had a clear 
appreciation of the necessity for a good commissary 
department in an army was shown by the well-loaded 
mules. On one of these was a goat, on others roosters 
and small dogs, with a coon or two. There were also 
pots, pans, kettles, and other articles. This Brigade 
was indifferent to military rules, but kept an eye 
open to the main chance and marched along, 
the roosters looking proudly down on the cheer- 
ing crowds. It was a great day for Sherman's bum- 
mers. The sun was low in the west when the last of 
Sherman's army passed the White House. The One 
Hundred and Fourth, with the Brigade, marched out of 
review and back to camp, arriving late and well worn 
out. Thus ended one of the grandest pageants in all 
military history, and every member of the One Hun- 
dred and Fourth who was there will never foraet this 



K* 



...SK HrNI>l(Kl« AM' KOL'RTH 



fifiin- rliiiiax t.. his aiinv s.ivi. -• and the Nati..iial 

uiiniiph. , .»- 1 

Thf K«-;;iiiu'iit rfiiiaiiuMi in camp <»n ilii- -.»tli, n-M- 
inj; an.l ninsin;: »»n th.- j^n-a! rvc-nis of the past few 
ilaNs. (Ml th.' l-Mlih tlu' i-anip was remov«Ml across the 
riviT t.. a iM-anhful -rove. iw.. niih-s from Washin^'- 
lon. Whih- ihcn- all ha<l an oppoiiunitv to visit the 
public bnihiintjs an.l places of interest and they thor- 
<.n;;hlv enjoved it. Meant iim' mtister-«»ut n»lls were pre- 
panMl". an.l im .luner.tl'. !>«;:., i he men of theCMie lliin- 
ilr«Ml antl Tourth then an.l th.-r.- pr.-sent, w.-r.- nins- 
tereilont ..f the servi.-e an.l armies ..f tin- I'nit.-.l Stat.-s, 
an.l l»ecanieaj:ain private citizens .»f the j^reat repnhlh, 
havin;:, sin.-.- nnist.'r-in, An<rnst liTth. ISC.L*, serv.-.l th.-ir 
.-.Mint r\ tw..v.'ars, nin.Miionths an.l nine .lays. A mini- 
Iter. »f men wh.» w.-re si.kinhospitalor .>n .l.-ta.-h.-.l .liiiy 
at vari.Mjs p.»ints, also some t ransf.-i r.-.l. w.-r.- must.-r.-.l 
Milt a littl.-.-arli.-r.»r lat.-r. ( Hi .hiiir Ttii, isil."., th.- One 
llnn.lr.Ml ami r..nrtli .■mhark.-.l .iii the .ais for li.»me. 
n-a.he.l Haliim.'i-.' at m»oii an.l to.»k .linii.*r at the 
'*S«.l.li««rs' Kest." Th.' writer was invit.-.l l.y a pri- 
val.- «iti/..Mi whom h.- .li»l not know to .Iim- with him- 
s.-lf an.l family, whi.li Ik- «ii.i. I'ittshiir;; was 
n-a.li.-.l ill th.' iifl.-riioon of th.- tMli, an.l th.' K.';:i- 
m.Mil nnM hy a .l<'l<--:alion of riti/eiis ami a haml of 
miisi.-; nml.-r ili.'ir i-s.-ori wr niar. iicij lo ih.- "Sohli.M-s' 
K.-sl," when* a spl.-mlid .linn.-r was sci\<-.l. The .oiii- 
mitt.M' then .•sc.uM.mI us to th.' .l.-poi ami u»- h'ft Pitts- 
l.iir;: full ..f <:ratitml.- aii th.- warm r.-.-.-ption arn.r.l.'.l 
MS. ""(Ml .hin.- HMh the ii.'^iim.Mit arriv.-.l in Chi.a-io 
ill th.' .-v.-iiiii^', hut lin.linj,^ no om- in ni.-.-t us. mar.h.Ml 
I.I ih.'-SoMi.-rs' K.-st." wli.'re, afl.-r wait in;: f.Mir .u- liv.- 
lumrs. siipp.-r was s.-rv.-.l. Thai iii;:lit m.»st of t lu' hoys 
slept .111 fh.' II.MU- in .Moiiit.»r Hall: s.uii.- w.-nl to li.tl.-ls. 
On .Inn.' llth the i:.'^inii-ii( mar. Ii.-.l out io<'ami> 
I'rv, .III 111.' muMli shh* of ilu- < ii\. an.l r.niaim'.l ih.-r. 
until .lum- 17th. wh.'ii w.' w.-r.- pai.l otT. l»ut 
.inly l.» .hill.' »itli, n-r.-iv.'.l our f.irmal .lis.har^i.'s, 
iiiaile .Mit in .liie form, ami tli.-n w.r.' fr.M' .nic' 
iii.ir.'. Th.' On.' llun<lr.'.l aii.l I'ouiili K.'-.Miu.'iit 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 



327 



Of Illinois Voluiileer IiUamn-, as a n.ilitaiv „i- 
.iiMiiizatioii, was forever dissolved. The nu'iiibers dis- 
persed to their various iKuiies bv the earliest trains 
anxious to see the dear (.nes from wIk.iu thev had been' 
separated so loi.o, J},„ ,„inoh.d with the jo^ was some- 
what of a stran.oeness of feeling- at the sudden tran- 
sitDu from soldiers to private citizens, with freedom 
from the restraint which military authority and dis- 
cipline imposes, and to which all had bec.mie accus- 
tomed. 

Hut one more task in writing the general history 
of the Ilegiment remains for its historian to perforn'i 
which is to sav, that, after having thouojit, i»lauued ami 
labored for over a year uim»u this Nyork he lias attained 
the end of this i>art of the history with £rreat satisfac- 
tion yet not unmingled with regret, that so much that 
would be of interest must be left unrecorded on account 
of the apse of time since the events occurred, the inac- 
cessibility of records and other causes 



(•iiArTi:i: x\i. 



H.inli.ls. .iK-.-H ..f nur First Thn- .M..,.i..n .<..rvUe. ImluJ. 
Inif HartKvlUe, by Captain Wllllain Strawn, Company F — 
H.inlnlHo.ntt'H ..f t»w Allania Campalifn. etc., by Henry Wln- 
i,rm»i.-ldt. Company H -A Movable Fort, by SerK.ant William 
H. Conard. Company K— Yankees Without Horns, by Charles 
Hlce. Company I— Narrative of Peter Dinger. Company G— 
Narrative ..f C.llbert U. Conarroe. Company B— HeioHectlons 
of Lieutenant Kamlolph and Others, etc.. by Ho»>ert West. Com- 
pany H— An Incident ..f Lieutenant Arnold of Company A— 
ItemlnlHcences i.f Kenesaw Mountain and the Siege of Atlanta, 
by Captain William Strawn. Company F— Personal Recol- 
hMtlons of the Army Hunimer. by Jacob Bane. Company I. 

REMINISCKNCES OF Ol'R FIRST THREE MONTHS' SERVICE. 
INCMDlNd HARTSVII.l.K. HY CAPTAIN WIM.IA.M 
STRAWN. COMPANY F. 

TIm' ( IIuimIiimI aii.l I'.Miilli. nii ;uri\iii.u ;M .Iff- 

frrsuiivilN', l!iili;iii;i. Si'IiI.-iiiImt 7. \S{\'2, was ini n»(lii.-.vl 
to 111*' iii_vsicri<*s of r:mii» lilr iiinl lliat aiMicIf «»f <li»M 
know II as "s.»\\ Im-IIv." lien-, lo... \v«' w.-rr fiirnislMMl 
wii li 1 lie ( Juvcniiiifiii iiiiittniii ami arms. IW-iii^ ^r«'«'n, 
all sii|(i»liril llh'iiisclv.-s wiih ili.- lull <»iiilii olTrrtMl, 
iiMuli of it, liowrviT. sii|mmI1iioiis. with lln' tlM'nnoiii- 
i'\*-v staiitliii^ al «M;:liiv in iIm- sliadf. coiisiMiufmlv a 
^'(»o(| tl«'al was llii-owii awa.v, wlicii soon aft«'r w«' 
inarrlir«l a few niiirs iimU-r a hioilin^ sun, ami luMaiiM' 
till* |>i«-\ of icanisiris ami tlcintMlalois ;:«'m'rall,\ . W lini 
ill «ani|» iioiili of tin- nlijo a laiifilialilt- rirciinistamr 
orciiritMl one nielli wliili- all nmmc asl<M'|i. A iiifinlwr 
of ('oni|ianv I', <lr»'aniin^ llial lln- irlnis wiMt- coniiii;:, 
starlrtl lip smiilcniy, sllontin^^ "U<»vsl hovs!" ami fall- 
in;; licadlon;: t»v«M- Ills romiatlcs, awoki-. But a i>any 
wrnt oil! to srairli I In* adjacriit woo. Is. limliii'.:. how ■ 
i'\*'V, no rin'inv. W ln'ii in a f«'W tiavs we irailMMl tin* 
Ohio it was ronsiih-icd that wo w oi-o in tin* t'lUMnv's 
roiinifv. ami as we niairlictl ihioniih i.oiiisvilh'. no 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 329 

cue could for^iet with what vim the boys sang patriotic 
songs, ''.Tolm Brown," etc. After spending a few ihiys 
at ''<'ani]» (rr:isslio]»]MM"" and sonic Time in llic snhnrbs 
of Louisville, the Kegiment started for Frankfort. That 
march was very fatiguing and when we halted the first 
night about twelve. Company F had but few men left, 
the rest having given out owing to the unaccustomed 
exercise. The boys came straggling in all night. When 
we reached Shelbyville a halt of a few days was made 
and some of the boys foraged for all there was in it, 
against orders and all reason. Shelbyville was the 
home of a loyal colonel then in the held with a regi- 
ment of loyal Kentuckians, and his ])lantation was 
raided the same as others, but the facts in regard to 
the colonel were not known at the time. I was sent 
back from Shelbyville to bring u]> goods left at Louis- 
ville, and also the convalescents of the K(\giment, ami 
again joined the command at Frankfort. I then learned 
of the exciting times while at Shelbyville over the 
contraband (juestion, in which the Regiment came out 
ahead. At Frankfort I was detailed with a command 
made u]) of men from the several regiments of our 
Brigade. Colonel Moore was made commander of the 
Brigade, vice Colonel Limberg, arrested. My command 
took charge of the public property at Frankfort, and 
Company F camped down in the legislative halls of 
the State capitol. From Frankfort the Regiment found 
itself, after a long and tiresome march of one hundred 
and sixty miles, in Bowling Green, Kentucky. When 
we arrived I dropped down in my tracks from sheer 
exhaustion and lay there until my fast friend, John 
McDougall, of Companj' F, prepared a cup of tea, which 
made me almost as good as new. We remained at 
Bowling Green a few days and were then ordered to 
Glasgow, Tompkinsville, and llartsville. In the mean- 
time Colonel Scott, of the Nineteenth Illinois, had been 
placed in command of the Brigade by request of Col- 
onel Moore to General Rosecrans, A short time after 
Colonel Scott took commjind he sent for me to call upon 
him at headquarter.s, when he infoi;med me that Colonel 



S30 THE ONE HUNDKKD AND FOl'RTH 

Mo<»rf had i-»Toiiiun-n<U-il iii\ .iii|H»iuiiin-m as Hri^atU' 
(V)iiiinissarv. 1 «liii ma iflisli iIk* iilt-a t>f bfiiij; dLMarlird 
fi*i»iii I In* ••••iu|iaiiv and r<M|iu*sh'd tlu* iuivilr;ii' of coii- 
suliin;: souiv of mv bioiln-i- «»nicrrs. Tln-y said, "Taki* 
it by all iiu'UHh." At rordin};;ly I n*iMHti*d i«> Coloiud 
Scott, ii|M»u whirh In- |ir(M«'«-d«'d to «;ivi* iik* a U*ii\i list 
of iiist rurtions as !«• ln>u raiilc slumld bt* «lriv«'ii, ft*d 
and nianaj^rd f,Mii»-rall.v. I lisi»-iii*d with ;:iaviiy and 
iuntui-nri*. as tliMn;;li tin* dmifs rxiMMh'tl of nir \v<*n* 
fUtindy iu*>v, and promised lo d<> tin- insi I «uuld. nn 
r«*|MH-tin;: to t'ulont'l Moor*' In* was rdiiviilstMl with 
lan;;lih'i- at tin* romicality of t In* t liin;:, and in din- i iuir 
infornit'd Colonrl S«(»tt who 1 wiis ami all of my anr^s- 
tors brfiifr nn*. Th** ('o|«»n«'l brin;; yonnp;, ft*ll that In* 
had "|»nt his ftmi In it" and s«*nt for inc at ontt*, wlnn 
Ih* jiinciM'dcd to apidn^i/i' as f<dh)ws: *'II«'i»' 1 am, a 
yonn^' man jnsi past i w «'iny-tiv«', but have bcrn in tin* 
army Ion;; «*m>ny;h to Un»»u that scddiris snITcr m<»r«* 
fi-om tin* inrHiririny iind rascality nf tpiarit'iniastfrs 
and «ommissari«*s than fi-om batlh* ami nil <n hir <ans»'S. 
I am an ntt«*r stran^irr lo your Hrii^adc, and ("ulonri 
Moorr boin;; in commaml, I, of «oursc, citiisulird him, 
but tho\i;jht In* mi;;ht have reconniK-mltd \..ii as a par- 
tiriilar fri«*nd without rrfcrrnci* i»i qualiliraiions; I 
am bni too ;;lad to kn<»\v that such was not the case, 
and you will kimlly ovcrlotd; my aticmptcd insiiuc- 
lions ami atiiibutc luy cduisc \n ilic proper iinni\«-s."* 
( >f cuui-sf I IkhI IK* laiill to liiitj an I iiiniii'dial cly 
assnnn*«l couticd of commissary matt<i>. llui llaris- 
vilh' brou;ilH my career as A. A. ( '. lo an uniinu'ly 
end. dohn .Mor;;an clos<'<| out the busim-ss. At tin* 
lime of the battle I w:fs abseul al (lallalin with one 
humlred and se\fiiiy of ihc un-ii of (ho lve;:imeni, 
includin;; teamsters ami ^uar<ls of the commissary 
ami ammuniiioii (rains. The <lay of the bailie small 
K«piads of ca\alry ihai had been attached io the Hri- 
^ade be;;an to arrive al (lallalin with ac«ouuls of ihe 
battle and disasiei*, and in ;.M-andilo<pn*nt style told 
how the nn*n of the ( Mn* Mumlred and I'ourih IkhI 

covered I lieliisel \ i-s willi L'lorx. bul the d d I)ulcll of 



REGIMENT ILI^INOIS VOLUNTEERS. 331 

the One Hundred and Sixth iind One Iluiidicd and 
Eighth had tlirown away their gnns and ran, but the 
rebels had captured them and they hoped woukl keep 
them. For several days we suffered much anxiety 
with regard to the fate of the Regiment and oiir dear 
comrades who had been killed and wounded. Those 
of us in Gallatin were put on provost duty. While 
there a committee from Ottawa, consisting of Dr. Hard, 
Rev. Zenas Coleman and J. W. Calkins arrived to look 
after the wounded and distribute comforts to them. 
Having been ordered by General Paine, commander of 
the post, to proceed to Hartsville, under a flag of truce, 
to re-bury the dead and care for the wounded, the 
committee and myself went on our mission. A few 
miles from Hartsville we met the rebel officer in charge 
of the vedettes guarding the roads leading into the 
town. On learning our errand he very courteously 
escorted us through town, on the way talking freely 
of the events of the battle and making substantially 
the same statements in regard to the One Hundred 
and Fourth and the German regiments that we had 
heard from the cavalry. He asserted that while the 
guns and cartridge boxes of the Illinois men were 
nearly empty, those of the Ohio regiments had not 
been used at all. Among the dead taken up and re- 
buried in the old cemeter}^, especiallv sad for me, were 
the bodies of John McDougall and James Spencer, Jr., 
of Company F. The former, who was the father of 
Duncan McDougall, of Ottawa, was a verv intelligent 
Scotchman, my near neighbor, who had left an inter- 
esting family but a few months before at the call of 
duty, to serve his loved adopted country. He had 
received the fatal wound in his breast and tried to 
stop the flow of blood with a handkerchief, but it was 
of no avail, and he calmly and consciouslv awaited 
the end of earth. James Spencer, Jr., was in' the vigor 
of youth. The committee returned to Gallatin, but I 
remained a few days to Avait on Lieutenant Milton 
Strawn, of Company E, who was suffering from an 
amputated leg and could not recover. While in Harts- 



TMK «iNE lUNIiUKD AND ForUTH 



vilir tin* loimw iiij^ iiiinlciil «Mrilil<-il w lii» h i liilNt* 
oftfu tluMi-^hl itf siiuc Ourin;; llu* hileiil waiilics of 
llif iiif^ht 1 hcanl tin* claiilviiiy; t»f swords ami iiois** 
of rt'bel tavalrv apjiroacliiii;; tlu* house where 1 slopped. 
A knock and in eanie one of Morj^au'8 eolouels whose 
farm I had raided wImmi Counnissary a short lime 
befon*. After in«|niriiij; who 1 was ami why 1 was 
there, he handed me a pande ready for siy;naiure and 
se«*nie<I surprised that I d<'i-lined to siy;n it, t»n the 
ph*a that I was und«*r a lia;; »)f truce. He advance«l 
all of the ai-^iiiiH-nis that he cuuld think of, hut linally 
departed, saNiiij^ that he had iieNer violated a lla;; of 
truce and never would. Li«Mitenant Strawn dyinj; soon 
after 1 conveve<l his ImmIv in an ambulance to (Jallatin. 
Mor;:ain was then <»n his way north on his last raid. A 
few days later the body of the rebel ((douel who had 
treate«l me .so courteously at llartsville, jtassed 
throu^rh (lallatin on its way to burial in tiic llarts- 
ville teiuetery. I had a feelin^^ of soiiow as for a 
friend. IIi>w true it is that death levels all distinc- 
tions, silemes all animosities. Uur life at < Jallatin 
was very monot<»nous and we lonp'd to Im- with the 
Ke;,'iment. Our wishes were ^n-atitied and we soon 
joined it at <'amj» honiiias, when all hail an oppiu- 
tuniiy to see iheii' (|.-;ir JKuiies auaiii befol-e we h'ft 
for the front. 
hkminis('i:nci:s of ihh atla.nta CAMrAir.N, etc. by 

HKNKV WI.NTKRSCIIKIDT. COMPANY H. 

Oil .lime JSth, IStJl, when uur artillery was pe|(per- 
in;; away at Kent'saw, the < Mie Ihimlicti and Fourth 
lay in front of our batteries under tuders to be ready 
at any moment to ^o inlti action. Ihirin^^ the liiinu 
a cannon explod<'<l a shell just as it issued from the 
mu/./Je of the ^un, and a juece about four inches lon^ 
struck nu* a^rainst my knapsack, ;roin;; thrtMiuh the 
doubled-up blanket and comin;: «»ut at my left side, 
<uttinj: the cart rid^o-box belt as it emei-Med. Tin* force 
of it knocked me into the ditch and the boys thou;rht 

I was badly hurt, but lM*yond a ;: I scare I was all 

ri;:ht. .^onie nf the boys had taken ilnir Unapsacivs 



I ^ REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 333 

off aiid were j^ittiiig on them. My obedieiiee to orders 
in this case saved my life. At the same place Cap- 
tain Brown, of Company C, was standing on the breast- 
works swinging his hat at the "Johnnies" who were on 
Kenesaw about a mile olf. They lired at him and one 
minie ball struck him in the hollow of his elbow. 
He instantly clapped his other hand around and caught 
it, and suffered no further harm than a black bruise, 
but he made no more demonstrations of that kind. 

A few days befcu-e that while at Pea Vine Creek 
the Regiment remained in line of battle seven days 
and nights in succession, carrying on heavy skirmish- 
ing all the time, but this hardly kept us awake. On 
the seventh day nothing but the roaring of the artil- 
lery made us open our eyes, and Avhen at last we were 
relieved in the evening it seemed tlie most welcome 
thing that ever occurred. 

One day near Kenesaw our Regiment and the reb- 
els were so near together that we could talk to them. 
Both sides Avere behind breastworks. One of our men 
called out, "Hello, Johnny, how far is it to Atlanta?" 
Johnny replied: "It is so d — d far you will never get 
there." Yank replied: "Yes, we will get there and 
' have a big dance with your sister." The reply to this 
came in the shape of a hundred minie balls. 

At Peach Tree Creek, near Atlanta, Hood's w^hole 
army made a grand charge on us about four p. m. of 
July 20th. The One Hundred and Fourth was without 
any near support. The underbrush was so thick one 
could not see two rods ahead. The rebels swung around 
and compelled us to retreat a short distance. At this 
point an orderly came from General Carlin and called 
out, "The (reneral commands that not another step 
backw^ard be taken from here." We held the posi- 
tion, and here I was shot through the left thigh. 
In limping back I ran up against Major Widmer and 
said, "I'm Avounded, Major." He replied, "Well, then 
go to the rear." Before the sun went down the rebels 
were whipped, but our loss was heavy. 

About two Aveeks after this I w\is sent with a train 



THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 



r^ — --- 4 ^ 

"lU'iirv, vnii will have to lnnrr up or von will tlif." 
<ioo(l i-onstil:iii«iii for mr. Aficr Immh*^ in liospitnl U>v 
two nioiit lis t he wtiiM liv iliutur sfiit mm- IcnU i<» Ai lain;i. 
laiiM' and St ill soir. Tlir Kt'^iiiinMH i lini follow nl IIoimI 
n«trlli for twn w«M*ks ami aj^Jiiii n*tmin*<l to Atlanta ti* 
takf up tlu* march to the si'a. While near Savannah 
w«' HMMMNcd onU'i's our niy:ht to chai-^ir and sni|ijis(* 
tin* ndn'ls, who wrir acioss some lloodrd ri<«* planta- 



At Sister's Ferry, South Carolina, the ( )ne Hun- 
dred and I'ourth was sent across the )i\<r to cut dowu 
t r«H's for a corduroy road. Tlie w ater stood on i he hoi- 
toni lands waist deej) and in i his we had to stand. Half 
an hour was as lonj;; as anyone cotild stand it, lIuMi 
wi' went to a small dry place where there was a tire to 
dry ofT and warm up a little. (Mi one occasion the 
hoys ctit a tree, which fell w heic the tire was. < ien- 
eral Slociini was also standiuy; there. All jumi»ed into 
the watei- and ljoI away safely «'xcepi one j»oor fellow, 
who was ciushed l>y the tree. 

A MOVAIU.K I'OIt'I" HV SKUr.KANT WILI.IA.M 11. ("ONAUD. 
COMPANY E. 
On the ;{(lih day of .May, IStH, while near Halias, 
(M'or;:ia, our Company dO) was on the skirmish line. 
.\fiei- leavinj,^ our line (»f works and ^ioiu;; stuue thirty 
rods we came to an open field that slo|»ed olT ^'ently 
from t he ed;ie of t he w oods W here We w el-e in t he direc- 
tion of the enemy, who lay in the woods on the oppo- 
site side. We cfuild a«lvanc«' a little ways without 
much dan;:er, hut the rebels soon Ii;id a fair si;:lit of 
us. In flout of the com|>a!iy lav at a ^^liort distame a 
lo<i about twenty inches in diameter. The lo;; lay etid- 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 335 

ways to us. I saw at once that if 1 could gain it 1 
would have an advanced and safe iwsition against 
niinie balls, so I ran and reached it safely. I found it 
was about ten feet long and could be moved. 1 then 
beckoned Joe Wilson, who was nearest, to come, which 
he did, and we moved the log around broadside to 
the foe. Win. M. Wilson, John Nattinger and John 
W. Hart next closed in on the log. We then advanced 
slowly rolling the log before us, keeping close behind 
it anil tiring by volley whenever we saw any rebels. 
They were concealed in the edge of the woods, and it 
was hard to get sight of them. Charley Kuger, who 
was one of the bravest of the brave and was in the line 
on the left, got sight of a rebel, jumped u]> and blazed 
away. He drew their lire and I thought would be killed 
before he could lie down. This enabled us to know 
just where the rebels were and we steered our fort 
toward them, continuing to tire by volley at every 
chance, until Captain Doty thought it time to charge. 
When the rest of the line arrived we joined it and 
drove the rebels from the woods. In this charge James 
C. 8choonover was mortally wounded. Samuel A. Fisk 
ventured into the woods too far and came near being- 
taken prisoner, having passed beyond some Johnnies, 
but his legs saved him, 

YANKEES WITHOUT HORNS. AN INCIDENT. BY CHARLES 
RICE, COMPANY I. 

While we were on the march through South Car- 
olina, after we had gone into camp for the night, I went 
over to a house not far away and found that the only 
occupants were an old lady, a younger one and a small 
boy six or seven years old, who was the son of the lat- 
ter. The old lady said: "I never seen so many people 
in all my born days and no horns either; where did you 
all come from?" Having satisfied liA' on this point, 
the younger woman remarked, "We had always been 
told that if ever the Yankees got into South Carolina 
every boy's throat would be cut and everything de- 
stroyed, so when we saw your soldiers passing this 
morning, I was very much scared. One of them came 



SM THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

iu, ralliMl iiiv bov it> hiiu, tt»ok hiiu u|» •»!» his kiu*e 
ziud put his liainl iu his pockcl. Scn-iuj; this uiy h«*art 
WfUl u|» iuio uiv ihioal, as 1 was sure he was getliug 
out his kuif«% but iusii'a«i hr took ttui sninc silviT 
chauj;r au<l ii:i\*' my b«»v, and aft<-r that all uiy U-dva 
were j;ou«'. ' 

NAHKATIVK OF I'KTIIK 1»1Nc;i:K, CUMl'ANY (J. A NAlUtUW 

ESCAPE. 

Aftrr Sheruiau's aruiy h-fl Atlanta «»n the uiarth 
111 the st-a, 1 was (h'tailcd as a fuiii;j;fr ami (MintinutMl 
as surh until wr airivrtl at Savannah. < Mi ihe taui- 
|»ai;:n tlirMnj;^h tin* Caiolinas 1 was ai^ain a l'<na;:;(*r 
and ftMiinl the ui» iipatiun nnnh nnu-e (hui^fioiis ilian 
heretofore. When oiir tlnail under (.'ajiiain W illiam 
Sirawu, of Coinjtany 1\ airiscd at llif (inai IN'dre 
Kivrr. w»* waited fur iln- I'ttui-iccni li ('iti|is ami ihe 
|Mint<>iins to (-(Miie \ip. Thry arrived al>«tut dark and 
\\«* rowrd oursrlvfs arr(»ss in «U(k*r to <;»*l ahead of the 
eavalry. Captain Slrawn ha«l orders to procred to 
Korkin;:liani. twenty miles disianl, and i)ilr f<»raj:e for 
tin* Koinifrni li ( "orps. .Maitliin!:; all nii,dii we rearlnMl 
our destiiuition at sunrise, l»iit ran into a cauiit of rebel 
lavalry and thin;;s !»e<;;an i«> lotdi serious. However, 
Kilpat riek's ravalry an-iv«Ml just in t inie, having; crossed 
the river diiiin;; ilie nij^lit, an<l altacUin;: the rebels, 
laptured or killed the whole lot. Kilpatriik had orders 
for <'a|»tain Strawii stating; that the Fourteeutli Corps 
Would not ;:o to Korkin;;:liani, but would tak«'tlu' next 
r<»ad, twenty miles <listant. (>ut of the melee with the 
rebels I serured a uiule, lojidiii^ him with foraj;«*, sueh 
as Hour, m«'at. shirts, socks, etc., and started in c«un- 
paiiy with ei^dit others across ihe country to the main 
army. nn»* of our number was a Lieutenant. 1 was 
the onlv member <>f uur Ke^iment in the crowd and 
in ranjiiii;: over»t he eiMiniry had lost si;.dit of <':ipiain 
Sirawn. Two of ihe men belun^'ed to the Thirty-third 
Olijo. the rest I diil not know. WC marched sonie 
ten miles and <amped f«u' the nij^hi. In the mondn;: 
We loaded up iiiir mules and horses and were about 
n*«dy to start when Wade Hampton's eavalry pounced 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 33T 

down upon and captured us all. At sight of the forage 
they were enraged and said they would kill us. They 
then shot all down but myself and were about to shoot 
me viien the second officer in command, a young Lieu- 
tenant, seeing that I was very young, interfered and 
pulled me up on his horse and rode away. He rode 
to the Cape Fear River, where he left his horse and 
we crossed in a skiff. Soon he turned me over to a 
South Carolina Colonel by the name of Herrington, as 
a prisoner of war. We were near Fayetteville on the 
morning of our capture and while with my protector 
I could often see our corps marching in the distance. 
I was sent to Libby Prison, where I remained until 
Richmond was taken, about sixty days. I can never 
forget my rescuer from the jaws of death. 

THRILLING NARRATIVE OF GILBERT R. CONARROE, COM- 
PANY B, CAPTURED AT HARTSVILLE AND TAKEN FOR A 
REBEL DESERTER. 

I was taken prisoner at Hartsville and when we 
reached Murfreesboro was singled out by the rebels 
as being one Mr. Brown, a deserter from \heir ranks. 
A rebel Colonel, a Sergeant and six men marched me 
out into the woods to be shot, and had it not been for 
an Irishman they would have carried out their threats. 
I asked the Colonel what he meant by bringing me 
out alone and leaving all the rest of m'v comrades in 
the bull pen (prison camp). He said, "Brown, why did 
you desert us?" I replied that I never belonged to 
their ranks, and that Brown was not my name. He 
said, "Brown, you denied your country, do not for God's 
sake deny your name; we all know^ou too well for 
you liD try to play that game on us." I replied that I 
never denied my name or country and that I was an 
Illinois soldier. He then questioned me further as to 
my name, when and where I enlisted, etc., to all of 
which I gave correct answers. He then, apparently 
not satisfied, questioned me further, when a little rebel 
Irishman, a soldier, said, "Colonel, this is not Brown 
at all, though he looks exactlv like him; Brown had 



S38 THE ONK HtNliR^D AND FOURTH 

U... Irish l.n.^;u.-/' Th.-n In-an.l i 1m- i •..l.m.l ha.l a s.-Mo^ 
ab^Mi! im-. Wilt foit.iiM. was oii luv si.k. Dtnin^ ni. 
,lis.„ssion 1 l.snn.M that lUuwn was iIm- ""•^^;"^;";; 
„n rnn-lv f.u-ml. Finally il.- '->••"••» I'V'.''.... 
.Mianis lo'.uaivh ,„.. IkmU to ramp, f. wliuh anan .- 
tilt I„..st willin.Mvass,Mn.M Uu.tlM. M.m.M-a^^^^^^ 
not nst th.'iv. WlMMi w,. appn.a.h.Ml Um- rami, a n 1. 1 
;:„anl sai.l lo nm- of our Im.vs. -Th.-n. . um,-s a s of a U 
That won't liv,. with voM.n.s.' ami th.M, th.-.v h.-M an 
an^unH'iil as to wlH-tlur ih- Inion or .tIm-I authoi- 
i,ir.s ha.l thr iH-st rlaim on um-. M.v situation m th,- 
,„.n was anvthinjr but pl.-asan. ami ii m-^mu to h.ok 
ihMunv for m... as it was nois,Ml al.oui , Im- n-lM-l .a up 

that niown. tin- .h-s.-itrf. ha.l I u .uu-ihi with tlu- 

Yank.M.s.aml I was poiut-.l out to all of t h.-iu wlmn-vr,- 
1 w.M.i. Soon afi.T ilM- (MM- llun.ln-.! am V;"'"' "" 
llumln.l an.l Sixth aiul Om' llun.liv.l ami hi-hth O no 
W..IV ralhMl up in liim two tih-s .h-.-p. whru tin; n-hrl 
<V,h,m-l lo.h- up an.l .h.wn ih.- lai.ks, an.l s.niilm:^ ni<' 
,„„ „,.i,,,..i „„. t.. f..How him. 1 .li.l so. hut his Imrs,. 
b,.in- in iM-M.-r pli-ht than mys.-M 1 asU.-.l him f. -o 
a lit'lh- sh.w.M-, as mv sho.-s w.-n- wiih..ut s..h-s aiul 
mv f(H-t bhMMlin- Tlmrnhuu-l luiuiui: Ins wi.k.'.l ..>rs 
to*a rrhrl -uanl onh-n-.l him to tak.- .haii:.- ..f m.' ami 
if I n...v.-.l t.. sh.M.i MM- .lowM. Th..«'..hm.-I th.-n w.-ui 
ofT iM.t ivtunuMl s.M.n will, a .h-tail of six m.-n an.l a 
8ri-.rrant. (Ml.- ..f th.' -uar.ls sahl t.. m.', -nn.wn. 1 
^vouhlm.t -iv.-n.u.h for vo' .hai..-.-." 1 i l..n ask.-.l t h- 
<r„anl what th.- TuIoih-I m.-aui to .|o. 11.- n-plm. . I 
rias.-n't talk t.. v..u-uns." I was th-n k-pt .^iuanh-l lor 
awhih-, hut t.. mv j..vful surpris.- was a-a.n s.-ut ba.k 
tr, our ramp. Thm. h.-in- th..r..u-hlv alarnw-.l. I tra.h-.i 
nlT mv him- arinv hhuis.- an.l my hat to an ..hi (H'finan 
of thr (Ml.- llumir.-.l an.l Kii:l.ih Ohi.. f-.r an .>1.1 -n-asy 
uv.-r.-..at witlu.ut a skirt, an.l an ..hi hat. ami th.'n- 
aft.T kopt out ..f si;;lit as nni.h as ]...ssil.l.'. I h- r.-h.-l 
Mr Hn.wn ha.l .lisapp.'atv.l. hut th.- n-h.-ls hunt.-.l for 
„„. „,„il aft.-r w.- w.-n- par..l.-.l a.i.l until w.- pass.-.l 
ihr..u-h th.-ir lim-s. T.. .lay 1 woiil.l -iv.- my h.-st suit 
of hliH- for that ohl -jnasv ..v.'r.-..at ami .ap. as tln'V 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 339 

helped me to gain my freedom and to follow "Old 
Glory" to the end of the war. 

BECOLLECTIONS OF LIEUTENANT RANDOLPH AND OTHERS; 
INCIDENTS OF THE SIEGE OF CHATTANOOGA; PLASTER 
OF PARIS BISCUITS, ETC. BY ROBERT WEST, COMPANY B. 

Lieutenant Kandolph, who had been absent, re- 
turned to us on I)<^<«Mnber 1st at ITartsville, and was 
on duty for the first time on the 5th. lie was on 
picket dut}^ when the rebels attacked. Tlio night of 
the 6th was cold and snow on the ground. The hogs 
came grunting around our line, but the boys were 
afraid to kill them, as the Lieutenant, being a lu'cacher, 
just from home, forbade it. However, when relieved 
early on the morning of the Tth, several went into camp 
with sides of pork on their bayonets. In the battle, 
Lieutenant Randolph, who wore a black suit with a 
plume on his hat, was mortally wounded, carried from 
the field and died not long after. Eight others of Com- 
pany B were also killed or mortally wounded on that 
fatal day. 

At the battle of Chickamauga David McCampbell, 
Fife-Major, and Joseph Wheat, Drum-Major, were 
attending to the wounded and captured. McCamp- 
bell died ill Audersouville. Wheat finally escaped and 
after the war went west. Warnock and Hutchinson 
were missing at Chickamauga and probably killed. 
Joseph Chance w^as severely wounded in the thigh and 
carried b3^ Sergeant Bassett and the writer to Ross- 
ville, and from there removed to Chattanooga, where 
he died a week later. 

The experience of the Regiment during the siege 
of Chattanooga was a severe one from the scarcity of 
food. I saw a young soldier in Company A cry like a 
child. He said that he had enlisted to fight and was 
w illing to do it, but did not like to starve to death. 
One day I obtained a pass to cross the river for the 
purpose of visiting our boys in the convalescent camp. 
There was a sutler there and I went to see how his 
horse was and observed that he had some corn, so I 



MO 



III. \ V I . l« >r|{TH 



|M«rs»i;Ml»Ml hiiii !«• «li\i.lr ii wiui ua: I \\u-\i ir;ul»Ml 
this wiih I lit- sitk Tmi- hanl i;nk. Tht-y s;ii<l afu-iw anl 
that lh»' torn pairhtMl iliil ihi-in iiion' ;i«MMl ihan all the 
jiurtiir's iiuMliriiii*. Whrii 1 n*tuni«Ml i.. Hn- iiv«T the 
wa«;<»ii iraiu was in fr«>iii Hri(l«;e|niri ami I lM»u;;ht some 
lianl lark fiMin mii«- of the ;iiiar(ls. Aii«»ili<'r ;;uard 
t«>M (he selh-r that he wuuhl vet be soirv In- ha«l parted 
with his rations. « hi aiiivin«r in «anii» I Mivitled up 
with my mess. Tin- ne\i day we went «>n pirUri for 
fortyi*i;:ht hours, leavin;: no rations in ramp. I ofi»ii 
hiokiMl at the dead animals which had died from starva- 
tion and were taken to iln- «'di- of the ri\«'r to Ihiat 
ofT on the spriii*; rise. At on.- liuM- I «oiiiiiiil iliree 
hundred within half a mile. 

W'hih' emampt'd |»y ilic Ti innNst-r IJImm- southwest 
of tlje town. \\i- had to '^f\ all of our wood frtuu the 
opposite sidt' iu a siuall IhkK. (Mi fo^;:\ days the hoys 
Would try to < loss, liui always rame hark on the same 
sidf and ;:a\e it up. 

When, on NttM-mln'i- I'lili. ilu- (Mu- lluudrcd an<l 
Fourth rliiulM'd up LooUoin io rcjufoi-cc I looker. < '<uu- 
paiiies A and H w «m«- in i he crllar of i he ( lavcu I louse, 
niid some of them discovered a half barrel of what wais 
supposed to bf flour. They |uo(c«Mh'd to make a lot 
of biscuit and baked ihem. \\ hen the projx'r time had 
ehipseil a Ser;;eant tri«*d one veiy ea«;:erly. but wa8 
sur|irised at I Im* ;^ril tiuoss ami lastelessness. I'uiihcr 
in\est i^at ion i«'\oaled the fact thai the biscuits wore 
rom|M»sed of plaster of jiaris. an ariicic thai old man 
i'raven had bought to use as a rcriili/ci- lui his stony 
farm. Tie- Iau;:h wasa;;jlinsi us. 

AN INCIDK.NT CI' L!i:iTK|<ANT AU.NOl.h. ("O.MI'ANV A. 

An incident after the capture of the (Mic Hundred 
and I'ourthai I laitsvilh- illusirah-s t he spirit thai aui- 
iiiati-d ihc UHMibcis of the Kc^inieiit ihroULihoui. c\«ri 
to the youn;iest aiuou^' them. While they were in the 
<'oUrt Mouse al .M Ulfleesbol-o bein;; paioled, <'(U|iol-al 

S. v. .\rnold. of t'ompany .\, was awailiu;: his turn 
and in boyish biaxado spiaiiL: ii|i on ihc balustraile of 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 341 

the staircase ami r('a(liin<^ as liij^li as lie «'oul(l, wrote 
in the bold and distinct hand that distinguishes his 
penmanship to this day, "The Union must and shall be 
preserved." As he stepped down the Captain of the 
First Louisiana Tigers, who was guarding them, said, 
"Do you believe that?'' His reply was, ''I «io, and some 
day I will be here a free man and see my name on the 
walh" The Captain thought for a moment an<l an- 
swered, ''Well, may be you are right." 

The Corporal saw his name there when he was a 
free man and belonged, to a victorious army. 

REMINISCENCES OF KENESAW MOUNTAIN AND THE SIEGE 
OF ATLANTA. AMUSING INCIDENTS. BY CAPTAIN WIL- 
LIAM STRAWN, COMPANY F. 

After Johnston withdrew his army from New Hope 
Church we again advanced and abotit the 10th of June 
found ourselves confronting him at Kenesaw Moun- 
tain, where his lines were strongly intrenched. Our 
army was gradually pushed up closer and closer to 
the foot of the great natural fortress, made more im- 
pregnable by vast earthworks built by the rebels. At 
last portions of our line effected a lodgment behind 
intrenchments within a few j-ards of the enemy's works. 
It is said that our closest lines were as follows: A sol- 
dier would take an empty cracker-box, till it with dirt, 
then lying down, push it before him in the night as 
close to the enemy as he dared, then crawl back and 
give place to others, so that by morning the rebels were 
greatly astonished to find our ranks right under their 
noses. This operation, however, removed the parties 
temporarily from the list of fighters, for while they 
occupied these extremely close quarters, no one dared 
to show a finger above the works. Whether true or 
not the story is told of a rebel desiring a furlough, that 
sticking up a hand with the trigger finger extended he 
said, "Here's for a furlough." Scarcely had he spoken 
when he shouted, "A discharge, by hookey." One of 
our boys had shattered his hand. While' our Regi- 
ment occupied nearly as close quarters to the enemy, 



S«2 THE ONE HTNDRED AND FOURTH 

1 lost iiiv tirst mail, Ktlwanl Klu-rhart, v«»uii«; aii<l lov- 
abli* and a jiood soldier. Stnuk by a rrhel bullei he 
liviil only b»n;: ••n<Mi«;li io (•(Ter a word of prayer i<> 
Jesus to recei\i* his sjtiril. All fell inexpressibly sad 
itxt'V his h»ss. ( Mie niyht a tb'lerniined jissauh was 
niadi* <»ii thi» rebel w orks awaiy to our rihy:t, rfsultinjr iu 
a lepulN*' with many of our lu'ave soldiers killed «>r 
woumled. Ibit <ieneral Sherman was not idle and was 
proseruiin;; his llankin;: operalions, whi«h in a few 
days resulted in anoih«*i- w iilidi awal «>f Johnston's 
army beyond Marieiia lo the < liallahoochee Ki\t*r. 
Sherman*> army follow in;; sal down before ih«' enemy's 
ini renchmenis as neai- as was piiideni. The weather 
beeame intensely hot so that we hail lo seek any avail- 
able shatje. While here si-veral amusin;:: inridents 
oreuried. I was making; a rail one day al bri^iade 
ln'adi|iiariers. whirh was also head<|iiarlers of the I'if- 
leeiiih Keniiifkv Infaiiliy. The ( "hapiain wasreadin;; 
and an Irisli soldier was siiiin;: near on a lo;: smokin;; 
a pi|te. Snildeidy ihet'haplain lhon;:ln he fell some- 
iliiii;: siin;; him between the shoulders, ami investi;:ai- 
in;;, out dr«»p|M'd one of ihose slimy, shinin;: lizards 
roiiiinon in that « liman- and t-alle<l by the natives 
"swifts." li seudded over the Irishman like a tlasli. 
His eyes bul;:in;: oni, he exclaimed, "lloly Moses, 
pliwat's thai?" The onlookers lan;^hed lieariily, to 
Pat's «lis«;:iiKt. Ai i his plaie some new i-erruiis arriveil 
from Illinois. Anion;: lln-m was a (all, ;:ood lookin;^ 
youn;: man dress«M| in i he hei;:lil of fashion, a bluo 
frork eoat, pants to match, faultless boots, and to 
crow II all. I<t the dis;:usl of the Nt'Ieian soldiers, he 
hatl on a clean w hite shin and collar. The boys tM';;an 
t«» ;:u_\ him. "Sonny, does your nioihei- know you're 

out." and many kindred s| lies, with which i hey were 

always well stocked. The fellow soon l:oi mad all o\er 
and intimated thai he couhl tlirash ihe whole < rowd. 
This was all l he more fun foi- i he boys. If he had taken 
it ;:ood natnredh they wiuild ha\e said, **^'ou are all 
ri;:lil, and a vet. shake," and thai w<»uld have ended 
the mallei-. Rut his leiuiM-r was up and selectiii;: ihe 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 843 

saiK'iest one of the crowd be gave him a good thrash- 
ing. It is iieedh^ss to say that he was all right with 
the b(»ys after that. During the siege of Atlanta our 
Brigade wus moved gradually from one position to 
another south and west of the city, always facing the 
rebel intren<hments. The desperate fighting by large 
bodies of uKMi liad ceased, but a constant fusilade of 
small arms and jucket firing was kept ui) day and 
night on some part of the line. The rebels extended 
their lines west and south to protect their railroad 
communications with the Ccmfederacy and we had to 
watch, meet and rcMider their efforts abortive at every 
op])ortunity. Kains were freijuent and heavy a ])or- 
tion of the time, which added greatly to our discom- 
fort. At the conclusion of one of the movements of the 
Regiment to the right in rain and pitchy darkness, we 
encami>ed in an <dd field and gathered rails to lie on, 
but many could ii<»t in the intense darkness find any 
and awoke in the morning to find themselves half cov- 
ered with water and mud. Things of this kind occurred 
freciuently. We lay several days behind breastworks 
of earth su])posed to be strong enough To break the 
force of cannon balls. Our picket lines were placed 
some distance in front. We were upon a high ridge. 
The rebels were upon another facing us, their pickets 
in fr<uit and a br<»ad bushy valley between the two 
lines. The oi»i)osing pickets being within speaking dis- 
tance frequently agreed to a truce and leaving their 
arms behind met on the neutral ground in the valley, 
had a friendly conference and exchanged coifee, to- 
bacco, etc. It was not unusual after one of these con- 
ferences ff)r us to receive numbers of deserters from 
the rebel lines. The rebel offii^ers forbade these meet- 
ings under heavy penalties, but from time to time they 
were held as they always had been, *'on the sly." I 
remember that on one occasion there was a wholesale 
desertion from the rebel picket lines, our men rushing 
forward and taking possession of the rebel rifie pits. 
When the rebel main lines discovered this they opened 
up with artillery on the fugitives and (uir men, but 



3«4 THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

were aiisweretl vi^onmslv. Mattei-s haviiij; quieted 
«io\vn sniiU'what t\\«) of my hoys jjot into a wraiijijle 
4>v«T soiiH- trivial matter. Um* of tlnMii sjn-aii;; at tlie 
other w hi'ii ahmj: «aiiM' a slirll, hiiryiii;; itsrif in our 
breast w<»rkf< and hurst in;;, rov«*io(i us all with thr ird 
dirt. The two b«»y8 who had clinched fell ajtaii so 
8udd<Mdy an«l tuinl)hMl head over ln'els into tin' ditrh 
xo (juirkly that wc tlmui^dit they were kille<j. As it 
ttirn^tl t»ut they were only suipiised and soon foij^ot 
nil about their little "tilT." The ht>ys enjoyed a heaiiy 
lau;;h at their expense. This and maii\ siiiiilar ludi- 

<TOUS affairs helped U> while a way ihe lime helWeeli 

active operations. 

PEIU50NAI. RECOLLECTIONS OF THE ARMY BUMMHK BY 
JACOB BANE, COMPANY I. 

iMirin;; the late war there were many de\ e|n|iiiientH 
inadt*, hut none so important as the army hummer. 
lie supplied I he missin^; jink l>etween hun«;«M- and 
plenty to eai. lie liioke ihe monotony many limes 
wh»*n he entered a rhickeii roosi ai tin- dead hour of 
iii;;ht. The hummer was iio ordinary soldier: he had 
abilities whiih nothinj^ hut army life could develop. 
He had the ability of ex|doiiii^ and loid; ipiite an 
active part in ex|dorln}j; <-ertain |o<alii ies; i he localit ies 
■which he most delij.:hted to explore and visit were the 
Hinoke, the sprin;i and the chicken house. The hummer 
was a very peculiar fellow, lie had his «»wn peculiar- 
ities, ami ihe\ roMJil uot he imitated. No otVner from 
<ieneral to ("orporal could keej> him in camji or the 
ranks. When his name would he called for ;,niard or 
picket duty he was always absent on some missi«)n 
exclusively his own. 'J'he ;;enius of military tactics 
<'ould be exhausted in its elTorts lo loiiirid him. To 
^lujtlicaie him by a proeess of military tactics was im- 
possilde, as the buiumer was the out;;i'owth of army 
life. On the march he was scarcely ever seen by his 
command except at ni^rht, and tln-n not unlil all details 
liad been made. Me was always up and on his journey 
befoie if was linii' for makiu^' details. The olijeci and 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 345 

tho mission of the buminer was never fully known to 
the citizen; but to the inhabitants of the section of 
country which he chanced to pass through his mission 
was fully realizedj and fully appreciated and enjoyed 
by the boys when he came into camp at night and 
unloaded what had stuck to him during the day. As 
near as could be ascertained the bummer went in for 
anything- he could get away with. His intentions were 
mostly concealed from view and clothed in mystery. 
In fact the bummer was never known to miss a meal 
or b<^ present for duty. You could not tell anything 
about him with much certainty. You might have had 
an impression amounting to a sure thing, as you 
thought, and you might have formulated a theory that 
seemed to show that the bummer was doing more good 
than a deacon at a camp meeting, but you could not 
prove it by any tactics known to the military or the 
moral law. In calculations concerning the bummer 
military knowledge could not be depended upon. The 
bummer was as unreliable as a woman's watch or the 
business end of a mule. He never turned out to be what 
you took him for. It is a little curious, but still it is 
an absolute, petrified fact, that a bummer well loaded 
down would lie like sin and stick to it until he got 
into camp. The man or woman who believed all the 
bummer said and staked his or her hopes or affections 
on his veracity, got badly and very often sadly left. 
Sometimes the bummer would pose himself as a mis- 
sionary, and before he left they would sorely 
realize his mission by the loss of some valuable article. 
Sometimes the bummer was disappointed and did not 
get what he expected and attempted to surround, and 
in consequence of this his load was light. And then 
again he was actually heavier loaded than his outward 
appearance would indicate. That the bummer was a 
puzzle to the owner of a well-filled smoke, spring or 
chicken house which he chanced to visit, was no 
wonder. 

The bummer established a reputation which he 
was proud of, and which it was the height of his 



844 THE ONE Hl'NDRED AND FOURTH 

aiiiiliitiiiii !«» iiiaiiitaiii ami ktM*i» «;«mh1, Ihii for all this 
vuii «Mul(I ikH «Ic|m>ihI oil him. If tlit-rt- was a family 
l{il»l«' on ilir t«Mitf|- lalih- ami a ham in the sinoUt-- 
lioiisf. or a fhifkt'ii on I In- roost In* wonhl thMcivt* his 
own ;^'ran«hnollnM- ami ;;h»ry in it. too, whih* his i-om- 
rauh'S wm* ;;ftlin;i away with lin-m. Even if a Imm- 
nn-r slnnihl art hoin'sily, he |»ossfSs»'«l so mnrh tlrn-p- 
lioii thai In* j:oi no t riMlii foi- ii. Hnt ciiMlii was some- 
Ihinji: tin* linmm*'r n<\«i- asUiMJ for. as In* always had 
sonn'ihin;: to i*x«han;;c for tin* n«*r«*ssari»*s t»f life, li 
was no nm-oinmon «MM-nrr»*nci* t«> stM* tin* bnmnn*!- toni- 
in;: into ranip loa<l«'il <low ii. holding in om* hand a ro|K', 
and aitacln-d to iln* oiln*r md a mnh* loaded dttwn 
with tin* n«*r«*ssaii«s of Hf«*. Ask a hummt-i- u ln*ri* he 
jfoi his sn|»plics and his answrr wonhl In* nnnr drlnsive 
than a dream hook, ami his loa<l sonn'thin<j: lik<* the 
nnknowii ijnantiiy in al^^fhra. li nii;:ht im-jucscih a 
;;ood d«'al or v«*iy lilth*, a litlh* of cn ciyt hin;:. fioni a 
ln*«*dii\»* to a s|>rin«; rhickcii; and ytm lia<l to Im- ron- 
t«*nl w it h tin* <*\| da nation In* ;:;av»' yo»i. as it w as \imh*r- 
sto(M| hy all tin* hoys that then' was m> pdnj: iH-himl 
tin* n*tniiis of a hnmnn*r. Tin' hnmnn'r was a liln*ial- 
ln*art<*d iM'in;^. y«*( In* adhficd siiirijy io th<* laws of 
his or<;ani/at ion. whit h wnc hasi-d on iln- old da«k- 
stinian doriiiin-, "lo tin* \i»lors hflon;; tin* s]»oils:"" y<*t 
in his dist lihntion of tln*m In* show«'d no jioliiiral or 
Kcitarian iin*f«*r«*mrs. Tln*n* an* two thin;;?* »<nnH*ri«*(l 
with army lif«* which ohl sohlirrs will always i<nnni- 
bcr, vi/., tin* hnmnn'r an«l tin- old armv mule. 



CHAPTER XXII. 



Reminiscences of the Kentucky Campaign, Hartsville and Ellc 
River, by Lieutenant A. Prescott, Company A — My Experi- 
ence at Stroud's Mill, or Fishing- Creek, S. C, by John E. 
Merritt, Company H — Incidents of Chickamauga, the Atlanta 
Campaign and Raleigh, by Corporal D. L. Mitchell, Company 
C — Who Had the Nightmare at Hillsboro and Chattanooga? 
by Sergeant Andrew MofRtt, Company I — Milking Cows, by 
Oscar Slagle, Company D — Reminiscence of Tompkinsville and 
Mission Ridge, by Edgar L. Stevens, Company C — My 
Experience at Chickamauga, by Philip A. Hawk, Company 
G — Reminiscence of Glasgow, Ky., by Captain Willard Proc- 
tor, Company I — The Experience of Company I in the Skir- 
mish Before Atlanta, July 22nd, 1864, by Captain Willard 
Proctor, Company I — Recollections of Utoy Creek, Ga., by 
Captain Willard Proctor, Company I— Extracts from Captain 
Leighton's Diary as to the Operations of the Regiment Around 
Dallas. Pumpkin Vine Creek and New Hope Church — Recol- 
lections of the Siege of Chattanooga and the Battle of Look- 
out Mountain, by Captain William Strawn. 



REMINISCENCES OF THE KENTUCKY CAMPAIGN— HARTS- 
VILLE AND ELK RIVER— BY LIEUTENANT A. PRES- 
COTT, COMPANY A. 

While the One Hundred and Foiuth lay at Frank- 
fort I was detailed to take Company A and two com- 
panies ot the One Hundred and Sixth and One Hun- 
dred and Eighth Ohio and march to Lawrenceburg to 
support a battery. My orders were received from Col- 
onel Timberg, commanding our Brigade. On arrival 
no battery was found, but an orderly soon came and 
said it was a mistake. We then marched back and so 
quickly that the shortdegged Dutchmen had to stretch 
their legs and do some tall swearing. At Bowling 
Green I was detailed to take a i)arty an<l teams and 
forage for the Division, After going for miles where 
nothing was to be seen but the desolation of war, such 
as is produced by armies, and was about des])airiiig of 
finding anything, we cjime suddenly to a well-kei)t field 
full of corn in the shock. This surprised me, but when 



348 THE ONE HUNDRED AND FoUHTll 

1 rftlfitrtl that all ih«*i»tln'r |>laiilatioiis Wf liatl i>ass«Ml 
Wfii- as bait* nf Vf}j:rlalioii as iln* licatls of til»l mvn 
in ilu* fr«»m scats «»f a ihi-atfi- arr of liair, ilit- iiivsi«*ry 
was fXplaiiUMl. 1 roinliHl«Ml ilial iln* uwiu-r iiiusi be 
j*n»t«MiiMl l»\ tin* < ioviMMiiifiM. aii*l Immiij; cuiiri ami 
jurv, I jvasi»in*«l thai tin* armv haviiiy: <oiin* tli«i<' i<» 
])n>t«Ml tlir laiitl and sustain law. wr ninst In* fcil, Itoili 
mm and lirasis. \\ r |irtM«M'tl«M| in litad I In* wagons, and 
uliilr doin;; SM, 1, nnaniiiiM'. watrliin;: M|MM'al inns from 
mv Innsf, a man slmuifd in a ;:rnlT voice from tin? 
W(»ods on tin* opposite side of tin* lield, "Wliai are you 
doin^ llieie?" I.ookin;; oxer 1 saw a ;itM»d jookin;;: 
Sperinien of llie <j:elllls **l»ni I eiinu " silting on iiis hoise 
ami replied, 'M'an'i you se«?" ••\es, hut yt»u have no 
rij^hl to tourh that rorn; it is itiotecieil hy (Joveiii- 
jneiit." 1 said. "All ri;;ht, that's my nnat." "< "unie o\»'r 
here," says hutternut. "Not any for m«','* 1 replied; "if 
you wish to talk roi-n come over here." lie came ami 
informed mm- tliai Ik- had proieciimi pM|tcis fnim <icn- 
eral .Mc<'ook. 1 said, "1 am takinj^ this coin hy orders 
from I'mle Sam, who will jiay for it il the owner is 
all ii;:hi." I lia\<' m-vcr hlaiiicil invscir U>\- ihai de- 
cision. 

On the iiiar<h sMinh riom 'roiii|tlviiis\illt' I was 
dftailed on the ihii-d day hy < 'ohuiel Scot i lo t;ikf i hirty 
men with an o\ team and forage for provisions, .\fter 
wamleriii;; all ni^ht ahm;; hy roads and in tin* woods 
we found an old mill on a small stream, secured some 
Hour, then fidlowed the Hri^ade, o\criakinix it at id^ht. 
\N'e marched throu;:h <ioose<'reek N'alley. which no 
one will ever foijret, and linally reached I larts\ ill*-, 
Tenn. ('oinpany .\ acted as I'l-oMtsi <iuaids ai i he 
villa;:e. The nri;,'adc weiii into camp on the haidvs of 
the < 'uinherland, a mile distant. The petiple of llarts- 
\ilh' were pronounced rebels, all the youn^ and able- 
bodied men Were in the rebel army, many of them with 
.I<din Morgan, who attacked iis hecember Tih, \siV2. 
Three or four days pre\iously a iie^in iurormed me 

that we were to be attacked. 1 told ('.iImiii'I Moore, 
who had as>uiiiet| conimaud of ihe llij^iade on the '_M, 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 349 

Colonel Scott having left; and I said I believed it was 
reliable from certain indications of tlie old men of 
the village. 1 also suggested that some baii'icades or 
intrenchments would be a good thing, but he did not 
seem to wake up to the emergency. On the night of 
December 5th our company was on picket duty on the 
road near the camp. 1 was in command of our ])ickets 
and it was very dark. A horseman attempted to pass 
toward the village and paid no regard to the chal- 
lenge; pretty soon three shots were fired and the hors<' 
and rider came tearing back. I challenged him, when 
he went over the fence; taking the guard's gun I fired; 
he made a momentary halt and then Aveut on. The 
man was no doubt a spy. The next morning his horse 
was found wounded. When the battle was over and 
we were prisoners waiting to cross the river, one of the 
men of the One Hundred and Fourth went up to one 
of Morgan's men, a big fat fellow, and said: "Hello, 
Bill, I thought the devil had got you long ago." He 
was his brother! One of the sergeants of my com- 
pany found two of his cousins with Morgan, and they 
gave him something to eat. One of the men of the 
Regiment was taken by the rebels for a deserter, but 
afterward released. When we were captured, Mrs. 
Captain Ellis, wife of Morgan's Quartermaster, took 
my sword and sash and said she would take care of it; 
she did so and gave it to our forces when they occupied 
Hartsville, and I received it at Gallatin as we were 
passing through. When we approached Murfreesboro 
as prisoners the column was halted and the men 
strip])ed of their overcoats, and fearing their valuables 
would be taken also, I filled my long boots and my 
pockets with their watches and money. However, the 
rebels did not disturb them. In due time we were pa- 
roled, sent into our lines at Nashville and to Columbus, 
from there to Camp Douglas to guard prisoners. In 
April, 1863, we returned to the front, and under Kose- 
crans marched on the TuUahoma campaign, which was 
short, brilliant and exciting. Though sick all the time 
I did not stay behind. At Elk River, where our Brigade 



MO THE ONK HrN'I>RKD AND FOrRTH 

raiiM* iiilo ;iili»»ii, ( "oiii|i;iii v A was mi ilir left of the 
batt»*n ami vvlnA sharpshoot«*rH \v«*n' iM*;r;,Mii«; away, 
iifiirial lliMtfy ihliii;: up ordrnMl iin* lo s«'inl a f«'\v 
iiHMi aliraM lt» try ami |iirk tlnin t>tT. Tin* fari of my 
Kli;;litly tuniiii;; my li«'a«l lln-r«- savnl ii. as a iiiiiin- l>all 
raiiH' wlii/./iii;; l»y my fai-. .hisl iImmi a ithfl sIm-II 
took off tin* lira«l of a luittfiy liorsf ami i In- I'nlcr mllrd 
ai^aiiisi a tire. Iiiit was only stiiiim-d liy ilir fall. I 
askril ('apiaiii Ih'wiit if li** (-oiiM hit aii,\ i liiii;^. lie 
8ai»l. "Vou s«M* that rliimm*y alu-ad: wattli ii." A uuii 
was IIiimI and d«»wii ramc tin* cliimm-y. TIk- K<';iimt'nt 
was movi'd soon after l)\ ilic ri<:;lit tIanU ami t-aim* into 
line in fiont of tlie lionse, wliirli was hit l>y a shell. 
Then some women rame ont, one id' them with hei- aim 
"Wounded, and made for the woods. I saw i hem no 
more. A little ;;ifl came lainnin;: down the hill sneam- 
ini; and j;ot hehiml a t tee, when she ceased riving. 
There was sonn- shar|» skirmishing all ahmji. i'inally, 
when the enemy had 'teen dri\en hack across the lOlk, 
they openetl auain with artilh-ry from the IdiilT and 
wei-e re])lied to so vi^mronsly liy onr liatteries that 
one or two of theii- ^nns were dismonnted and they 
withdrew. Al'it-r ihai we rrosseil ihe river, Imt the 
enemy w iM*e lin-n well on iheir way o\er tin- iiMHin- 
tains. near the base of which we lay. Willi the till of 
Jnly came tin* news of the snrreiider td" \'i( kshiir;^ and 
the victory at < let tyshnr^. which ci-eated ;j;ieat enihn- 
siasm. We then went into lamj) ai l>eiliei-d. Tenn. 

MY KXIM:i{n:;s("K .\T STHOIDS .MIM.. oh FI.SHINd CHKKK. 

s. ('.. i'i:niUAiiv un. istjs. hv joh.n i:. mi:ui{ITT. co.m- 

PANY H 

\\'hile the |{e;,dinent was marchin;: thron;^h Sonth 
<'ar<dina hi;:h watei- in the tiieai I'edee detained ns 
three da\s, and as provisions weif herominu^ scaire, 
<'aptain IJoss was sent out wiih a deiail of one mm 
from earh company on a fma;:!?!;: expedii ion. | wiis 
■detailed from <'ompan\ II. ( )n the wa\ others joimd 
UH, ami not lon;^ after i;eitinir away from onr lines 
We were piet t \ Well mounted on miihs pressed into 
the sei\ ire from I In- plantations. We went into the 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS V'OLUNTEERS. 351 

country some ten oi* twelve miles and occasionally 
exchanged shots with rebel cavalry whi<-li hovered 
about watching- our movements. When they got too 
near we would stop, have a skirmish with them until 
they drew oil", and then we would move on again lively 
for several miles. However, we had loadc<l our mules 
well. I remember having one hundred pounds of Hour 
and two hams on my mule. Vs'e had to stop and skir- 
mish several times and the numbers of the enemy kept 
increasing Avhen they pressed us closer and drove us 
down on a creek bottom Avith a A'ery steej) bluff on the 
opposite side. The Captain said he proposed to tight, 
as it w^as too hazardous scaling the bluff. The result 
was the final surrender of most of the party after loss 
to the rebels. I forced my mule into the creek, which 
was about five rods wide, and the first step he went 
over his head, but he came up all right and made good 
time for the opposite shore. After crossing I looked 
back and it seemed to me that the whole Southern Con- 
federacy was after us. I laid low, put spurs to my 
mule and was not long in reaching the top of the bluff, 
but from the way the bullets zipped around me and 
struck the earth, it looked bilious for me. AY hen I had 
reached cover I found that I had* a companion, Xic. 
McCormick, of Company B. He had sAvam across the 
creek and was wounded in the wrist. I bound up the 
wound with a silk handkerchief and we hurried on 
with all the mules that the rest of the command had 
dismounted. They seeing us cross the creek had, as 
mules will when frightened, followed us. We did not 
let the grass grow under our feet, but made for our 
army and found the Regiment after dark. The experi- 
ence was the most exciting one I had had and will 
never be forgotten by me. 

INCIDENTS OF CHICKAMAUGA, THE ATLANTA CAMPAIGN, 
AND RALEIGH. BY CORPORAL D. L. MITCHELL, COM- 
PANY C. 

On the Friday evening preceding the battle of 
"Chickamauga our Regiment had been sent to guard 



9U 



Tin. o.Nj; 111 .NKKI.l' .\M> »«>l UTH 



a ford, and Captain l-Ml/.sinini«tns had (oiiiiiiaud of (»ur 
pit kft linr. I WiiH ont* of tin* two nontoiiiunssioni'd 
t»fti««Ts «»n tin* lt*ft. AH was t|iii»*l durin;: the reiiiaindtT 
of tin- nijihl and u o ifinahnMl thnr during tin* artillfiv 
dn«d id tin* I'.Mli, wai«liin;i the front and «*\|uMnn^^ fur- 
ther ord«Ts. Finally (lu* pirkris wrn* »alh*d in. bnt 
tlu' t»rdcr faih'd to n-arli us on t|H*l«'fi. On ^^oin;; down 
til*' line I disrowriMl that in«>st of ihc men had «lisa|»- 
jK-ait'd and i«*|»ort«*d it to th«* Captain, who iniin«MH- 
atelv sent a man to «anip. lie felurned <|ui(kly and 
Kaid the nii;;ade had j^one. About this time we saw 
the rebel <avalrv erossinj; Chi«kamau;;a Creek in frt>nt 
(»f tis. The Captain then ^Mvin«i an order for every man 
to hmk o\it f«»r himself, it was promptly executed in 
double <|ui«k time to ih«' rear. 'rii«'i«' were seven or 
nint' of us. In a short time our eyrs were •;huldeue<l 
by s«M'in;: oui- own ra\alr.\ approarhin;;, but ln/fore 
they had jzout- forty rods furllnM- they were en;,M;ied 
with tin* eiHMny. Niuht was coming on and we did 
not tinil our Ke^^imenl until Sunday mornin;:, when 
the ISri^'ade mairlied so«»n after to our extrenu' left 
and ln'came eii^a;;ed very shoitly in the tierre contlit-l 
of tin* -(Mil. During; the li;;lit I was hit on my knap- 
Huek strap and knocked <low n, rausin;; me to spit blood, 
also causinj; a bruise. 'I'lic Atlanta (-ampai^n was an 
almost t-ontinuoiis baitif ;iiid the Ke;:iment under tir<' 
one hundred «lays. dust before we rearhed Keuesaw 
-Mountain Cui|iurai dames Lo^^an. of my Coiujiany. w ho 
had been uiili me at Lexington. .Mi».. was killed. !!-• 

and a dohiiuy both wanted the same tr n the skit 

mi si I line, but t he d oh uuy ;iot t he ad\ anta;:«' and a uood 
soldier fell. At KeliesaW t he rebel Woiks a lid ours W «•! e 
onl\ about oiie hundred and lifty feet ajtart. We 
relieved a ri*;;imeni (»f le^iulars. Tin- bieast works had 
been thrown up in the iii^lit, b\ what troo|)s I do not 
know, but w hen ^^e went in the re^^iilars said we would 
have to lay low. Wash. Parker and myself weredetailed 
as sharpshooters and one hundred ituimls of (•aririd;:es 
plareil by each of us. When dayli;:lit came tin* rebels 
hailed us and said. "N'aiik. \oii have ;:ot a dilTei-eiit lot 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 353 

of nion over there, haven't you?" That day they kepr 
their hea<ls (h>\vn. I think (Jeneral Polk was klHed the 
same day. At Peach Tree Creek Company C lost somi.^ of 
her best men, ann)n«>- them Parker, Mnnson and Captain 
Kynearson. That was my last battle. I was wounded 
in the hand, but rejoined the Ke.iiinient in 18()."> at 
(ioldsb(U'o, and inarched to lvalei<.ili and Washin«;ton. 
Our Rejiiment was the first to enter Raleigh and our 
General, ridinjjj up, said to Major Widmer, then eom- 
manding: "Yonr flag is entitled to go on the State 
House oi' North Carolina, but there is so little left to 
show what it represents that I shall have to take that 
of the Forty-second Indiana." That Regiment had 
been home on veteran furlough and had a new i!ag. 
The unequaled march to Richmond and the grand 
review were events I can never forget. 

WHO HAD THE NIGHTMARE AT HILLSBORO AND CHATTA- 
NOOGA ? BY SERGEANT ANDREW MOFFITT, COMPANY I. 

During the Tullahoma campaign, while Ave lay at 
Manchester, Tenn., General Beatty was ordered to take 
our Brigade and march to Hillsboro, eight or ten miles 
distant, in support of General Wilder's movement 
against the right flank of the retreating rebel army. 
AVe arrived there Sunday night after a tedious march 
through the mud and bivouacked near the old village 
in a grove of young timber. The position was a dan- 
gerous one as we had no supports near and the rebels 
were not far in front. The orders were to lay on our 
arms with accoutrements on and to be ready at a mo- 
ment's notice for an attack. General Beatty and our 
Brigade had been selected for the expedition on 
account of their fighting reputation. A strong picket 
line had been thrown out in front, the night was 
intensely dark and rainy, and our pup tents not much 
protection. We went to sleep, but a nervous, fitful 
sleep for many. All at once I was awakened by the 
most unearthly yell, howl and shriek, all in one, that it 
is possible to conceive of. I jumped np, grabbed my 
musket and took a position behind a tree that stood 



S&4 



THE ONK HL NDHKl* AM» F«»l ICTil 



lu'iir. I ilioujihi ihf ivhel tavalrv was ridiii;; ovor the 
Ki'*;iiiM'iil slaviiij; im t-vrrv liainl. 'l*> add («» llie cou- 
fusiuii ihf pirki'ts lM*«;an liriii^ and my hair i»usUed 
iifi (In* rap oil tiiv head. It \>as su dark mik* cuiild not 
sif his hand hrforr his fart*. The Uii^adc was f«niiMMl 
in liiu* and ihe ininirdiatc cause of th<* start* asrer- 
laiintMl. Thr Major raiiir ah»nj; v<»win;i thai if he couhl 
tind lh«* fi'How Uv woiihl have him shot. Uiii ihi- |iirk- 
«*ts liaNiii;: Imm'U liitti mt wf stood in liiu* iiiiiil «Uiv- 
Ii;;hl. .V siiuihir iiiridciit (Mciirird in front of ("hatta- 
iioopi in whirh I «'njo\fd tin- fun. Somh afn-r the l>ai- 
tlt» of ( 'hitkanian;:a u«* wfii* on pirUrt. The liins on 
«*ith«'r sid«' had not been well d«'liiud as vt-i, and the 
two armies were skirmishing; for the best |»ositions to 
establish thi-ir liiifs and |»irkfi p(»sts. (Ifin ral |{os«*- 
erans had sent nni a liri-^adc to src \\h<'r«' lh<* n-bt-ls 
were, btil they wer«' soon driven back and then Ura;;;^: 
siMit out a <li\ision to ascertain our ]Misitioii. and he 
fiMHld oii(. for We speedily dloNc it bark. .M V relief 
was on the line when the atta<k was imnle and after 

the ne\I relief Went on UC Were at the picket post, 

which was down in a nice little «o\e. As it was rold 
we had a lire and it was ipiite li;;ht. The boys bein;c 

Very tired and worn out dro|iped ulT to slee|t. some of 

them coM-rin;: their heads with their blanUeis. I was 
in a position to take in the whole situation and liaji- 
peiied to be loukin;; at the time when thai same o|i| 
yell broke the stillness of the ni^dii. Ii was better 
than a circus to see the men run in e\ery direrijon, 
some with the blankets over their heatls trvin;: to run, 
and some craw liii;.: <dT on hamis and knees. There were 
but few who did not move and i|uickly. I think the 
author of the trouble must ha\f been the sann- on<» 
wh<) scared us at llillsboio. 

.MII.KINC; cows. IIY ('{)UIM)|{.\I. O.^CAIt Sl.ACU:. ("O.M- 

I'.WY I). 

\\ jieli llie liatlle nf IlalM>\ille nciliried |. wllil a 

detail of < I lie half of our < 'oiu] tan \ and one half of ( um- 
paiiy I', were with the sujiply train as 'guards at <ial- 

latV.-. 'I'elin.. co||Se<|l|ent ly WeilJd Il<<l rellllll l<i 1 1 a ft s- 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. SoS- 

ville, but were put on provost duty aud (juartered in 
the Court Bouse. Our duties were guarding; prisoners^ 
private ju-operty, aud |iatr«>Iiug tlie streets of the towu^ 
three hours on duty aud nine olf, except when we coukl 
play sick. While thus employed we became tired of 
our daily fare and hankered for a change of diet, but 
could not obtain anything inside of the guard lineSy 
as all was closely watclied. 80 we fre(]nently took 
midnight rambles after coining ofC duty in the early 
part of the night, and being in possession of the coun- 
tersign could go where we pleased. On one of these 
excursions in company with J, C. and L. K. Hutton^ 
we came across some cows which we thouglit needed 
milking, but my comrades could not milk, their fingers 
being achipted to catching chickens, etc., so it was 
agree<l that they should corner the coavs and I shoukl 
do the milking. This was done. I had milked three 
and had a good suppl}^ of milk, enough, 1 thought, but 
the boys said there was one more cow and we had 
better make a clean job of it. It was pretty dark, but 
the cow was white, so I told them to corner her up,, 
which with some trouble they did. I then proceeded 
to milk her, putting out my hand for the purpose. Just 
then something struck me broadside and I went sprawl- 
ing. When I recovered sufficiently to speak I blurted 
out, "That's a steer !" The boys were so convulsed withi 
laughter that I did not get any sympathy from them, 
and I have a belief to this day that it was a put up- 
job on their part. 

REMINISCENCES OF TOMPKINSVILLE AND MISSION RIDGE^ 
BY EDGAR L. STEVENS, COMPANY C. 

While the One Hundred and Fourth was in camp 
at Tompkinsville, Ky., I was taken sick and unable 
to be removed when the Regiment suddenly left one 
night. So I was carried in the rain and darkness tO' 
a house near by and put to bed in a chamber with 
another man of the command who was also very sick. 
The exposure had been so great that in a few hours I 
sank into unconsciousness and remained in that con- 



nC THE ONK 111 MUtKD AM> Ft H KTH 

dilioii for tfii ilavs, 1 Miring that linn* tin* toinrade 
who was w iih lue died and was burit'd. li was nearly 
two luoiitliH bt'fore 1 could set up, ami tlirti' before 1 
was Well eiioit^li to leavi*. Fi»rt iniatelv my ln>sis w<*re 
kin«lliearied. tliMu^li slaveludders, and in syiiipalhy 
with llie S»»uth. They nursed me back t<» health, call- 
in;; in their family physician to ;;ive me treatment. 
^\'hile in Tompkiusville several < 'onfederate commands 

jKlssed thluii;:h and a few weeks after the battle of 
llartsvillf .Mor^ian's whole army mairlieil by the hous'* 
where 1 was staying; and 1 saw it fitun the chamlH r 
window. Several relations of my host wcif anntii;; i Im* 
number and stopped fur dinii<r. TIm- ik-m day out- of 
them was killed and br<>ii;;hi to ToiiipkinsN ille for bur- 
ial. One «lark and tloudy ni;;ht in I'ebruary, a little 
])asi oiif, I hli iJM' house Mild friends who had proven 
to Im' such ;:ood Samaritans, to make uiy way to tin* 
Federal lines, sixty miles distant. .Much of the way 
was infested liv ( "oiifeijeraie ca\alrv. Afh-i- four days 
and ni;:hts of skMlkiii>:, hiding and windinu around 
fields and opeiiin;;s in order to keep in the (oxer **f 
Woods, creeks ami ;;ullies. I reached our lines near 
Nash\llle. exhausted. Auxlous to jiet back north and 
tliere axNait the exchanp* of the ( )ne lluntlr«'d and 
Fourth, 1 made my \\:\y across Kentuck\ in altont two 
Weeks and in a few days ai'iived home in llarhille, 
whi*re 1 found t hat I had been ^dven up for dead, .\fier 
H|)endin;; ji few days at home I rejoined the Ke^imeut 
at Camp Douglas and wt-ni with it to the front. i»ar- 
takinir in all its marches and battles until af^er the 
capture of Atlanta, when hearing: of my father's sick- 
ness 1 went home on fnrlou;:h. \\ In-n I h;id reached 
"Nashville on my lei mn Shc'inan had siarieij for tin* 
Hon. and thus T took paii in ilie baiih- of Nashville 
ami the action at necalur. bul rejoined the lve;^im<'nt 
at Cioldsboro, \. < '. The following; personal incident 
which occurred to me at Mission Kid^re, shows how 
ntistakes may sometimes be made atid an iniusti««* 
ibme. In the •.M-and char;re I found mvself one of the 
first lUi oui" jiarl of the line scnlin^ the eart liw <u-ks 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 357 

on the to]) (►f the ridiic To my left a few yai-ds dis- 
tant, one of the ollicers of the Ke^inient mounted tlie 
works at about the same instant; as he did so a rebel 
soldier raised his ^un to shoot him and notiein^ his 
puri)ose 1 sjM-anji- toward him with my bayonet, whicli 
so diconcerted him tliat he missed the ofhcer when he 
tired. The rebel then threw down his gun and sur- 
rendered. I was weak enough to regret for some time 
tluit T did not use cold steel on him, Imt i-ebels were 
so thick then that I turned my attention to others who 
had arms in their hands. lloweA'er, the ridge was soon 
in our possession and the rebels running. John Cook, 
Fred Hess and myself ])ursued them down the east side 
of the ridge into the woods and tired as they ran across 
a <-learing. We then returned to tlie top and found 
our men had formed line and stacked arms. Instead 
of halting I continued on down the ridge Ave had 
charged up for the purpose of learning who of Com- 
pany C had been killed and w^ounded. While search- 
ing them out a Sergeant approached and accused me 
of skulking, stating that he had orders to arrest all 
such. Feeling that I had done my full share in gain- 
ing the victory and being then on a volunteer mission 
of mercy, I was very angry and retorted that he was 
too much of a coward to effect the arrest. At the same 
time I brought my musket to a ready, but lie turned 
away and nothing more came of it, though I expected 
to be arrested. 

MY EXPERIENCE AT CHICKAMAUGA. BY PHILIP A. HAWK, 

COMPANY G. 

When our Regiment fell back on the 20th of Sep- 
tember, 18()3, at Chickamauga, F. L. Pound, J. F. I)i(dil, 
Ham, Campbell, J. C. Deegan and myself h(d])ed to 
remove some of the guns of Bridge's Battery, the horses 
having been killed or disabled. I helped to work the 
brass gun, but we were obliged to leave it. I then ran 
to the next gun with my arms full of cones, but that 
being a steel gun my cone fruit Avas of no account. I 
threw it down and ran back to the brass gun with the 



JM THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

intention of spikin;: ii :>inl whilr in iIm- ;ui of <l«»iii^r 
s«» was slmt in tin* fan* m\«m- tin- irfi fv«-; tlu-n 1 siaried 
for tin- V'nv, but lia«i ;ioii»' uniy a slmrt distaure when 
1 was wouh«I«m1 in tin* l»*ft U-^ l»y a siM-ni IkiII, wliirh 
Htrnck with fon-r rnoiijili to iMii«'r tin- llt*slj an«l nia<i«* 
thf IiNmhI run fni'ly. 1 did ni>t tln-n wait for an tn-dt^r 
to ;.'ii. hut wrnt al olirr. Soon afl«T 1 Was hit in tln' 
<alf «»f my ri;^'lit U"^ l»y a pirrf of sIm-II. I'roni that 
tinio on I outran llw liulhMs until 1 hrou;:ht up near 
an old \i*ii liani used as a hospital. Th«* relM-ls l»«*;:aii 
to shell the liuildin^' and 1 lelii-aied over a hill, where 
I foiMul an <>hio iriiiimMit en;:a^ed in slopping the 
8tra«;;;lers. The t'oloiu'l washed my fa««' with water 
from his eanteen and told uh* to stay tlu-re until an 
amlmlam-e ranie alon;:. The oidy our that passed 
"Would not slop. The ()liii» r«*;;iment m<»ved up on the 

hill, so, as the walking: was '^ I and thai pari of the 

rountry did not seem to a^Mee with mo, I turned my 
bark to the army and started for < "hallanooM^a. It 
was slow work with two lame le;,'s and a sore head 
to j;et alon;;, hut 1 reached liossvillo at sundown and 
"was sent the next day to tin* hospital in <'liattanoo};a; 
llien an onler romin;; for jill who could walk to jjo over 
the rivei- I <rossed, hut <ould <::•» no furl her. In a few 
<lays I rejojiK-il iIk- lIciiiiiifMl near I•^'^t Xe;;lev. 

RKMINISCENUE OF (II.ASdOW, KY. HY CAPTAIN WIl.LARD 
PROCTOH. ro.MPANY I. 

I will ucNcr foi;^<-t the march from IJowlin^ <lrrcn 
to <;iasj:ow, for, on arrivin;;, mysolf and several others 
Avere taken sick and nearly all the hoys who died in 
Tompkinsvilh' wcic liisi sirickcn at <Ilas;;ow. \\ In-n 
the I{e;:imenl left ihe ordeis Were for all the sick to 
lie |mt in and»ulances. hut <'aptain W'adlei^h refused 
to have me taken alonj;, as he thoujihl it would he sure 
death, so he found a rnion man who consented to lake 
i'are of nie. I was cairied lo his hous«' on a str«'lcher 
and left there, with Ser;:eant \\'ri;:ht to nurse and care 
for me. and with the help of the I'nion family 1 soon 
bo;;an to ;,'et lien«r, and was ahle to rejoin the Kei^i- 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 359 

moot witli a (l<'tail that was sent back from Toiiii)kiiis- 
villo for supplies. While in Glasgow a number of 
Union ladies came to see me, among them the wife of 
Major Wolfort (afterAvard Colonel, and now a member 
of Congress). This lady kept me posted as to the move- 
ments of the rebels around Glasgow. One day she 
said it was ro])ort(Ml Ihat the rebel cavalry was about 
to visit ns and juobably we would be gobbled up. I 
did not like the idea, but was too sick to be moved. 
I accepted her offer to take charge of my arms and 
uniform, but the relxds <lid not come and the scare 
bh'W over. The house of our friend was a little back 
from the main street and one day after I had partially 
recovered I proposed to Wright that we go up town, 
lie said, "All right," but insisted on carrying his mus- 
ket. As we were crossing over the main street some 
one shot at ns from anu)ng the buildings, the ball just 
missing ns and lodging in the fence at our side. It 
made Wright Aery mad, but I told him it must have 
been an acci<lent, as we could see no one at tlie time. 
We Avere rejoiced to get back to the One Hundred 
and Fourth. 

THE EXPERIENCE OF COMPANY I IN THE SKIRMISH BEFORE 
ATLANTA, JULY 22, 1864. BY CAPTAIN WILLARD PROC- 
TOR, COMPANY I. 

After the battle of I'each Tree Creek our Brigade 
bad the adA^ance on the right of the Fourteenth Corps. 
The One Hundred and Fourth w^as leading when we 
ai)i)roached the outer Avorks of the enemy around 
Atlanta. W> had halted AA'hen an aide-de-camp, as 
he Avas supposed to be, rode out of the Avoods and 
delivered a verbal order to General Thomas to hurry 
up, as the enemy were leaving the city on the other 
side. The aide turned and rode back into the Avoods. 
General Johnson, our Division Commander, ordered a 
skirmish line throAvn out, also a section of Dilgei*'s 
("Buckskin's") Battery to advance and see Avhat was in 
our front. The rest of the Brigade halted. Soon the 
artillery came back. Major Wldmer again had com- 



IWn 



THK <»NK HLNDHKI- ANI» l-'olKTH 



iiiaiKl mI I ill- skiiiiiisli liiu* ami ruiii|iaii\ E of llu* Oik* 
lliiiiili-«-i| aii«l I'ourlli lia«l ^«mh' oiii, wliilr ilif irsl of 
lilt' K«';:iiiM'iii awailiMl Wt-vclopniciils. Soon, <'o|oii(*l 
lIa|M'iiiai) «-aiii<* aloii^ and ^a\ c iiic orders to take ( 'otii- 
paiiv I aiitl n-pori to .Major \\i«liinT «»ii tlic skirmish 
liiir, which I ilid, although it was not my tnin to ;;o. 
1 fonnd th«* Major and h«- jtointrd ont the position 1 
was to ofiMipy, fonmMtin-i on iht- ri^ht with thf Fif- 
t«M»nth K<'ntn(ky and on th«* hMi with ihr l'<ii i \ s«Mon<l 
Indiana. Thf position was in si;;ht of the icIm'! skir- 
mish lim- which was on risin;; ;^ronnd lu'ViHid a torii- 
iitdd and well proii'ttiMl hy a ft-m** an<l a honst* fnll of 
sharpshooter^. I woiihl ha\<- to mar< h my mm 
throii;:h thf rointichl in full si;:ht of their line. I 
«U'|doycd my mm and adNamed, Init the shot eame so 
thick ami fast ihai I saw ai onre ihai i would lost' 
half of m\ m< II il I went across, so I i;a\e Mie order, 
"l-en face, close orilef on I lie left, march!" This 
l»roii;;hi IIS into thi<k hriish and woods, nearly out of 
si;iht of the enemy, and in rear of the ri;:lit of the I'oi- 
ly-secoiid Indiana skirmishers. I iheii niaii lied niy 
in«*n to the lijiht of the l-'oily-second. and ue then went 
a<ioss the open space one at a time nntil we con- 
iM'ctejl with I he I'ifteenth KenttK-ky lines. We then 
made the lust sUiinish pits we could with rails and 

dill, I III I U el-e limlel- I lie ejielll \ 's ill e all 1 lie I line. Tilt' 

•Major came alon;^ and was satislied with the arryiiLre- 
ment. NN'e tried to pay the t'liemy hack for the extra 
ironldeihey had ;iiven iis. .Mmhm dark when all was 
«|uiei the rehels l>e;xJiii to |»oiir ill a heav\ lire and 
atteni|»ted to advance their lines; so sudden and impet- 
Moiis was the attack that the lim* on my left ^^ave way 
and fell hack to uiir rear; this made my men fear a 
Ilank mo\eiiieiii lt\ ihe enemy, Imii I i^axe oidt-is for 
<*veiy man to stand to his |»ost. and we held our p<»si- 
tion that he ot no credit for it. lint credit was sonie- 
lim«* and ajon;; iniM ihe nijrhl. .\fter a tiim- we dis- 
covei-ed that the men mi the riLjIit had i:i\en way and 

^one III the re;ir. We Were relieved alioill cleNell 

o'clock, hill coiild iioi liiid the lie;:imeni, il having 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 361 

mov^ed to the riiiht. In the moniiiin' when avc r<\j(»iiied 
the lveji,iineiit the FifU^Mith KcmiIikUv was in line near 
it and Colonel Taylor was j^ivinji; his men a sharp lec- 
ture for leaving' the skirmish line. We Avere com- 
mended for holding' the position nnder such discour- 
aging circumstances. 

RECOLLECTIONS OF UTOY CREEK, GEORGIA. BY CAPTAIN 
WILLARD PROCTOR, COMPANY I. 

The Ttli of August, 1864, will not be soon forgot- 
ten, as on that day the One Hundred and Fourth was 
under a severe and heavy tire from the enemy while 
advancing its lines and throwing up works in the new 
position, losing in the operation several valuable lives 
and having a number wounded. ('a])tain Fitzsimmons 
was with his comj)any on the skirmish line and had 
halted. lie was trying to get the positicui of the enemy 
when he was shot in the head and instantly killed. 
SergeantAV. TT. Craig, of K, was also killed in rlie same 
place and manner a few moments aftei-. iiasset, of B, 
Graves, of H, and Winslow, of A, soon fell, and A. 11. 
Lane, of D, was mortally wounded. Ten men were 
w^ouuded. Rebel sharpshooters did the work. The 
works were thrown u]> under a heavy artillery tire and 
it was wcu'se than a hornet's nest for a wiiile. Com- 
pany K being left without a commissioned otjlcer, Col- 
onel Ilapeman ordered me to take charge of the com- 
pany for the time. We held our works which we had 
built in sight of the rebels. While on the line of Utoy 
Creek large numbers of rebel soldiers deserted and 
came into our lines. There was an understanding that 
w^e should at a certain time advance our lines, while 
the rebel soldiers should fire over our heads, so that 
it would appear all right to their officers, of whom 
they stood in fear. The plan w^as carried out August 
13tli. Our line was about a half mile in length. Part 
of the line captured was in front of our Brigade, part 
in front of the one to our left. The skirmishers from 
our Brigade were from the One Hundred and Fourth^ 
and commanded by Lieutenant Rood, of Company G. 



3tt THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

lu tin* afliTiiooii I nli«'V«Ml him wiili auoilu-r «h'tail 
from oiir K«'j;im«ut. Hffon* iii^hi au ulVurr «aiin' 
aioiiml aii«l «n«liMtM| m«* tj» simhI bark «*v«m\v iliiitl man 
III li«-l|» form a lim- in tin* i»*ai-. 1 km-w this poiMfmh'tl 
an aiiatk on mv lim* an«l it rann- w iihin an !n»nr. 'Pin- 
i*«*h<>ls o|)cii(Mi on ns from a hatlrrv i lose by vn-y heavily 
ami kiiockfM ont th*- hrail h>i;s of •>nr rith* )»its. hiii we 
h«l<l th«- jiosition. I had two mm woMmh-ti. < Mi the 
sam«' day ( Iror^^' Srhw ••ij;aii. of ( 'om|»any K, was kilh'l 
and four moit*. mcmhcis of ( 'om|»ani«'s K and D, \vti-.* 
^^•onnd^•d. W <• rnnainrd thn-c iiiiiil An^nist LMlili, wiih 
skirmishin;; j;<»in;; on daily. 

EXTUACT.S FROM CATTAIN LKKIHTON S DIARY AS TO THE 
OPERATIONS OF THE ONE HINDRED AND FOIRTH 
AROIND DALLAS. I'lMPKIN VINE CREEK. AND NEW 
HOPE (MURCH. 

May 'JTili. l>ti I. Hk- IJ<';:im<-ni was foniMMl in lin«* 
of hall h" a I To i if a. m. W <- movrd I hr<M- mih-s lo ih<- h-fl 
al D-ii and halD-d h>n;: ciioiiMh fur dimwr. AfD-r ihai 
w«' krpi movinjx. hnl wt-rt' hrhl in n'scivc. Heavy li^hi- 
in^ was Lioini; on in oiii* froni all tlay, our forrr.v driv- 
in*: ihf i-u.-uiy hark. \\<' lay in a raviiif unlil niuf 
p. III., iJM-n w«'r«* ordered u|» and tlouhled<|uiiked lo 
rhetk ihe lelu-j advance on our ii;:hl. We had lo uade 
I Ml m I d; ill \' i lie ( reek. ; he w aier rtuiiin^ aho\ e oiii- knees 
and it was eold. We la\ in line of hallh- all ni;:ht 
and shivered fiom i In- w i-i and < <dd. A I i hiee a. in. of 
the 'Jsi h. line of hat lie was formed on a ridue east of the 
IMimidviii Nine. We had eolTee and al halljiasi four 
mo\ed to I he from near i he enemy's hieasl woi-ks. Soi.u 
after !no\ed to ihe left two hundred yards and in- 
ireiiehed. Ill half all hour the Keuinieiil advam e«l ihiee 
hundred yards to .heck the lehels moving: toward ns. 
TIm-v drove our skirmislieis hut were checked hy the 
lire of two leMiuieuis on oiii- ri^ilit and lied to ihe rear. 
We then liuill hreasiworks and lay heliind them all 
dav, hut the hiilleis wer«' tlyin;..^ over us every few 
nuMuents. The 'JUili was s|ieui within our works, 
which we siren;:! heiied in the afternoon as a report 
eame that the rebels wiM-e ;;oin^' to advance in ftu-r«». 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 363 

At nine p. m. heavy firing began on the skirinish line 
and we stood in line ready to receive the enemy, but 
they had failed to dislodge the skirmishers and did not 
eome. We lay on our arms all niglit. May oOth we 
felh^l trees and further streugtheiK'd the breastworks. 
Skinuishing- was going on all day and we remained 
in liu<' of battle until midnight, then lay down with 
accoutrements on and arms by our sides. A shai'p 
skirmish was ke]>t up all night. On the 31st brisk skir- 
mishing Avas going on at <laylight, and at seven the 
rebels drove in our pickets and skirmishers and ad- 
vanced boldly for a mile in length, but were repulsed 
at every point with heavy loss. 1 rclieA^ed <'a])tain 
l^itzsimmons' company on the picket line with Com- 
pany A at six. We skirmished with the enemy on the 
31st and were relieved from picket on June 1st at six 
a. m., when we took our place in line behind the works, 
licstod on our arms all day. On June 2<1 we advance<l 
by i-ight of companies fii cdicloH and built works three 
hundrcMl yards in advance of the former ones. On the 
3d the Regiment advanced at eleven. All quiet to-day. 
My wound now became so bad that T was removed to a 
house, lio])ing to return soon. 



Note. — The Captain was sent to the hospital on June 5th and re- 
signed September 29th, 1964. 

RECOLLECTIONS OF THE SIEGE OF CHATTANOOGA AND 
THE BATTLE OF LOOKOUT MOUNTAIN. BY CAPTAIN 
WILLIAM STRAWN, COMPANY F. 

The weary two months that we were besieged, 
coo])ed up and nearly starved in Chattanooga can never 
be forgotten while any soldier lives who endured it. 
Many incidents, both comic and serious, occurred. The 
Regiment was stationed close up to Fort Negley in plain 
view of Lookout Mountain. The rebels often amused 
themselves in throwing ten-]^ouud shot at the fort and 
us without any serious injury, but we considere<l it 
somewhat discourteous. At times the weather was 
very bad. The general discomfort of our situation was 



U4 THK UNE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

iiiinh relieved l»v the sI«tii (let«*niiiiiati«)n <if all «;:nuk's 
of our aniiv ti» Imld on to ilu« ritv that had r«.si us so 
Iinirli hIniMl to ai*i|ini-e. 

A |ni\at«* ill ('oiii|iaiiy K voiced the uiiiveisal feel- 
iiij: ill the fnllMNxiii;: vi;;oitMis si vh-: Some tuie said to 
him, "We iiia\ Im« stai\ ed out and roiu|»elhMl to reiieat.*' 
lie leplied: "Ndt h\ a d <l si;;ht ; I woiihl lather livr- 
on ;;rits tlire«* muullis; it ^^^>s{ ton mucii t«t ^et her»- to 
ever ;;i\«' it u|t." This man was tin* rhaiiiitiou ^mwler 
oft'oiupaiiv I^, hut t he e\i^«'iuies of the ( ase fuuiul hiiu 
ii^lit oil this i|uestio!i. iMiriii;: the siej;e oni«ers. pri- 
vates and the jM»or dumh luiites alike sulTered f«ir want 
of food. .Men crawled o\fr the ;;round where luuses 
and mules had heeii fed to ^^et the chance ;;rains of 
corn the animals h:id wasted. Where the sUinny cat- 
tle were slaujihlei cd heads snjd foi- i w u dollars and a 
half apiece. These wcie scalded like a lion's, so that 
e\en the hide was not wasted. The paumh was soused 
in iheri\erand Iteiiii: |Uepar«*d was considered an esp«*- 
ciallx dainty morsel. I have eaten poi'tions of altout 

• •vi'iy part <d a 1 f. e\cc|it i he horns and hoefs, and 

all was ;: I. The days seemed huijier and ;:;r«'W more 

inonoioiious. The u|i|>erm(»st thouuhl was how to ^et 
soniei hiiiL: to cat. The animals had lo l»c ^^uarded while 
eatin;; the few eais of corn allowed tiuMu. I i <(|iuiii jy 
a man came hack with an eai- tU' tw»» of (uni. I'ti olTci- 
him a <juarier ft>r half of it would he tti insult him. 
lie mi;:lit ;:ive it to a cttmrade, howe\er. The cnni had 
heeii fora^'ed from a mule, of course, hut a luan was 
of mole value than a mule. .\i last w lu-u (irani and 
Sherman arrived our spirits he^an to rise. IMnally 
Sln-rman's army was reitorted crossin;^ tin* river alio\e 
the citx and Hooker closin;^ in on Lookout .Mouuiain. 
On Noveiuher L'lih the spiteful soundin;: canii"»ii ou 
Moccasin Point he;,Mn to jday on i.o«dvtuit. ( Mir Brigade 
and most <if the jiiiiy was in line of hattle with little 

to do except watch llo(dver dri\e (he lelicls aTouild 

til" jtoint td Lookout. There was rain and mist on the 
side of the mountain mixin;: with the smoke of liaitle. 
We f.-lt like holdiii" our hieMihs while hoili friend and 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 365 

foe were liiddeii by it. The eombatauts were three 
miles off, but we saw the enemy suUeiily retreating; 
then cheer after cheer went up from our army in the 
city. Late in the afternoon our lirigade, which had been 
sent to relieve Hooker, crossed Chattanooga Creek and 
climbed the side of Lookout by whiitever supp(jrt we 
could get from brush, sai)lings and rocks. About ten 
we tiled into Hooker's lines and a desultory firing was 
kept up until midnight. Only a few men of our Bri- 
gade were wounded. We had little rest or shn^j) that 
night. In the uu)riiiug we beheld the i^tars and Stripes 
waving over the summit of Lookout and learned that 
the enemy had retired to Mission Ilidge. The Regiment 
in marching over the field saw some of our dead foes 
lying where they had fallen or in the shelter of rocks, 
where they had crept to die. We soon after descended 
to the valley and at about four p. m. of the 2.jth partici- 
pated in the grand charge on Mission Kidge. 



CIlAl'TKi: WIN 



T»H- Fl.-I.l and Slufr-Non-Comml8el<'ii. a Man it- ^-f i '•■' 



COLON KL AIJSALOM B. MOORE. Colonel Moore was l>«ni m 
New J.-nM-v. but it has bti-n imiK)s«lbIo to obtain the date of h R 
birth or. Indee.J. any fa« ts In ..Rani to his career prcvlou.s to his 
advent In IlllnolK. H«'fore the war he was in the employ of the 
Illinois Central Uailroad Company, and about that time also, wa« 
known a« a local preacher In the Methodist Kpiscopal Church He 
first iM'came prominent in ]^i Salle County In the oxcltinK i>olltical 
campaign of isf.o. HelnK nominated by the Republican party for 
the offl.e of Clerk of the Circuit Court, he made an active canvass on 
the stump and was electe.l by a large majority. Thereafter he pos- 
Msse.l for some vears a power In county politics that outlived his 
militarv career. When the One Hundred and Fourth Regiment wa« 
recruited he became a candidate for the colonelcy and was elec ted 
over his brilliant competitor. Oliver C. C.ray. by a large majorit>-^ 
Was commissioned Colonel, .\ugust 27. IS.IJ. The facts in r^^gar*' »<> 
his militarv service will be found In the general history of the Re^.1- 
n.ent an.l nee.l not be repeated here. Colonel Moore resigned hep- 
tember •♦ is.;3 returned home and resumed his duties as Circuit 
Clerk On the expiration of his term of office, he was elected Clerk 
of the Countv Court for four years. He subsequently removed to 
Chicago an.lhel.l a minor appointment under the Federa (-ov^rn- 
ment He die,l June 7. ls7;». The remains were conveyed to Cltta^a 
an escort from Cashman l^dge. A.. K. and A. Masons, and buried 
n the Ottawa Avenue CVmetery. June 1.. 1S79. by Occidental Ix)dge. 
No 40 \ F and A. Masons, of which the .lecea.sed was a member. 
C-olonelMoore was a man who had many friends and some enemies 
bu was possesse.l of a warm heart and never turned a deaf ear to 
,he crv ofTstress. He was also noted in the .lays of his prosperity 
for manv benefactions that are still remembered. 

cIhoNKL DorCH.AS HAPKMAN. Colonel Hapemnn was born 
,„ Fph .tab. Fulton County, N. Y.. January 15. 1839 and descended 
rotn ennanv ancestry. In 184r. the family removed to Illinois and 
sl-a led in thetownship of Karl, I.a Salle County, where young Hape- 
man remained on his father's farm until he was ten years of age 
At Oie Ke of thirteen he entered the ofll.e of the "Free Tra.ler at 
Cmawa ?o tm he printers tra.le. Applying himself falthfu ly 
lur ng the foUowlng years the outbreak of the Rebellion found him 
thoroughlv verse.l in all the .letalls of business In what was then 

largest newspaiH-r and publlhhlng house In the county an.l master 

wS he inten.led Hb..ul.l be hIs life vocation. While thus em- 

, oved In the "Art preservative of all arts" the thunders of Sumter s 

. innon awoke the Nation from its .leluslve dreams of peace and 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 36r 

ushered in the Great Rebellion. Closely following came the call to 
arms, and anmng the hundreds of thousands of ifyS patHot^c and 
brave stood young Hapeman. He enlisted April 14 861 o three 
months- service in what became Company H Eleventh Illinois n^ 
w^ J;/ ',^S'"^^"t first commanded by the immortal WH L 
Wallace, who impressed upon it the character of his own mil tar^ 
genius, skill and bravery, and made every member proud to sav 
ant of'Sfr'n" "" Eleventh." Hapeman was elected LcondLeu en: 
ant of his company and commissioned April 23 1861 The Eleven h 
was stationed at Villa Ridge, 111., watching the enemv ac^-oss the 
river and making occasional marches upon rumors of his approach 
but vas m no engagements larger than a skirmish. Under the sldUed 
harid of General Wallace and Lieutenant-Colonel T. EG Ransom 
(afterward the distinguished general and commander of divisions 
and army corps), the Eleventh attained that high .legree of mi li a?? 

am SM;U li;rth'"'' "'?■*' Imperishable'^renoSn at DoneSon 
j^il ^'i/loh. Upon the expiration of the three months' service the 
Eleventh was recruited and re-enlisted for three vears. Lieutenant 

iergrtVdTrv"3oSsr/'H """^ '^'^ ^'^--» commS! 

oeing dated .Jul.v 30, 1861. He participated in all the various marches 

ot lc.(.l and 1862. Expeditions were made into Missouri, resulting in 
afsn n^4''' Charleston and Bloomfield. Lieutenant Hap7man was 
also in the reconnoissance under General Grant to Columbus Kv^ He 
participated in the advance on Fort Henrv in Fel° an 18^^^^^ 

n^nv at Fo^H'n'' f°'' ""'' ""T''"' ""^' '''''' '^ commancVof h rcom- 
pan> at Fort Donelson on the l.^th, 14th and 1.5th of Februarv 1S69 
vvhere the Eleventh lost in killed and wounded 339 men Lm Lieu: 
tenant Hapeman's companv 42 men The Re^impnf TJ^ 
ered itself with glory, but was destined to win s H Shter auiel^ 
at Shiloh April 6 and 7. 1862. Its losses there were Sv fiftv ne, 
cent Fol owing the fortunes of the Eleventh, we next hear of 
Lieutenant Hapeman at the siege of Corinth, Miss., where he held 
a field position as Adjutant of the Regiment. Meantime in far 
away Illinois, the One Hundred and Fourth Infantry was orglniS 
n La Salle County. The fame of the Eleventh and the gallant- o 
its officers and men was well known to the people of the c?unt^ from 
which many of them had enlisted. In the nionth of Auguir 186^ 
Lieutenant Hapeman, then in the field was unexnecteHiv^^' l ' 
self, tendei-ed the position of Lieutenant-cXneroT he One h,-'^^^^^^^ 
and Fourth, the crack regiment of the county. He accepted va^ 
discharged for promotion.'" returned home, was commissioned Lief 
tenant-Colonel for gallant services in the field AiTuTt S 1869 anri 
mustered October 3d. On September 6. 1862, tht Se Hun S and 
Fourth Lieutenant-Colonel Hapeman commanding (Colonel Moo^-e 
being sick . left for the front at Louisville, near wh!ch the Re-fn^eit 
remained for about five weeks in various camps. Majo wrdmer no 
arriving until October, the task of teaching ine thousand newind 
mosly raw Officers and men the rudiments of militar Hfe HU ?nd 
discipline, fell upon Lieutenant-Colonel Hapeman vL- Margelv he 
being the only experienced field officer present. That he then and -fl 
ways, devoted himself and his energies to the interests nfihro 
Hundred and Fourth, is well known. %ut events we' rhLtenint Jnd 
General Bragg thi.ndering at the gates of Louisville. In Octobef thl 
One Hundred and Fourth, still but imperfectly drilled, began its long- 



3(8 THE ONE HL'NDRED AND FOURTH 

iMTieH of nmrrhpn. tamimlKHh ami baltles, first followiiii,' HraRB to- 
ward PerryvUle and with oiIlt Hoops. o<tu|>> ii»K Fninkforl. the 
capital of Kfnttirkv. Th.- U.-Ktmeul i.Mnaln»-d Hum.- boiiu- time and 
Colontd Moore being appolntt-d to .ommand the Thirty-ninih Hri- 
gade Lieutenant-Colonel Hapeman «omnianded the One Hundred 
and Fourth, employintc all the time pow*il.le in drillins it. 1 he 
Uegiujent Koon after l.enan the niar.h to Itowlinn (;reen and the 
TenneHs.-*- .amiwilKn. Lieutenant-Colonel Hapeman eomman.led the 
One Hun.lred and Fourth in the Imtlle of Harlsville with lourane 
and skill diduK all that a brave soldier eould .lo to win sueeess. 
Hut he with the tomniand. became prisoners of war. and he waj 
eonfined In prison at Atlanta and Rhhmond for some months, lleing 
releas.«d in the spring of lx«;3. he rejolne.l the HeKiment at Hieni- 
wood Tenn May 21st. The One Hundred and Fourth was ordend 
to MurfreeslHiro soon after and asslgne.l to •nKlitlnn" (Jen.-ral JoMi 
Ik-attvs Hrlgade (First Urlgade. Second Divlhion. Fourteenth Army 
Corps Armv of the Cumberlamll. The Tullahoma campaign was 
on the eve of opening and Lleuieiumt -Colonel llaiMinan pariuipated 
In It b«'lng pr.senl at KIk Kiver ami wherever hghling oc< urred. 
Uo t^k part in the Chlckamauga campaign and was in the remark- 
able action of Davis Cross Roads. September H. \M:1 Colonel Moore, 
who had resigned some time previous, left the Regiment on t he 1. h 
and Lieutenant-Colonel Hapeman succeeding him. commanded the 
One Hundred and Fourth In the great battle of Chlckamauga. Sep- 
tember ruth and I'oih. and the engagements of the Jlst. near Uoss- 
vllle For meritorious services there he was commissioned ( olonel 
of the Regiment in September. Colonel Hapeman was In the siege 
of Chattanooga, cheerfully enduring all the privations of that tiylng 
time onlv solicitous for the welfare of his men. but the boys claim 
that "the Colonels favorite horse sometimes lost an ear of corn from 
his s<antv allowance so great was their hunger. In the battles of 
lx)okout .Mountain and Mission Rl.lge. the One Hundre.l an.l lourlh 
was le.l bv Colonel Hapeman with a distinguished bravery and skill 
that was remarked. In the latter battle he Inspired his men both 
bv words an«l example to the great deeds that followed and crowned 
e;erv man with a wreath of glory. Following that battle. ( olonc 
Hapeman led the Regiment In pursuit of Mraggs fleeing army and 
was engaged at C.ravsviHe and Ringgold. In the Atlanta campaign, 
becinning Mav 2 ls»;4. Colonel Hiipeman commanded the One Hun- 
•ire.l and Fo.irth In the four months of marches, skirmishes and 
battles and there was sel.lom a day when he was not under ttre. 
He was present at Ro.ky Face, the terrific battles at Resaca. the 
engagements on I'umpkln Vine Creek, near Dallas, and the battles 
around New Hope Church; the siege and battles around Kenesnw 
Mountain and the actions on the Chattahoochee. At the bloody battle 
of I'each Tree Creek. Julv 20. 18»;4. when one-half of the right wing 
of the Regiment had been killed an.l wounded an<l further disaster 
Kr.eme,l Imminent. Colonel Hap.-man. ably supportd by Major W.d- 
mer rallied the remainder of th.- Regiment and hurled It upon the 
foe in vlctorv One of the boys who had his right shoulder shat- 
tered there siivs m a letter to the writer: "His (Colonel Hapeman s) 
conduct on that occasion showed him to have been the bravest of 
the brnve'" Captain Strawn sjild to the writer about this buttle: 
"We ha«l beconie so accustome«l to the coolness of our field ofilcers 
that no demorullwitlon occurred." From that time, we find Colonel 




Major John H. Widmer 

FROM A PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN IN 1894. 



REGIMF:XT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 369 

Hapenian commanding the demi-brigade, or left wing, and leading it 
in the siege of Atlanta, the almost daily assaults and advances; 
those where the One Hundred and Fourth suffered greatest loss 
being the actions on Utoy Creek, August 7 and 14, 1864. He was 
present at Jonesboro — the last battle of the campaign, and Atlanta 
falling, marched his gallant veterans in proud triumph to that city, 
where Colonel Hapeman was ordered to take command of the 
Brigade, September 8, 1864. For his eminent services in the Atlanta 
campaign, Colonel Hapeman should have been appointed a brigadier- 
general. The least effort on his part would have secured the prize 
that scores of far less able and less deserving officers fiantically 
grasped for and in many instances obtained. But Colonel Hapeman 
instead of running off to Washington to scheme for promotion, re- 
remained with his Brigade. He commanded the Brigade in the pursuit 
of Hood, and until November 8. 1864, when Colonel Hobart returning, 
assumed command by virtue of seniority of rank, and Colonel Hape- 
man thereafter commanded the demi-brigade on the march to the 
sea and in the siege of Savannah. In the latter, as shown elsewhere, 
the spirit of enterprise and daring exhibited by the officers and men 
of the One Hundred and Fourth was conspicuous and resulted in a 
Brigadier's star for Colonel Hobart, a very worthy soldier, but the 
scales of justice would have been more evenly balanced had another 
been bestowed on Hapeman and corresponding rewards on others. 
Savannah having fallen. Colonel Hapeman, leaving the Regiment in 
charge of Major Widmer, went home on a brief absence, but owing 
to unavoidable causes, was unable to rejoin the command in the 
campaign of the Carolinas until it arrived near Raleigh. He was 
thus enabled to be present at the closing scenes in the death throes 
of the Rebellion and Johnston's surrender. The war v.'as over and 
Colonel Hapeman marched with the remnant of his battle-scarred 
veterans to Washington, where he participated in the fitting 
triumphal scene — the Grand Review of the vast armies of the Union 
in the Nation's capital. Being mustered out June 6. 1865, Colonel 
Hapeman returned to his home at Ottawa, 111., immediately resumed 
his connection with the "Free Trader" as a partner, and also estab- 
lished a book and stationery business, which is now the largest in 
the city. In 1867 he was united in marriage to Miss Ella, daughter 
of William and Phoebe Thomas. A son and daughter blessed this 
union. The Colonel, besides his own business, is president, or man- 
ager, of several solid business corporations in Ottawa, active in all 
public business enterprises, but not inclined to politics. He is a 
prominent and active worker in the Masonic Fraternity, the Loyal 
Legion, and the Grand Army of the Republic. His business career, 
which has been successful, bears a striking resemblance in method 
to his course in the army, strictly business-like, careful and sure, 
without ostentation. But there were occasions during the war, when 
unusual dangers threatened, amid the roar of battle, the rain of lead 
and iron, with brave men falling like autumn leaves, that Colonel 
Hapeman showed a promptness of action equal to the demand, with- 
out losing those qualities of courage, coolness, and calm judgment 
that mark the true soldier and commander. 

MAJOR JOHN H. WIDMER. Major Widmer was born in Wayne 
County, Ohio, and came to Illinois sometime previous to the war. 
That event found him engaged in the practice of law at Ottawa, 111. 
Upon the fall of Sumter. Major Widmer. then twenty-five or twenty- 



JTU .1.. NK HlNlUtKlJ ANI* KtU'RTH 

hlx >.ars of am-, was on.- of thf flrsl to n'spond to the cull of Govirnor 
Ya^.•^ for thr»-«' inonthH' volunti-frs. ami enlisHMl April IK. IM'I. as u 
pruat.- Ill faiitaiii William L. iJibHoiis ConipHiiy 1. of CU-neral \V. H. 
L Wallarf « IteKimi-nt, tlu* fuiuouK Klevonth IIUiioIk Infiiutry. I'lKin 
tlif »'Xpirution of the thre*' montht*' iwrvlre. he. and (Jreeiibury 1.. 
Fort, of luti-on. III.. rtH-rulted the lompuny for three years' Hervite. 
Port WHK eleeted ('aiMaiu and Widnier First Lieutenant, his eommlB- 
slon being dated September 1. IKGl. Lieutenant Widmer participated 
Id the variouK movenuMitK ami enKaRementH of theKleveiilh in the fall 
of ISfil and winter of \M.i. AmouR these w.-re the expedilioiis to 
rharlehton and Mloomfleld. Mo . the re<oiinoissaii< «• umler Cem-ral 
Grant, to t'olumbus, Ky.. and tin* advance on Fort Henry in Kebru- 
nrv. At the uiveHtmeiit and battli- of Tort Donelsoii. February iL'tli. 
13ih. Uth and l.'ith. Lieutenant Widmer (•onimaiide<l the lompany 
with bniverv. skill and credit, and for meritorious services there, 
was commissioned captain April :;4. 1X02. He continued to serve with 
the Kleventh until In September. 1801'. when he received a telegram 
askliiK If he would accept the position of Major In a new reRlmenl 
organized In Iji Salle County. The jKisltlon was wliollv unsouRlit by 
him. but he replied that he would accept. The Kbveiith was then 
about starting on an exiiedltion. from which it returned from Fort 
Henrv In two weeks. There. Captain Wi(lnnr leceiv.-d a special 
order from the War Department, discharging him from the Kleventh. 
"for promotion." He at once set out for the "New Regiment." the 
On*- Hundred an.l Fourth. Joining it at Louisville. Ky. The Majors 
reputation as an officer and fighter had prece<led him. and on ar- 
rival, he met with a warm reception from the One Hundred and 
Fourth.* From that time until the close of the war, Major Widmer 
participated in every skirmish, battle and campaign in which the 
One Hundred ami Fourth was engaged. He was in the Kentucky 
campaign and battle of Hartsville. Tenn.. where he was taken 
prlson»'r and confined at Atlanta and in Llbby Prison for 
several months. but was released In April, 18t'.3, and 
rejoined the Regiment at Brentwoo«l, Tenn., In time 
to participate in the Tullahoma and Chickamauga cam- 
paigns and the actions of Fllk River. Davis Cross Roads, and the 
battle of Chickamauga. He was In the skirmishes following the lat- 
ter battle and rendered valuable services on the picket lines during 
the siege of Chattanooga. He took an active part in the battles of 
Ix)okoiit Mountain an.l Mission Ridge, an.l the pursuit of the enemy, 
resulting in skirmishes at (Jiaysville and Taylors Ridge. Hut the 
.jiiallti.-s that marked Major Widmer as an otficT of superior ability, 
cooln.ss and bia\ei v. were more fully di'V.dope.l In the Atlanta cam- 
paign lis banl.'s and engagements, extending over four months. 
Coh.n.l Hap.nian being always jiresent. and In command of the 
R.-Kim<nt .Major Wiilmt-r. as an extra field ofllcer In It. was more fre- 
.lu.nilv on th- skirmish Uiw than any other one man In the One 
Hundri-l and Fourth, and If more than one company was sent out 
.tlwi.vs Mc.ompanie.l th«' detail. He was always In splendid physical 
Mon and was called uiion oftener than any other om<er to take 
. of brlga<b- and division skirmish lines and detachments. Ah 
K,i. t, h«- cam.- on duty neaily every other day from the opening of 
the campaign lb'- .Major came to love that kind of fighting, an.l 
when the rlfie balls were singing merrily and everything going cm 
right was In his element an.l in^rfectly undisturbed. This cjuallty 




Adjutant Rufus C. Stevens. 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 371 

generally enabled him to be successful in planting his line where it 
was ordered. But as he himself says, his success was almost wholly 
due to his brave boys. He and they soon found out that there was a 
big difference between line of battle fighting and skirmishing. In 
the former, the soldier is part of a machine, and is seldom called 
upon to exercise his judgment; in the latter his individuality plays a 
prominent part. This trait was a marked characteristic of the men 
of the One Hundred and Fourth and the other regiments from which 
the details were made, and they soon took to skirmishing like ducks 
to water, naturally. The Major took care to give both officers and 
men his full confidence by telling them what he wished to accom- 
plish. In short, he had confidence in them and they in him. We find 
in the great war history, "The Rebellion Records," numerous com- 
pliments paid to the bravery, ability and success of Major Widmer 
in his conduct of the skirmish lines in the Atlanta campaign. His 
daring act in boldly entering the enemy's line of rifle pits on Utoy 
Creek, alone, in broad daylight, and its consequences, will be found 
narrated elsewhere. Always ready for duty every day and hour of 
the campaign, he was in the engagements at Buzzard Roost, the 
battles around Resaca, the engagements on Pumpkin Vine, around 
Dallas, and at New Hope Church; the numerous battles at Kenesaw 
Mountain, and the bloody battle of Peach Tree Creek, July 20, 1864, 
where the whole right wing of the One Hundred and Fourth was 
almost annihilated by a fierce attack in flank, but the bleeding 
fragments and the left wing, held firm and launched in victorious 
assault on the enemy, by the coolness and bravery of Hapeman and 
Widmer. Said one of the boys: "I expected to see them shot forty 
times." Following Peach Tree Creek came the siege of Atlanta, and 
the fierce six weeks of almost daily fighting or skirmishing in front 
of the city and on the line of Utoy Creek, and the battle of Jones- 
boro. In all, Major Widmer was an active participant. Atlanta 
being won, Colonel Hapeman thereafter commanding the Brigade, 
or demi-brigade, the Major commanded the One Hundred and Fourth 
on the march to the sea and at the siege of Savannah. At the latter 
place he. aided by some daring officers and men of the One Hun- 
dred and Fourth, performed some acts, narrated elsewhere, that placed 
the stars of a general on other shoulders. But it is believed by the 
writer that neither Hapeman nor Widmer were fighting for stars — 
except those of the Star Spangled Banner. Major Widmer com- 
manded the Regiment in the campaign of the Carolinas, and in the 
last battle, that of Bentonville, N. C, showed his accustomed skill 
and bravery in fighting vastly superior numbers without proper aid 
or support. The war was over and Major Widmer. who had enlisted 
at the sound of the first gun from Sumter, and remained in service 
through over four long years, marched with the command to Wash- 
ington, where, after taking part in the Grand Review, he sheathed a 
sword that had always been worn with honor and never grown 
rusty from disuse, returned home and prepared to follow the pur- 
suits of peace. For a time he was engaged in the lumber business, 
but about 1869, resumed the practice of law at Ottawa, 111., in partner- 
ship with Hon. Henry Mayo. He has been eminently successful and 
stands verv high among the legal fraternity and his fellow citizens. 

AD.IUTANT RUFUS C. STEVENS. Rufus C. Stevens was born 
in Cabot. Caledonia County, Vermont. April 5, 1824. His parents 
were of English descent. When he was thirteen years old. the 



tn THE ONE HLNL»UEl> AND FuCHTH 

family removed to New Hampshire. In 1S40, young Stevens decided 
to l.arii ihf printtTH tradf, and entered tlie olllce of the •"Herald 
of Freedom. " at L'onrord. In ISVJ, lie went to California, via Cape 
Horn, landed in San KranriHro, and wuh enKaK^'il in KliovelinK 
■and at fifty centu an hour. Subuequeutly, with E. C. Webster and 
othi-rh. he went to dlKKiiiK for Rohl. He returned to New Hampshire 
in ls51. purrhased a m-wKpapfr and published it until iSoT. In the 
nif.iiiilinc he was a ivp««*sentative in the State LeglKlature two terms. 
Ill I^.'.T h»' removed to Illinois, settling at Im SalW-. and with E. C. 
W tlihlt-r. published the "IMess"' until August. IMIL', wh«Mi In- received 
tlu' iippolntnuMit of .Vdjutant of tin- ()n«' Hundred and Fourth Hegi- 
ment. and was eommissloned August 1:7, \ht\'2. In all the following 
years of the war he served with his coniniand In all its marrhes. bat- 
llej* and campaigns, exhibiting a courage and endurance that m-ver 
falt«Ted and gained him the love and confidence of all. He came to 
be known as "Old Steve" among the boys, who soon discovered that 
in him were united the (|ualitles of the true soldier— un(1in<-liing 
bravery and kindness of heart in time of sufTering. Adjutaut 
Stevens participated in the Kentucky cam])aign and the battle of 
Hartsville. Tenn. There he was severely wounded in the leg and 
unfit for duty several months, but recovering, in April. 1S<.;{, he 
marched with the Regiment to the front an<l was in the Tullahoma 
and Chickamauga campaigns at Elk River. Davis Cross Roads, and 
the battle of Chickamauga. September ly and 20. 1M>3, and the en- 
gagement of the 21st at Rossville. He endured the siege of Chatta- 
nooga and took part in the battles of Lookout .Mountain and .Mission 
Ridge, and the pursuit of Hragg's fieeing columns to Graysville and 
Ringgold. In the Atlanta campaign. .Adjutant Stevens participated 
in every action and battle of the Regiment, being present at Huzzard 
Roost, of Rocky Face, the battles around Resaca. the series of eii- 
gagi'iiieiits on the I'umiikin Vine, in the vicinity of Dallas and New 
Hope Church. He was in the fierce confiicts around Kenesaw and the 
bloody battle of Peach Tree Creek; at the siege of .Atlanta and the 
several actions on the line of I'toy Creek; the battle of Jonesboro. 
He took part in the pursuit of Hood, wa.s on the march to the sea. and 
at the siege of Savannah. His career of military s«'rvice was rounded 
up in the campaign of the Carolinas an«l at the battle of Bentonville. 
where he was again wounded quite severely, but woubl not leave the 
field. From tlu're he went to Washington, where, after taking part 
in the (;ran<l Review, he returned home. .Soon after he was ap- 
pointed revenue inspector of the Si.Mh District and held the ofllcc 
for two years. He was then in the grain business until on Webster 
becoming postmaster at I^i Salle, he edited the "I'reHS." He was 
elected sheriff of the county in 187ti, and re-elected in l.s"S. .After 
this he became editor of the Ottawa "(Jlobe," but subsequently moved 
to .Minnesota, bought and edited the "Tribune," of .\lorris. .As an 
editor he rose rai»idly into prominence in that section of the stale 
and bore an im|K)rtant part in the public afTalrs of the district. Hut 
old age was creeping on, his old wounds troiibleil him and indined 
other iroubleH, whi«h leHUlte.l in his death, February 17, iS'.t.?. The 
/rim veieniii wh«» had faced Hhot and shell on so many battli>fields oT 
the relndlion, unmoved, had to yield to the con((iieinr of all, at last, 
and he did so with a calmness and ileterminatlon that showed the 
Roman Saxon t\pe of character in which In* was molded. He left 
aa a noble heritage to hiii family and friends, a record as a man and 




/^ 




a^-i^^ 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 373 

soldiei-, that will be long remembered, while the men of the One 
Hundred and Fourth, as long as one survives, will never forget, or 
have other than nleasant memories of "Old Steve." 

QUARTERMASTER EDWARD L. HERRICK. Edward L. Her- 
rick was appointed Quartermaster and commissioned August 23,1862. 
The writer has been unable to obtain any data in regard to his place 
of birth, but remembers him as a bright young man before the war, 
engaged in the offices of circuit and county clerks of La Salle County, 
as a deputy.* He was an expert penman and good business man. 
Considerable surprise was manifested when he suddenly appeared 
with a commission. He served through the war as Quartermaster, 
and like all that genus, had to stand considerable cussing at times 
when the rations were short or of poor quality. He was mustered out 
June 6, 1865, and returning to Ottawa, engaged in business, but was 
employed in the court house at the time of his death, which occurred 
some years ago. 

SURGEON REUBEN F.DYER. Surgeon Dyer was born in Strong, 
Maine, .January 29, 1833. Members of the family had been prominent 
in the Revolutionary War. Young Dyer, after receiving a good edu- 
cation, studied medicine in Maine and afterward in Cincinnati, 
graduating there from the American Medical College in 1856. He 
came to Newark, 111., and settled down to the practice of medicine. 
When Fort Sumter fell, April 14, 1861. Dr. Dyer enlisted the same 
day and raised a company of which he was elected captain. This 
w^as mustered into the service of the United States as Company K, 
Twentieth Illinois Infantry. Captain Dyer went with it to the front 
and took part in the engagements of the Regiment, the first being at 
Fredericktown, Mo. Captain Dyer and his company won renown by 
moving on in advance of the Regiment, capturing a battery and 
spiking the guns. He was in the advance on Fort Henry and fought 
at Donelson, Company K occupying and holding an advanced positiou 
and fighting with heroic valor. Subsequently. Captain Dyer resigned 
for the purpose of entering the medical staff. In the summer of 1862, 
when the calls were made for more troops, he was the first one to 
take action in the matter of raising a new regiment from La Salle 
County, and had hand bills printed calling for a meeting. Captain 
Johnson Misner and Oliver C. Gn-ay were identified with him in the 
movement. Delays and changes occurred, but the initiative thus 
taken resulted in the organization of the One Hundred and Fourth. 
Dr. Dyer was appointed surgeon, his commission being dated August 
25, 1862. Thereafter he was continuously on duty until the close of 
the war. After the battle of Hartsville. Tenn., he remained there, 
and at Gallatin, in charge of the wounded, and established at the 
latter place an army hospital (No. 14), that was a model of its kind. 
The Regiment having been ordered to Camp Douglas, Dr. Dyer re- 
joined it in February, 1863, taking along with him the wounded men 
of the One Hundred and Fourth who were able to go. When the 
Regiment returned to the front in April, 1863. and set out on the 
Tullahoma and Chickamauga campaigns. Surgeon Dyer accompanied 
it and was fully occupied, especially after the great battle of Chicka- 
mauga, when thousands of wounded and sick required attention. 
After the battle of Mission Ridge Surgeon Dyer organized another 
hospital, of which he had charge. In preparation for the Atlanta 
campaign, he was directed to organize a brigade field hospital, 
which was subsequently merged into a division hospital. He was 



»4 THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

optTHiur for tin* Fir«l lirit;a(lf. Firnt DiviKloii. and on the fall of At- 
lanta, waii (Iftallfi) ati Hurgeou of the FirMt DivlKioii. Fourteciith Army 
Corpii. lie wan on the uiarcb to the wa, ami after tlie fall of 
Savannah, wa8 artint; medical director on the staff of (leneral Jeffer- 
son C iMvlit. holdinK the i>ot(ttlon till the close of the war. He was 
mustered out June ti. lKij5. and returned to Ottawa, 111., and has 
practiied there since as a physician and surK*'oii. It is hard to ap- 
prei latf. or to form any pro|M'r and Just estimate of the invaluable 
^l«•r\l^t•^ jM-rformed by SurRtHin Dyer during his army <*areer. but to 
UUilersland liow he stood in the eslliiiation «)f the men of the One 
Huudred and Fourth, it is only necesMiry to ask those who are still 
alive, and came under his care, or witness«*d his labors. 

FIRST ASSISTANT SlUCKON JIMIS A. FREKMAN. Dr. 
Kr«'eman was born in Worcester. Otsego County. New York, and was 
thirty-four years of age at enlistment. He was then practicing 
medicine. He was commissioned and mustered into the service 
August 25, IKGl', and Joined the One Hundred an<l Fourth at Frank- 
fort. Ky.. niar<-hed with it to Hartsville. Tetui., and rendered valu- 
able services there during ami after the battle in caring for the 
wounded. WIhmi the Regiment nMurned to the front at Nashville 
iu IS(>3, he was taken si<-k. went to hospital and resigned July 13. 
1863. He afterward served as surgeon in the .\rmy of the Potomac. 
la now a i>hvsician and surgeon at .Millington. 111. 

SKIONI) ASSISTANT SIROEON THO.MAS U. HAMILTON. 
Dr. Hamilton was born in Ohio, but removing to Wenona. 111., was a 
pnu-ticing physician an«l surgeon there when the <all came for GOO.OtMJ 
more. We have been unable to obtain much of his record, but ho 
must have been about tweiity-tlve years old in ls<>2. F]nlisting as a 
private In Company H. he ri'palred to the camp at Ottawa, but was. 
on the organization of the Reginieiit. appointed second assistant sur- 
geon and commission(>d August 21. ls<il.'. In the Kentucky campaign 
he marched with the command to Frankfort aiul then<e to Raton 
Station, where be was detailed to take charge of the sick, who were 
sent to Bowling (Jreen. Ky.. and ptil in hospital, where he was em- 
ployed for some time. The doctor was very popular with the bo>8 
and in the s«<rvlce mostly in hosjiitals. until he was himself stricken 
down with dls«»as«*. He died at Nashville. Tenn.. .March 17. iStJu. 
HiB untimely death was regretted by all who knew him. 

CHAPLAIN WILLIA.M C. SCllOFIKLD. This gentleman's name 
does not ap|M-ar on the muster rolls nor in the .\djutant (lenprars 
report, as chaplain of the One Hundred ami Fourth, nevertheless, he 
served as such until after Hartsville, though never commissioned. 
While with the Regiment he performed som«' useful services. He 
was formerlv pastor of the First Congn'galioiuil Church in Ottawa. 

CHAPLAIN WILLIA.M C. F. HK.MPSTEAD. Enlisted as a pri- 
vate in Conjpauy I. .\ugust 12, lsi;2; appointed First Sergeant. He 
watt promoted and commissioned chaplain in the spring of 1S(')3. and 
wan with the Regiment until his resignation. September 1. 1SG3. He 
has b<*4*n dejid s^)me years. 

NON-CO.MMISSIONEI) STAFF. 

SER(;EANT-.MAJ0R gllNCV n. WHIT.MA.N Ilorn in Huron 
County, Ohio, age at enlistment 3t;; occupation l)ookk«'e|»er; enlisted 
from Ottawa, August 1», ls»i2. In Company E. Was promoted Ser- 
geant-MaJor. He parti<-ipaled lu the Kentucky campaign and tho 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 375 

battle of Hartsville; the Tiillahoma and Chickaniauga campaigns, at 
Elk River, Davis Cross Roads and the battle of Chickamauga. He 
was in the battles of Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge. In the 
Atlanta campaign he was present at Buzzard Roost, the battlea 
around Resaca, the engagements on the Pumpkin Vine and in the 
vicinity of Dallas and New Hope Church; the battles around Kenesaw 
Mountain; the battle of Peach Tree Creek; the siege of Atlanta, the 
actions on Utoy Creek and the battle of Jonesboro. He also took part 
in the pursuit of Hood, was on the march to the sea and at the siege 
of Savannah. His honorable career of service was completed in the 
campaign of the Caiolinas and at Bentonville. Mustered out June 
6, 1865, and returned to Ottawa, 111. He subsequently removed to 
Iowa and engaged in business. Is now quartermaster-sergeant of the 
Soldiers' and Sailors" Home, Quincy, 111. 

QUARTERMASTER-SERGEANT ASHER D. GIBSON. Enlisted 
from Mission, La Salle County, August 15, 1862, in Company G; ap- 
pointed First Corporal, but on the organization of the Regiment pro- 
moted Quartermaster-Sergeant and served most efficiently until the 
close of the war. Mustered out June 14, 1865. When last heard 
from he lived in California. 

COMMISSARY-SERGEANT AUSTIN H. FOWLER. Enlisted 
August 5. 18C2, in Company H; was appointed Second Sergeant, but 
soon promoted Commissary-Sergeant and filled the position accept- 
ably, always doing his best to furnish the boys with Uncle Sam's 
rations, supplemented with whatever extra supplies could be drawn 
from the enemy when foraging became the order of the day. Mus- 
tered out June 6, 1865. 

HOSPITAL STEWARD JOHN W. CUPPY. Enlisted August 13, 

1862, and served faitlifully until August 1, 1863, when he was dis- 
charged for disability. The Regiment regretted to have him go. 
Said to be living in Steubenville. Ohio, but numerous letters have re- 
mained unanswered, hence no full record can be given. 

HOSPITAL STEWARD LUTHER S. SLYDER. Enlisted in 
Company K, August 13, 1862; promoted hospital steward August 1, 

1863, upon the discliarge of John W. Cuppy. Mustered out June 6, 
1865. Said to be living in Iowa. No answer to many letters request- 
ing record. 

PRINCIPAL MUSICIANS. 

David McCampbell. William Raymond, Joseph G. Wheat and 
Joseph Lewis, who went out with the Regiment as musicians, have 
been noticed as fully as the records will admit in the rosters of the 
respective companies to which they belonged. Many changes oc- 
curred in the "music" and the "band" of the One Hundred and 
Fourth, which the historian has endeavored to bring to light by 
appeals to Frank Stire, the Edwards, and others, but without suc- 
cess. It is of record, however, that Wheat and one other member of 
the Regiment threw away their instruments and seized the musket 
by preference. 



("ii.\n"i:i: .\xi\' 



Company A— How aiul Whor** f>rKanlzed— Router and Blogra- 

r " -StMllHllcH. 



SKETCH OF COMPANY A. 

S.M.ii ;ifi«T iln- «all of l'n*si«l<Mi! LiiHMln f..i- ••tiuii.iHio 
iiiun-," itM-niitino; fur a m-w n-jiiiiu-nt Immmiiu* a<iiv«* in 
La Salli' < 'oiiiit \ ami Moses ( >siiiaii, .laiin's M. Leij^liton, 
A. I'H'stoit, aihl otln'i-s lM*i;aii enlist iiiij men for a « om- 
l»aiiv. I>v Ai|o||si ir>, isriL', a siinirieiii inimlier had l>eeii 
eiiroljt'tl ami t he <om|taiiy was organized hv the elect i«>u 
of .lames M. I.eii:hioii. ms ('a|ttain, Moses Osiiiaii First 
Lieutenant. AI|ihoiiso I'lescott Sectunl Lieutenant. The 
iion-<oiumissione(| ofhceis a|i|M»inte(| l»v the <'a|ttaiii 
were as follows: I>a\is H. Stills»»n, I'irst Serjeant ; Ser- 
j;eants, .Fames II. Newton, IMwin .1. 'Prow l»ri«l;;e, 
Miehael ( 'lamv. < Hi\er I'. I hii iIjiil: ; < 'oriMiials, Isaar N. 
Kehh. haniel W. Ste\enson. Sidney \'. Arnold. NtH'ton 
Fields. ICheii II. Mollis. I'rank I'irkens. .lames Toll, 
Allen {{em-diet. The e\rilement of (•)(•( IJoM heini: ov«*r, 
t heromjiany.w liich w as desi;:nated as A, w eiit intocainp 
at the fair oiuumls ami )»r«'|»ared for the a<ti\e «lutie8 
of a soldier's life hy dailN drills, and lieiii;; the rioht rom- 
pany it was known woiihl o<tu|>y im|>ortant positions 
in skirmishes, battles, etc In the suhseipieni years of 
service in the field. < 'umpaiiy A always ai<|uitted itself 
with hraveiv and credit and sufTeied its fair share of 
casualties, eleven of its nuinliers yieldino up their lives 
on the hat t letield. or in cons«M|m-nce of mortal wounds, 
while several lost limhs. and a nund»er hesidt'S, were so 
l»adly Wounded as to suffer for life. In the Kentucky 
and lirst Tennessee cainpai;:ii. < 'aptain Leiijhton Iteini; 
detailed on I{ri;:ade staff, and Lieiiiciianl Hsmaii als() 
liein;: detailed much of the time. Lieutenant j'rescott 
commanded t he < ompaiiy with credit. When the hat tie 








Lieut, A. Prescott. Co. A. Sergt. F. M. Daugherty, Co. F. 

Lieut. A. V Mitchell, Co. F. Capt W. Strawn. Co. F. 

Capt. J. M. Leighton, Co. A. Lieut. C. M. Johnson, Co. F. 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 377' 

of Hartsvillc (H-cui-rcd tlic coiupany av;is (Ictaclicd and 
doiiif;- provost duty iii the Yilki<»e three-qnarters of a 
mile from the camp. There it was siiri'oiin<hMl by the 
rebel cavalry and made a spirited resistance of an hour, 
but notbeiiif;- supported and unable to withdraw, liad to 
surrender. Sumner M. liuruliam was kilh'd, .lonathan 
Lewis mortally wounded, Williaui Buckley was severely 
wounded, also O'Donnell and I'otter. In the Tullahoma 
cam j)aign, the comj^anj^ was under fire at Elk River, also 
at Davis Cross Roads, and a< Chickamauiia lost on Sep- 
tember 10th and 20th, John Dodd, Pcior Olscn, Michael 
O'Connor, killed; F. Sanchez, wounded. Samuel Hutch- 
ings was wounded and taken prisoner to Andersonville, 
wdiere he died of wounds. A number were wounde*! 
more or less severely, and Captain keiiiliton on the 21st, 
The company lost one man killed at Mission Kidge. On 
the advance of Sherman's army the company, com- 
manded by Captain Leighton, who still suffered from 
his wound, was from the first, engaged almost daily in 
skirmishing. Sergeant Benedict was killed at Resaca, 
May 13, 1864. William Barrett lost his right arm, and 
several were wonnded. At Peach Tree Creek, July 20, 
1864, very severe losses were suffered, the company 
being the first to receive the full force of the rebel at- 
tack and in flank. The company suffered again at Utoy 
Creek and at Bentonville. It had left Graysville, Ga., 
with twenty-seven men for duty, wiien Atlanta fell but 
nine were left — present. Death, wounds and sickness 
had done their work. For details rend the record of the 
company. 

ROSTER OF THE COMPANY. 

CAPTAIN JAMES M. LEIGHTON. Age 33; born in Maine; came 
west in 1856, and engaged in bridge building; three years later he re~ 
moved to Lockport. 111., and was appointed Assistant Superintendent 
of the Illinois and Michigan Canal. In the summer of 1862, he began 
recruiting the company of which on its organization he was elected 
Captain. He was an efficient, brave, and popular officer, loved by 
his men. In October, 1862, was detailed as A. A. A. General on the 
staff of Colonel Limberg. commanding the Thirty-ninth Brigade. 
On the march through southern Kentucky served as Provost Marshal 
and was on Brigade staff, performing valuable services. He was in 
the battle of Hartsville; the skirmishes on the march to Tullahoma 
and Elk River; was at Davis Cross Roads and the battle of Chicka- 



tn THK ONE hi:ndred and fourth 

maiigit; 8over«ly woundtnl la the tthoulder on September 21. 18()3, 
near RohuvIIU*, from which he uever re<*overe«| eiiltrely; was absent 
on leave until April. 18(>4. when he returned and i-ommanded hlH 
comimny in the Atlanta (-anipaiKn at Hnzzard Hoohi, Hesaca. New 
U«)I>«' j'lmri'h. eir., until Jum- ."jih. hih wnund then beianie so bad &o 
to (omiM'l him to Ko to th»' lios|>i(al in Nashvlllt'. He reKigned Sep- 
temlKM '2V. IMi, on Hi-(-ount of wound, returm-d to iiis old pla<e on the 
cunal. and on the retirement of William Thomas. In* i)«'iame Su|>erin- 
lendent. Captain 1.^'iKhton di«Ml in Lorkport. III., on November 10, 
inyi;. one of his rompany said to the writer. "A braver man than 
Captain l.tdghton i.fv<-r unsheathed u sword." 

CAITAIN MOSKS OSMAN. Ase 39; born in PennHylvania; 
f.irin>-r «ame to Ottawa. III.. In the early forties. In lS4(j he 
eIlll^^f•d in Captain T. Lyie l)ir|<»>y's company of Colonel John J. 
Hardin's famous Illinois Ki-Klment and served one year in the 
Mexican war. On rfturnluK to Ottawa he bfcaine interested in tho 
"Ottawa Fn-e Trader" with his lirotlier William Osman. In August, 
IHtiJ, he assisted in raisint; men for the Compuny and was elected 
FirHt Lieutenant. He marched with his command to Hartsville but 
was on detail at the time of the battle. In the Tullahoma campaiKU 
was Aide ile Camp on the Staff of (Jeneral John Heatty; was with 
his company in the Chicliamauf^a campaign: at Davis Cross Roads 
and the battle of Chickamauga. In the Atlanta campaiKH. at Buzzard 
Roost. Resjica. New 11oih» Chunh. ami took command on Captain 
1.^'iKhtons retirement. June ."., istM; wjis in the battles around 
Kenesaw, at I'ea<h Tre<' an<l Ctoy Creeks. Jonesboro. Commissioned 
CaptainSeptember 21*. lS«i4. Was ontlie march to the sea but was taken 
sick at Savannah and went home on a leave of absence. He returned 
to Charleston. S. C, where he commanded a battalion in the Coast 
Division until ordered to rejoin the ReRiment. doing so at Raleigh. 
Captain Osman was u good officer ami brave man. Mustered out 
June •;. ls«;r>. After the war was interested in farming in Minnesota. 
He was a writer of good ability. Died in Ottawa. October '21. 1833. 

FIRST LIKITKNANT SYDNKY V ARNOLD. Was born in 
Washington County. N. Y.. March 7, 1S44: removed with his parents 
to Illinois in l.s.'i.'i. and enlisted .\ugust 11. \st\2. when l^ years old; 
clerk: was appointed Third Corporal upon organization of Company 
A, and subsequently First Sergeant; re<'eived the latter promotion 
Januar> 1. ls<i4. for meritorious services at Ix)okout Mountain and 
Mission Ridge. Was promoted First Lieutenant to take rank from 
Septi-mlier L'H. lsti4. He took part in the battle of Hartsville; was in the 
Tullahoma campaign; the battles of Chickamauga. I^ookoiit Moun- 
tain and Mission Ridge. an<l all the various battles and skirmishes 
of thi- Regiment on the .\tlanta <-ampaign. up to and including 
Kenesaw Mountain, where on June 27. I.sti4. he was wounded in the 
foot, and rheumatic lever ensuiiig. was s«>nt to hospital, thence home 
on leave. In Novemlx-r. ls»>4. on his way to rejoin the Regiment, was 
unable to do so and detained at Nashville, where he was ])Ut In 
romtnand of a company of convalescents all inemlwrs of the First 
Division. Fourteenth Corps. Lieutenant Arnold {utrticipated in the 
battle of Nashville ami soon after in the action at Decatur. Was 
appnintetl I'rovost .Marshal and kIv«-ii command of the post at Ring- 
gold. t!a . January 21. is*;.'!, by MaJor-tJeneral Steedman. His duties 
there were severe and of a dilllcult and dangerous naiur<> on account 
of raiders and bushwhackers. Ouerrlllas und<>r (iatewcsxl and Mc- 




Lieut. Sidney V. Arnold, Company A. 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 379 

Donald attacked the post several times and were repulsed with loss. 
March 1, he, with the rest of the One Hundred and Fourth, were 
ordered to rejoin the Regiment and did so at Goldsboro. N. C, April 
9, 1865. Lieutenant Arnold was the youngest commissioned officer 
in the Regiment and had the honor of being detailed to take charge 
of the Company and Regimental records from Washington to Chicago 
for the final muster-out of the command. Mustered out June ii, 1865. 
Lieutenant Arnold was a brave soldier, a good officer, and most 
efficient in the performance of all duties that devolved upon him in 
whatever position. After the war he remained in Illinois until 1883, 
when he removed to Edmunds County, Dakota, and was a pioneer 
of that section, locating towns and railroads. He now holds for the 
second term the office of Recorder of Deeds; lives in Ipswich, the 
county seat, and is a prominent citizen. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT ALPHONSO PRESCOTT. Age 30; 
born in Kingston, N. H.; merchant; enlisted at Ottawa in August, 
1862, and was elected Second Lieutenant. He was in the Kentucky 
campaign, and often detailed on important duties and foraging 
expeditions at Frankfort and elsewhere, being often in command 
of his own and other companies. Also performing ably the duties 
of Acting Provost Marshal while in Kentucky. He marched 
with the Regiment to Hartsville, Tenn., and was in the battle 
there. Had his information and suggestions before that occur- 
rence been heeded, the result of the battle would have been different. 
He participated in the Tullahoma campaign and was at Elk River. 
Taken sick at Decherd, he started on the Chickamauga campaign, 
but at Cowan was obliged to go to hospital and was finally sent to 
Nashville, and while there was reduced in weight to 68 pounBs; was 
sick a long time. Resigned September 2,1863. Lives in St. Louis, Mo. 
Is a teacher. Lieutenant Prescott was a fine officer, of great 
executive abilitv and unquestioned bravery. See "Incidents." 

FIRST SERGEANT DAVIS B. STILLSON. Enlisted from 
Eailville August 15, 1862; was in the Kentucky campaign and the 
battle of Hartsville; was taken sick and discharged July 6, 1863; dis- 
ability. He was a good soldier. 

SERGEANT JAMES H. NEWTON. Enlisted from Earlville Au- 
gust 15, 1862; was in the Kentucky campaign and the battle of 
Hartsville; in the Tullahoma campaign. Discharged at Decherd, 
Tenn., July 14, 1863. 

SERGEANT EDWIN J. TROWBRIDGE. Age 20; born in Ohio; 
farmer; was in the three months' service; enlisted from Bruce July 
23, 1862; he was in the Kentucky campaign and the battle of 
Hartsville; in the Tullahoma and Chickamauga campaigns; at Elk 
River, Davis Cross Roads, Chickamauga. Was at Lookout Mountain 
and Mission Ridge, in the Atlanta campaign and its battles; in the 
pursuit of Hood, on the march to the sea and through the Carolinas 
to Bentonville. Mustered out June 6, 1865. His record as a fighter 
speaks for itself. Lives in Santa Ana, Cal. 

SERGEANT FRANK PICKENS. Enlisted from South Ottawa 
August 15, 1862; farmer; appointed Corporal; was in the battle of 
Hartsville; in the Tullahoma and Chickamauga campaigns; at Elk 
River, Davis Cross Roads; the battles of Chickamauga, Lookout 
Mountain and Mission Ridge. He participated in the Atlanta cam- 
paign at Buzzard Roost, Resaca, New Hope Church, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Peach Tree and Utoy Creeks, and Jonesboro. He was in 



SM THE ONE HU NDRED AND FOURTH 

the piirMilt of Hooil h» fur a» Konu*. Ga. Took part in the battlf of 
Naitbville and wa»% in the action at l>ei-atiir, Ala., where he hud 
charge of Colonel Mitchell'K headquarlers Kuarii. Rejoined ihe 
Regiment in Noriii Carolina. Promoted Sergeant for meritorious 
BerviteH Mii8t«'re<l out June t"., isr.f.. Frank was always on hand 
and ready for a tight He now lives in South Ottawa. 

SKRlJKANT M It'll AKL Cl^NC'V. Knllsted from Ottawa August 
15, ls»iL'; ap|>olnie(| S«'rgfant ; at the muster out of the Regiment was 
•erving in t»ie I'nited States Navv. 

SKRtlKANT OMVKR P. HARDINtJ. Knllsted from South 
Ottawa August 14. IKCiL'; he was in the Kentucky campaign and battle 
of liartsville. in the Tullahoma campaign at HIk River; in the 
Chickanuiuga cam|)aign to Stevenson. Ala., left there sick; rejoined 
the Regim<-nt hecemher li. ISf.H; jmrticipated in the Atlanta campaign 
and was at Huzznrd Roost. Rewica. New Hoim' Clnirch. the batth'S 
around Kenesi»w and I'each Trei- Creek; killed in the latter battle 
July 2". ls»i-l. an<l the Regiment and country lost a brave sohlier and 
valuable life. 

SKRC.KANT ISAAC N. FELCH Knllsted from Karlvllle August 
15. \M2: appointed Corporal: was at Hartsville; in the Tullahoma 
■campaign to lH«cherd; taken sick : rejoined the Regiment December 25, 
1863. and was in the Atlanta and Carolina campaigns. Promoted 
Sergeant for meritorious services an<l mustered out July 1, 1S05. 

SKRC.KANT ALLKN MKNKDICT. Knllsted from Ottawa August 
l4. \stV2: appointed Corporal; was at Hartsville; in the Tullahoma 
•ind Chlckamauga campaigns; at Klk Ri\rr. Davis Cross Roads, the 
battle of Chlckamauga. Promoted Sergeant. In the Atlanta cam- 
paign was present at Muzzard Roost and Resaca. where May 13. lsr.4. 
the gallant soldier yielded up his life. 

SKRCKANT WILLIAM FKRRIS. Age 18; born in Illinois; 
enlisted from Ottawa August IT.. ls«;i.'; was at Hartsville; promoted 
Cori»oral; in the Tullahoma and Chlckamauga campaigns and batlbs 
at Klk River, Davis Cross Roads, and the battle of Chlckamauga. 
where he was wounded. Rejoined the regiment in December. lS6o, 
and was in the subseqtient campaigns and battles; was taken prisoner 
at battle of Pea<h Tree Creek. Promoted Sergeant for meritorious 
Ber\ fees. Mustered out June f.. ISO'i. 

CORPORAL DANIKL W. STEVKNSt)N. Age 22; born In New 
Jersey; farmer, enlisted from Ottawa July 22. 1S(J2; ap|)Olnl.'d 
Corporal; taken sick on the march frtun Frankfort to Howling 
Green. Ky Dlschargerl there for hepatized lung October 25.1862; haa 
never re<overed Is a farmer at Sunrise, III. 

CORIH)RAL Nt)RTt)N FIKLDS. Knllsted from South Ottawa 
August 1'.. lst;2: appofnte<l Corp<»ral; was transferred to V. R. C. 
Februarv 11. IMM Died some y<'ars ago. 

CORPORAL KMKN H. HOLLIS. Age 20; enlisted from Fticji 
August 14, 1SG2; appoint«'d Corporal; was in the Kentucky cami>algn 
and battle of Hartsville; in the Tullahonui campaign ami at Klk 
River, but lekeii sick there an<l sent to hospital. Transferred to 
V R C April 10, 1864. Lives In Ottawa an«l Is a machinist. Was a 
faithful soldier 

CORPOKAI. JA.MKS TOLL. Knllsted from Ottawa August 14. 
1862. apjKJlnted Corpc-ral; was at Hartsville and in the Tullahoma 
campaign; taken sick at Decherd and diacharged August 13. 1863. 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 381 

CORPORAL NATHANIEL BAKER. Age 28; born in Warrpn 
County, Pa.; farmer; enlisted from Brookfield August 1.5, 1862; was in 
the battle of Hartsville, and in the actions of Elk River and Davis 
Cross Roads, the battles of ChicUaniauga, Lookout Mountain and 
Mission Ridge. In the Atlanta campaign was present at Buzzard 
Roost, Resaca, New Hope Church, Kenesaw Mountain. Peach Tree 
and Utoy Creeks, Jonesboro. Was in the pursuit of Hood, on the 
march to the sea and in the Carolina campaign to Bentonville. where 
he was wounded March 19, 1865. Promoted Corporal for meritorious 
services. Mustered out July 17, 186.5. The record tells. Is a farmer 
in Brookfield. 

CORPORAL HIRAM WHITMAN. Age 24; born in Germany: 
farmer; enlisted from Ottawa August 14, 1862; was at Hartsville; 
taken sick and subsequently transferred to V. R. C. Mustered out 
June 6, 1865, as Corporal. 

CORPORAL PATRICK DOBBINS. Age 22; born in Ireland; 
laborer; enlisted from Ottawa August 15, 1862; was in the Kentucky 
campaign and battle of Hartsville; in the TuUahoma and Chicka- 
mauga campaigns; at Elk River, Davis Cross Roads, and the battle 
of Chickamauga, where he was severely wounded and discharged 
for same April 10, 1864. 

WILLIAM RAYMOND. Age 21; born in Peru. 111.; enlisted as 
musician August 15, 1862; was in the Kentucky campaign; discharged 
January 6, 1863; disability. Lives in Ottawa. 

FRANCIS PORTER. Age 45; born in Pennsylvania; butcher; 
enlisted August 15, 1862; was teamster; discharged November 9, 1864; 
disability. 

PHILIP B. ALLEN. Enlisted August 15, 1862; was never with 
the Company. 

FRANCIS BADYS. Age 29; born in Germany; enlisted from 
Ottawa August 15, 1862; deserted in the face of the enemy at Chicka- 
mauga September 20, 1863. 

ENOCH T. BAILEY. Age 18; born in Ohio; farmer; enlisted 
from Ottawa August 8, 1862; was at the battle of Hartsville; in the 
actions of Elk River and Davis Cross Roads, the battles of 
Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge. Was in the 
Atlanta campaign and its battles; in the pursuit of Hood, on the 
march to the sea and through the Carolinas to Bentonville. Was 
■wounded at Chickamauga. Always at the front and fearless. 
Mustered out June 6, 1865. 

JAMES BRUCE. Age 27; born in Scotland; enlisted August 15, 
1862; was in the Kentucky campaign; transferred to I. C. July 
13, 1863. 

EDWARD BOLLMAN. Age 30; born in Russia; enlisted from 
Ottawa August 14, 1862: was in the Kentucky campaign. Transferred 
to V. R. C. August 30, 1863. 

SUMNER M. BURNHAM. Age 21; born in Maine; farmer; 
was in the Kentucky campaign and battle of Hartsville, where he 
■was killed December 7, 1862; a true soldier and a great loss to the 
company. 

POLITUS BENNETT. Age 39; born in Pennsylvania; enlisted 
from Earlville August 15, 1862; engineer; was in the Kentucky cam- 
paign. Discharged December 21, 1863; disability. 

WILLIAM BARRETT. Age 21; born in Gal way, Ireland; sailor; 
enlisted from Ottawa August 15, 1862; was in the Kentucky campaign 



THK ONE HlNDHKl* ANI» KCU'RTH 

aiui [.iittU- of HartHville. In the Tullahoroa and Chickamaugii 
oamiMiiKns at Klk Kivir. l>uvi« t'rowi KoadB, and the battle of 
Chirkamaiiga Wah at l^ookout Mountain and MlbKlon Kldge. In 
the Mlanta ian«|»aign wa» pret^nl at lluzauird Roost and Resiua. 
where he wah »everelv wounded In tlie arm May VA. lSb4, anu 
dUiharRed for wound February llti. U«;r.. He was a brave soldier ami 
will never be forBoiten by the Company. After the war In t!»e 
employ of IlllnolB and MUhlRan Canal, and drowned In the summer 

of 1S68. .... 

Wll 1 I\M Hl'CKLEY Age 20. born In Clare. Ireland: farmer, 
.•nlisled'frunl Karlvllb- Aurusi K.. 1m;J: was In the Kentmky cani- 
iMtlgn and battle of Hartsville, where he was wounded in the nerk. 
Was In the Tullahoma and ChickamauKa lampalRns: at Klk Uiver. 
ImvlK Cross Uoiids and Chl.kamauKa. Was at l^iokout Mounlalij and 
Mission Kidge. In the Atlanta .anipaign at Buzzard Koost and 
Kesaia New Hope Church. Kenesaiw Mountain an.l Peach Tree 
Cre«.k. where he was taken prisoner. Mustered out June b. 18bo. 
Was true to his adopte«l country. 

DANIKI. IILKACH. Age 43; born In Ireland: laborer; enlisted 
AuKiistir. iV.i: was In the Kentucky .aiiipaign; in the Tullahoma 
and Chickamauga campaigns. Was in the Atlanta campaign at 
Huzziinl Koost. Kesaca. New Hope Church. Kenesaw Mountain and 
Peach Tree Creek, where he was captured July liO. ISbl. Mustered 
out June •; isf.r.. Alwavs on hand In times of danger. 

lURTON W n\C.LKY. Age 2S: born in Pennsylvania; farmer; 
enlisted from Karlvllle August If,. 1S«2: was In the battle of Harts- 
ville In the Tullahoma and Chlckamauga campaigns. In the A Ian a 
campaign at Kuzzard Roost and Resaca. where he was wounded n 
the face May Vl. W,i. Discharged October 26. 18C4. for wounds. 

'^''7aCOH CONR.in. Age 31; born In France; farmer; enlisted 
Aueust H 1m;_': deserted December 30. 1S62. 

CHR STIVN CHRKISFKLLAR. Age .31. born In C.ermanv 
farme : enlisted August If.. l.s.;2: was in the Kentucky «-""M.algn and 
at Hartsville In the Chlckamauga campaign; In the A Ian a 
TmnvXn Hn^^ard Roost an.l Resa.a. « here he was mounded 

he eck Mustered out June .;. isC. He ^»^ ^ f^;!;^ ^'l^^ ""^ 
chickens had to roost high when Chris was around. Di. .1 u 1SJ4. 

TIMOTHY CCNNINCHAM. Age 11.; born In Ireland; enlisted 
fron. Ottawa. August If.. 18«2: died In Louisville. Ky.. November 20. 

^^^'^'lOHN R CANTMN Age 2«»: born In Ottawa. Canada; enlisted 

fron;^^"Hvnie Angus ir.. lJV.2; farmer; at time of Hartsville battle 

iTa guar at fhe rebel Dr. Wlnstons. and was not <;V'''r''*. uMU 

,o O, lla in then.e to Can,p Douglas and from there to fhe front wh 

e R g men was In the battles of Chlckamauga. Lookout Moun- 

n and Mission Ridge; soon attacked with an Incurable disease of 

. rl . sHu i^^^^^^^ l.'T IS.-.r.. as incurable; still suffers: lives 

n^KVUte N a large /armer: has been a n.ember of the I^gisln- 

iur^wbe commander of C. A. R posts: and has held many olllces of 

'^"^;.,TxAMMJR'D;NLAlJ.'X:;;rborn in Scotland; farmer; 
fron'ottawa. August K.. 1802: he was In the Kentucky campnig., and 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 38a 

battle of Hartsville. In the Tullahoma and Chickamauga cam- 
paigns; at Elk River, Davis Cross Roads and the battle of Chicka- 
mauga. where he was killed September 20, 1863. A brave soldier who 
never missed a roll-call and could always be relied upon. 

HENRY DONNELLY. Age 19; born in Ireland: farmer; enlisted 
from Ottawa. August S. 1862; was in the battle of Hartsville, the ac- 
tions at Elk River and Davis Cross Roads; the battles of Chicka- 
mauga. Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge. Was in the Atlanta 
campaign and its battles; in the pursuit of Hood; on the march to the 
sea and through the Carolinas to Bentonville. Always at roll-call and 
ready for duty. Mustered out June (j. ise.'i. 

JOHN DOWNEY. Never with the company. 

DAVID DONVILLE. Age 21; born in France; enlisted from Earl- 
ville, August 15, 1862; deserted March 14, 1863. 

OLIVER DREW. Age 42; born in New York; farmer; enlisted 
from Ottawa. August If). 1862; he was in the Kentucky campaign and 
battle of Hartsville; in the Tullahoma and Chickamauga campaigns; 
at Elk River, Davis Cross Roads and the battle of Chickamauga,. 
where he was wounded September 20, 1863. Transferred to V. R. C. 
January 2. 1865. Was a fearless soldier. 

CHARLES FULLER. Age 24; born in New York; farmer; en- 
listed from Ottawa. August 14, 1862; was in the Kentucky campaign 
and battle of Harioville; in the Tullahoma and Chickamauga cam- 
paigns: at Elk River, Davis Cross Roads and the battle of Chicka- 
mauga, where he was wounded September 20, 1863. Mustered out 
June 15. 1865. He was a good soldier. 

BLOOMFIELD GREEN. Age 20; born in Ohio; farmer; enlisted 
from S. Ottawa, August 14, 1862; was in the Kentucky campaign. 
Discharged May 1, 1863, disability. 

JESSE GANT. Age 25; born in Ohio; farmer; enlisted August 
14. 1862; deserted March 14. 1863. 

DAVID C.GRIFFITH. Age 23; born in Ohio; farmer; enlisted from 
Serena, August 15, 1862; he was in the Kentucky campaign and 
battle of Hartsville; in the Tullahoma campaigns: at Elk River, Davis 
Cross Roads and the battle of Chickamauga. Was at Lookout Moun- 
tain and mortally wounded in the charge on Mission Ridge, Novem- 
ber 25. 1863. Died at Chattanooga, November 27, 1863. 

CHARLES E. HEADSTRONG. Age 21; born in Sweden: enlisted 
from Grand Rapids, August 15, 1862; farmer; mustered out June 6, 
1865. . 

SAMUEL HUTCHINGS. Age 20; born in Michigan; enlisted 
from Ottawa. August 14, 1862; farmer; was at Hartsville, Elk River, 
in the Tullahoma campaign: wounded and taken prisoner at the 
battle of Chickamauga; died of wounds in Andersonville, August 8, 
1864. Number of grave 5.019. A good soldier. May he rest in peace. 

RICHARD HETZNER. Age 23; born in Germany; enlisted 
August 15, 1862; farmer. Transferred to V. R. C. November 1, 1863. 

WILLIAM HEFFERAN. Age 23; born in Ireland; enlisted Au- 
gust 15, 1862; farmer: deserted December 30, 1862. 

ROBERT HIGHLAND. Age 22; born in Ireland; enlisted from 
Ottawa, August 15, 1862; farmer; deserted December 30. 1862. 

PAUL HAMILTON. Age 33; born in Pennsylvania; enlisted from 
Ottawa. August 15, 1862; farmer; deserted December 30, 1SC2. 

WILLIAM HORN. Age 29; born in Germany; farmer; enlisted 
from Ottawa, August 15, 1862; he was in the Kentucky campaign and 



M4 THE ONE HUNDHED AND FOUHTH 

lM»m«' of )lar(ti\ illc; in the Tullahonia and CMiicknutuga campaigns; 
at KIk Ulvcr. I>a\i8 C'iuhm Uuatih and (lie liattlc uf C liickaniaiiKa. In 
th«' battlt's of IxMikoui Mountain and MiHhion Hi<lt;e; in the Atlanta 
caniiialicn at Buzzard UooHt. Keiiaoa. New Hoim* Cltun-h. K«-neKaw 
Mountain. I'earh Trts^ t'rtn'k and I'toy Crefk. JoneHboro. Whh in the 
pursuit of }ioud. on the ntart-h to thf st-a an<l tluouKli the Caroiinas 
lo ii^ntonvillf : niiKHetl nothing but hih ration^: always ready for 
duty. MiiHii-red out June «>. 1J>(;5. 1m a farmer at Grand KldRe, 111. 

UIM.IAM H. KNAI'l*. Akv I'l ; born in IllinoiH; bla.ksmilh; en- 
JlBled from Dttawa. August 1.'.. ISOi'; was In the battle of Hartsvllle, 
the artiouK of Klk Klver and Davis ("ru^is Huads: the battles of 
(.'hIckamauKa. I^mkout Mountain and .Mission Kldge. In the At- 
lanta camimiKn at Buzzard Roost. Hesaca. New Hojje ('hur«h. Kene- 
8a w Mountain. I'earh Thh- and I'toy CpH-ks. Jonesboro. He was on 
the marrh to the sea and throuKh the Caroiinas to Bentonville. Mus- 
tered out June »;. 1865. Never missed roll-call or duty. Lives in 
Ottawa. Ill 

WALTKH KKTCHIM. Age 38; born In Canada; enlisted from 
Ottawa. .XuirnHt 14. l.Ni;j; dishonorably dls< harged May. 1SG5. 

MKUCK KINNELLV. Age :\\ . born in Ireland; farmer; enlisted 
from Ottawa. AuRust 14. Dstii'; deserted March li'i. ISC'S. 

JOHN KNKCHT. Age ;{!♦; born In (Jermany; mason; enlisted 
from Serena. August l.">. ISOL'. Transferred to V. R. C. January 15, 
1865. 

ALONZO H. LARKINS. Age IS; born in New York; farmer; 
enliste<l August 15, iStJL': he was In the Kentucky campaign and battle 
of Hartsville; in the Tullahoma and Chlckamauga campaigns: at Elk 
River. Davis Cross Roads, and the battle of Chlckamauga. In the 
battles of Lookout Mountain and Mission Ri<lge. Was at Buzzard 
Roost. Resaca. New Hope Church. Kenesaw Mountain. Killed at 
I'each Tree Creek. Jtilv I'u, 1S«»4. One of the voungest an«l bravest 
fell. 

JONATHAN LEWIS. Age ;n : born in Ohio; enlisted from 
Ottawa. August 1.'.. ls»;2; blacksmith; was in the Kentucky campaign 
and mortally wounded at Hartsville. December 7, 1862; died in Camp 
Douglas. 111.. April 16. 1863. 

DENNIS J. MIRPHY. Age 20; born In New York; enlisted from 
Ottawa. August l.'i. 1S6L'; blacksmith; was in all the battles of the 
Regiment up to and including Chlckamauga; taken sick; died In 
Chattanooga. November 1. 186:{. Active, energetic, brave and faith- 
ful to the last. 

WILLIAM McCLARE. Never with company. 

CHARLES M<NEAL. Age 22; born in New York; enlisted from 
Ottawa, August 15. 1.S62; carpenter; discharged September 23. 1863, 
for disablllly; was a good soldier. 

WILLL\M H. NORTON. Age 31; born in Maine; enlisted from 
Karlville. August 15. 1S62; shoemaker; was at Hartsville. In the 
Tullahoma .ind Chlckamauga campaigns; In the battles of Chlcka- 
mauga. I<ookou( .Mountain and .Mission !{idge. Resaca. Konesaw. and 
most of the battles of the .\tlanta campaign; on the latter was taken 
8lck; wnt to Sprlnglleld. III.; discharged Noveniber K. 1864. Had 
previously served in Comimny D. Twenty-third Illinois, and was at 
the hiegf of Lexington. .Mo. Llv«'s in Earlvllle. III. 

SILAS OLMSTEAD. Ago 3u; born In New York; farmer; enlisted 
trom Serena. AuguHt 16. 1862: he wa*i in the Kentucky campaign and 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 385 

battle of Hartsville. Was taken sick in Camp Douglas; discharged 
April 27, 1863; disability. 

PETER OLSEN. Age 40; born in Norway; enlisted from Ottawa, 
August 15, 1862; lie was in the Kentucky campaign and battle of 
Hartsville; in the Tullahoma and Chickamauga campaigns; at Elk 
River. Davis Cross Roads and the battle of Chickamauga, where he 
was killed September 20, 1SG3. 

MICHAEL O'RILEY. Age 24; born in Ireland; enlisted August 
15, 1862; he participated in the Kentucky campaign and battle of 
Hartsville, and in the Tullahoma and Chickamauga campaigns; was 
at the actions of Elk River and Davis Cross Roads, the battles of 
Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge. He was in the 
Atlanta campaign and its battles; in the pursuit of Hood as far as 
Rome. Ga. ; at Nashville and the action at Decatur, Ala. Rejoined the 
Regiment in North Carolina; was always ready for duty. Mustered 
out June 6, 1865. Lives in Chicago and has been on the Park police 
force for many years. 

PATRICK O'DONNELL. Age 21; born in Ireland; farmer; en- 
listed August 15, 1862; he was in the Kentucky campaign and battle 
of Hartsville. where he was wounded severely in the arm, but es- 
caped capture. (See Incidents.) He was in the Tullahoma and 
Chickamauga campaigns; at Elk River, Davis Cross Roads and the 
battle of Chickamauga. In the Atlanta campaign was present at 
Buzzard Roost, the battles around Resaca, New Hope Church; the 
battles around Kenesaw Mountain. In the battle of Peach Tree 
Creek, July 20, 1864, was again wounded in the arm and taken 
prisoner; arm was amputated and the undaunted O'Donnell escaped, 
rejoined his Regiment and was mustered out June 6, 1865. He was 
known among the boys as "Happy Pat." He was a fearless man and 
soldier, and the only enemy he ever had was himself. Died some 
years ago, but no one will ever forget him — the daring, generous, and 
brave. 

MICHAEL O'CONNER. Age 36; born in Scotland; farmer; he 
was in the Kentucky campaign and battle of Hartsville; in the Tulla- 
homa and Chickamauga campaigns; at Elk River, Davis Cross 
Roads and the battle of Chickamauga, where he was killed September 
20, 1863. He was always at the front and a brave man. 

TIMOTHY M. O'CONNER. Age 21; born in Scotland; enlisted 
August 15, 1862; mechanic; was at Hartsville, Elk River, Chicka- 
mauga, Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge. Buzzard Roost, 
Resaca. Kenesaw. Peach Tree Creek; taken prisoner July 20, 1864; a 
good soldier. Mustered out June 6, 1865. 

JOHN O'BRYAN. Age 23; born in Ireland; enlisted from Ot- 
tawa, August 15, 1862: laborer; deserted March 16, 1863. 

WILLIAM PRATT. Age 44; born in Ohio; enlisted from Ottawa, 
August 15, 1862; engineer; detailed as teamster; discharged for dis- 
ability, April 24, 1864. Faithful to duty. 

DANIEL PURSLEY. Age 25; born in Illinois; farmer; enlisted 
from Dayton, August 15, 1862; mustered out June 10, 1865. 

LYMAN POTTER. ^Age 23; born in New York; farmer; enlisted 
from Earlville, August 15, 1862; he was in the Kentucky campaign 
and battle of Hartsville, where be was wounded. Was in the Tulla- 
homa and Chickamauga campaigns; at Elk River. Davis Cross 
Roads, and the battle of Chickamauga, where he was again wounded. 
Mustered out June 6, 1865. Is now dead. 



3W THE ONE HrXDRED AND FOURTH 

FOHHES H. HJTTER. Age 20; born iu Illinois; enllsn-d August 
15, 1802. <l»-rt«'rt.nl .Marth 14, 1S63. 

t'ARl. I'KTTER.MAN. Age 38; born in Germany; laborer; en- 
lluietl from Ottawa, AugiiHt 15. 1862. Transferred to V. R. C. January 
15, 1SG4. 

MKNRY RIDDLE. Age 20; born in New York; farmer; euUsted 
from Knnn Ritige. Auguttt, lK(t2; in the Kentucky campaign and bat- 
tle of HartHvllU*. DlKil>arg»*d January G. 18G3; disability. 

JAMES ROAt'H. Agf 21; born in Ireland; farmer; enlisted from 
(Inmd RapidH, August 15, 18G2; was in the Kentucky campaign and 
baltif of ilartsvilUv In the Tullahoma and CMiickamauga campaigns; 
at Elk River. Davis Cross Roads, and the battles of Chickamauga. 
l»okout Mountain and Mission Ridge. Mustered out May 17, 1.SG5. 

THOMAS RYAN. Age ly; born in Ireland; sailor; enlisted from 
Ottawa, August 15, 1KG2; he was In the Kentucky campaign and 
battle of Hartsville; in the Tullahoma and Chickamauga campaigns; 
at Elk River, Davis Cross Roads and the battle of Chickamauga; was 
a line type of a soldier. Discharged January i», 18G4; disability. 

EDWARD RICHARDSON. Age 21; born in England; mechanic; 
enlisted from Ottawa. August 8. 18G2. Musteretl out June 12, 1SG5. 

WILMA.M ROMERTSON. Age 48; born in Scotland; farmer; 
enlisted from Earlvilje. August 15, 1SG2; deserted March 14, 1SG3. 

FRANCISCO SANCHEZ. Age 27; born in Mexico; pwnter; en- 
listed from Ottawa. August 15, 1SG2; he was in the Kentucky cam- 
paign and battle of Hartsville; in the Tullahoma and Chickamauga 
campaigns; at Elk River, Davis Cross Roads and the battle of 
Chickanuiuga. where he was wounded September 20, 18G3. His sub- 
sequent reconi is unknown. 

ANTON SMITH. Age 26; born In Germany; farmer; enlisted 
from tJraiKl Rapids. August 15. 1SG2; he was in the battle of Harts- 
ville, the a<tioiis of Elk River and Davis Cross Roads; the battles of 
I^ookout Mountain and Mission Ridge. Was in the Atlanta cam- 
paign and its battles; in the pursuit of Hood, on the march to the 
sea; in the campaign of the Carolinas, and the battle of Benton ville; 
always reatly for duty. Mustered out June G, 1SG5. Lives in Grand 
Raiiids, 111. Is a farnier. 

FREDERK'K SINDERMAN. Age li*; born in Germany; farmer: 
enlisteil August 14. lstl2; was In the Kentucky campaign antl at 
Hartsville. Taken sick anti died at home March 13, 1SG3. 

HENRY S.MITH. Age 3(i; born in Germany; farmer; enlisted 
from Earlville. August 15. 1SG2; deserted April 11, 1SG3. 

JOHN TIDM.ARSH. Age 31; born in England; farmer; enlisted 
from .Manllus. A>igusl 15. 1,SG2. Absent sick at M. O. of Regiment. 

ELIAS THOMPSON. Age 24; born in Ohio; farmer; enlisted 
from S. Ottawa, August 15, 1SG2; was in the Kentucky campaign. 
Died in Chiiago. February 2G, 18G3. 

DAVID VARNER. Age 22; born in Virginia; farmer; enlisted 
from Rutland, August 14, 18G2; was in the battle of Hartsville, the 
actions of Elk River, Davis Cross Roads; the battles of Chickamauga. 
l/>okout Mountain and Mission Ritlge. In the Atlanta campaign, at 
Buzzard Roost. Resaca. New Ho|m» Chunh. Kenesaw Mountain and 
I'each Tree Creek, where he was severely wounded July 2u. l.SGl; 
dlH< barged for woumls I'ebriniry 23. 18G5. Lives at Kingman. Kan. 

I'HILII' WICHERT. Age 27; born In Germany; farmer; en- 
llMed AuRUHt 15. 1SG2; he was In the Kentucky campaign and battle 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 387 

Of Hartsville. Left sick at Murfreesboro, June 24, 1863. Transferred 
to V. R. C. October 21, 1863. 

ULYSSES WEUVE. Age 26; born in Germany; jeweler; enlisted 
from Serena, August 15, 1862; he was in the Kentucky campaign and 
battle of Hartsville. Transferred to V. R. C, August 30, 1863. Lives 
at State Center, Iowa. 

JOHN M. WINSLOW. Age 24; born in Maine; farmer; enlisted 
from Earlville, August 15, 1862; was in the Kentucky campaign and 
battle of Hartsville; in the Tullahoma and Chickamauga campaigns; 
at Elk River, Davis Cross Roads and the battle of Chickamauga. In 
the battles of Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge. Participated in 
the Atlanta cami)aign at Rocky Face, the battles at Resaca, New Hope 
Church; the battles around Kenesaw Mountain, and was at Peach 
Tree Creek. On August 7, 1864, the brave Winslow fell at Utoy 
Creek. He had in 1861, served in the Twenty-third Illinois, and was 
in the siege of Lexington, Mo. 

LUCIEN WARREN. Age 18; born in Illinois; farmer; enlisted 
July 27, 1862; w^as in the march to Bowling Green and Tompkinsville, 
Ky.; left there sick and reported dead, but recovered and reported at 
Camp Douglas. Was in the Tullahoma campaign and at Elk River, 
but had a sunstroke there July 1. 1863; removed to Decherd and 
thence to Louisville. Discharged September 1, 1863; disability. A 
good soldier. Is now in the newspaper business at Galesburg, 111. 

RECRUITS. 

STEPHEN CHRIESFELLER. Age 25; born in Germany; me- 
chanic; enlisted from Joliet, January 4, 1864. Died in Nashville July 
4, 1864. 

AMOS T. FERGUSON. Age 22; born in Indiana; farmer; en- 
listed from Rutland, September 27, 1864, and was in the subsequent 
campaigns of the Regiment. Mustered out June 6, 1865. Last heard 
of in Kansas. 

GEORGE SIGMUHL. Age 33; born in Germany; farmer; en- 
listed from Joliet, January 4, 1864. Adjutant-General's report says: 
"Corporal — remains to be transferred." 

THOMAS G. MALONEY. Age 40; born in Ireland; farmer; en- 
listed from Grand Rapids, April 11, 1865. Adjutant-General's report 
says: "Sentenced by G. C. M. to serve sixteen months over time." 



SM THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

STATISTICS OF COMPANY A 

TotuI cnllHtnient . .% 

Killi'tl unti mortally wounded 11 

Woiimlfd .* *• 

Ht*8lgiM*(l for wound 1 

Hfs»pii«'i| for dltiablllty 1 

•••d for wounds ■* 

..'d for disability !<> 

1 "It .1 (>r diBoaite ^ 

I>ifd In prison 1 

I >«'tM*rttMl 13 

N«'vor with company ** 

Mu»tt«rfd out June 6, 1865 20 

Tranferred to V. R. C ^ 

Transferred to I. C 1 

IVlarhed at M. 1 

Absent sick at M. 1 

Mustered out at other dates ^ 

Remained to be transferred 1 

Sentenced by CJ. C. M 1 

Dishonorably discharged 1 

Known to be living (December, 1894) 22 








^^i^' 




■ ^^''^?'^ 





Gen. S. A. Porter, Co. E 
S. W. Burgess. Co. B. 
Capt. G. W. Howe, Co. 



G. R. Conarroe, Co, B. 
Lieut. M. M. Randolph, Co. B. 
A. G. Robinson, Co. B. 



CHAPTER XXV 



Company B — How and Where Organized — Roster and Biogra- 
phies — Statistics. 



SKETCH OF COMPANY B. 

This (jompauy was recruited and organized at Tuu- 
ica, La Salle Couuty, iu August, 18H2, amid the wave 
of enthusiasm aud patriotic indiguatiou that swept 
the country at that time. Prominent among those who 
helped to raise the company were George W. Howe, a 
well-known farmer near T«jnica; Rev. Moses M. Ran- 
dolph, pastor of the Tonica Baptist Church, and Sam- 
uel A. Porter, then teaching school in the village. The 
community was largely American, descendants of Xew 
England and Revolutionary stock, and the response to 
President Lincoln's call for 600,000 more men, was 
prompt and hearty on the part of the stalwart sons of 
the prairie. Before the middle of August, 1802, the 
ranks were full and some went away to enlist in other 
companies. The company was then organized by the 
election of George W. Howe as Captain, Moses M. Ran- 
dolp First Lieutenant, samuel A. Porter Second Lieu- 
tenant. 

The following non-commissioned officers were ap- 
pointed: William C. Ross, First Sergeant; Cromwell 
Woodward, Second Sergeant; Asa Dunham, Third Ser- 
geant; Jos. D. Porter, Fourth Sergeant; Philaud«n' Tal- 
bot, Fifth Sergeant. The following were appointed 
Corporals in this order: Joseph G. AVheat, Alb(n-t C. 
Bassett, Jesse A. Bryant, Charles Menz, William M. 
Chambers, Nathaniel Richy, Andrew Foss and Wil- 
liam Seeley. 

The company went into camp with the Regiment 
at Ottawa, and was drilled daily by Lieut. Portei-, who 
had seen service in Company B, Thirty-third Illinois 



3»0 THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

Iiifaiifrv, aii<I was an rtVuitMit drillinasttT, \vh«> sultsf- 
<|ii«'ntlv atiaiiicd «listiiit'ti(tii aiul hi<zli rank. (ioiii<<: 
to till' front tln' ronipany i»artiripat«'(l with thi* Hr^n- 
nn*nt in all its iiiaiili«*s an«l hatth's an<l niadi* a ivimumI 
for lira\«'rv an*i rnicicmy sf<on«i to nonr. Its casual- 
ties in l»attl<* trll the* story of blotMlshcd and snlT«*rin«; 
♦•nduHMl. At Hartsvillo tlio men showrd tin* kind of 
inatrrial they wcr»* made of. Tln'rt' the lamented and 
brave Lieiiirnant Kamhdph ^ave his life for his coun- 
try; d«din KiMJer was mortally woimded, dyin;^ in F«*l»- 
rnary. lsVt',\\ Jcdin <\ Vail, mortally woun«led; Ser«;eants 
Josj*|di I>. Porter, <'rom\\ell Woodward, (ieor;:e Steid- 
in'.'er and Howard H. While were kiih-d. Ki^dit w«'re 
wounded, a few very hadly. The eompany i>arlitii>ated 
in the Tullalioma and Chickamau^^a eami>ai«;ns and 
the ^reat battle of ( 'iiiikamau^M with « redit. At 
Decheid, Tenn., ('ai»taiii Howe, who was a brave, able 
and hi^'hly rej;arded ollieer, resigned on account of ill 
health and Lieutenant Porter became Captain. Lieu- 
ttMiant \\'illiam ( '. Koss, who had been promoted fr«»m 
First Ser;:eant to S«M'ond Lieutenant Hecember Idih, 
isr.L', became I'irst Lietitenant. At ( 'hickamauua Kob- 
ert M. W'arnock was killed; .Joseph M. ( 'hanct* mortally 
wounded; NN alien Hutchinson kilbMl; seven were 
wounded, amoiiu them Captain Porter, who lost his 
left arm, and dacub dtdiiisou, \\ ho was also taken pris- 
oner, and ill Andersonville ci^ililccii months. The sub- 
se<|ueni record of Cumjiany II was in kefjijuLX with the 
deeds that marked lis hist a<liicvemeiiis. and worthy 
of the reputation won in the liist battle. In the liat- 
th's of L<»okout .Mouniain an<l .Mission Kidi^c and on 
ilif Atlanta campai^iii, at Buzzard L'oost, K<'sa«a; in 
t he bat I les around New Hope < Miurcli, Kfiiesaw .Moun- 
tain, Peach Troe ('reck, the sie^fc of .\tlanla. al Lloy 
i'reek, when', on .Xu^misi TiIi, l>«iL Serp-ant Albert ( '. 
Itasseit. commanding; the touipany, fell; in all thrse. 

and in tin- pursuit of II j, ili)> mai-< h to tlif sea; tlx' 

campai;:!! tlirou;;h the Carolinas, an<l at itentonvilh\ 
Company I! was lepi-cseiited and jiromiiHUt. thou;:h 
with ranks r«'du< iij. Tin- 11 \ Iml: nn iiiIh is « ;mi rt-fn' with 



REGIMENT II.T.IXOIS VOLUNTEERS. 391 

pride to its honorable sei-xMce and i-cjoicc in (lie i>ait 
it porfornied in liclpinn' to concpu'i- tiic jii-cat iclK'lliuii. 

ROSTER OF THE COMPANY. 

CAPTAIN GEORGE W.' HOWE. Age 39; born in Roylston, Vt.; 
farmer; enlisted in August, 1862, at Tonica. and became active in 
recruiting men for a company. On organization was elected Captain 
and repaired to Ottawa witli his men and the company became a 
part of the famous One Hundred and Fourth. Going to Louisville 
with the Regiment, Captain Howe participated in the campaign in 
Kentucky after Biagg, and in the march to Bowling Green and 
thence to Hartsville, where, on December 7. 18fi2. the One and Fourth 
fought its first battle against overwhelming odds. The story of the 
battle is given elsewhere, but Captain Howe was distinguished on 
that disastrous and bloody field for coolness and personal courage. 
He Avas at the head of his company in the Tullahoma campaign and 
with Company B, in the ten hours under fire on the advance to Elk 
River. Bragg having — after being driven back from Tullahoma and 
across the Elk — retreated across the Cumberland Mountains, the 
One Hundred and Fourth went into comp at Decherd, Tenn. There, 
Captain Howe, becoming enfeebled and in poor health, resigned, a 
step much regretted by his own company and by the Regiment. The 
Captain returned to his beautiful home near Tonica, where he ha.s 
been honored with imi)ortant public offices and is enjoying a happy 
and good old age. respected and loved by all. 

CAPTAIN SAMUEL A. PORTER. Age 23; born in Ripley, 
Brown County, Ohio, July 7, 1839; enlisted first in Company B. Thirty- 
third Illinois, August 20, 1861; discharged for disability April 10, 
1862; was a school teacher in Tonica, 111., when he enlisted the second 
time, August, 1862, in Company B, and at once entered with spirit 
into the work of recruiting men for the company. At the organiza- 
tion he was elected Second Lieutenant; his previous experience and 
capacity for command soon became apparent and Company B at- 
tained with him as drill master a high degree of efficiency. Lieu- 
tenant Porter was noted for his thoroughness in all he undertook 
and this was the secret of his success as a soldier. He was in the 
battle of Hartsville and in the Tullahoma and the Chickamauga 
campaigns. Was promoted First Lieutenant December 10, 1862, 
and mustered March 8, 1863; made Captain August 11, 1863, and 
mustered October 3, 1863. Captain Porter commanded Company B in 
the battle of Chickamauga and lost on that bloody field his good left 
arm. In consequence of his wound he had to go to the hospital for 
some months. He resigned August 24, 1864, and was mustered as First 
Lieutenant in the V. R. C. to date from August 22d: was made Captain 
Aiigust 29, 1864, and mustered out October 6, 1864, to become Colonel 
of the One Hundred and Twenty-third United States Colored troops. 
As such, he commanded the department of colored troops in Mis- 
sissippi for some time, and there had an opportunity to display his 
great executive ability. He was brevetted Brigadier-General March 
13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services during the war; was 
made Captain by brevet. March 20, 1867, for gallant and meritorious 
services in the battle of Chickamauga, and Major by brevet also. 
Was transferred to the Seventeenth Infantry. Regular Army, May 
27, 1869. Retired with the rank of Captain, December 15, 1870, for 



3»:' THE ONE Hr.VDRED AND FOURTH 

loKs of It'ft nrn» from wound received In line of duty, "per ads of 
CongrfMi, AuKUKt and July. IStiG." General I'orter died In UoBton, 
April 2\. isso. NuthiuK more neinl l>e uald about Urevel Brigadier 
(lenenil I'ortrr. hU r«Tor<l KpciikK fur IlKelf. 

CAITAIN WILLIAM (*. ROSS. KnIlHted In AugUHl. 1SG2: farmer. 
apiMilnti'd KirHt SerKi-aiil: wiih in the battle of llartsville; proniotml to 
Sii-ond Lleut«-nant, IHtimuImt 10. 1S(J2; pjirti<-ii)at«'d in the Tullahoma 
and C'hirkaniiitiKa (-anipaiKiiK; wan promoted FirKt Lieutenant Au- 
RU8t 11. IMkI; took |>art in the battle of ChiekamauKa and was di:j- 
tiniculKhed there for rei-klehH daring. \Va8 In the battles of lx>okout 
Mountain and MisKion Ridge. In the latter was severelx 
wounded and obliged to go to the hospital for some time, consequently 
did not take part In the Atlanta campaign. Rejoined Company ii. at 
KItigKion. (!a.. November t. iSiM. and was mustered on the t;th. as 
Captain, his commishion dating from August -4. isti4. Henceforth 
Captain Ross was on deck at all times; was on th«- mar<-h to the 
s<-a. and through South Carolina, where he commanded foraging 
parties frequ«'ntly, a work for which he had a great adaptability and 
one he liked. Hut he went once too often, being captured at Stroud's 
Mill, on Fishing Creek. S. C, February -C, lS(j5. He and the party 
he commanded were surroumled by l)il»reirs <avalry. Ross, how- 
ever, proposed to tight, and did, until having kilb-d and disabled some 
four or five rebels, and seeing no way of escape, he surrentlered with 
most of his men. The air around Fishing Creek was said to be sul- 
idiurous from the Captains swearing. He was sent to Libby — h 
l)risoner. and exchanged in time to be nnistered out June «. 1SG5. 
Captain Ross had strong personal characteristics, physically and 
mentally, that made him conspicuous and marked his military career. 
lt«'si(lein e unknown. 

FIRST LIKITFNANT MOSKS M. RANDOLPH. Was born In 
I>e\Vitt County. 111.. December H». ls»4; descendeil directly from the 
Virginia Randolphs of historic fame; was educated at Shurtleff Col- 
lege, and took a theological «ourse at Madison I'niversily. New York. 
When the war broke out was |)astor of the Baptist Church in Tonica, 
anri a preacher of elo(iuence and power. In the summer of ISCL'. hl8 
patriotism became arotiscd and he frecjuently addressed public mepl- 
Ings railed to consider the duty of the hour. In .\ugust. the Rev. 
Randolph enlisted in what was to be Company B. determined (o show 
by works as well as bv words. He was elected First Lieutenant and 
saw his first and last battle at llartsvllle. Mortally wounded, he was 
borne from the field to a house, by Mr. A. <1. Robinson, of Company B. 
and ilied on I)<'cember H. IStJl'. Thus fell in defense of his country, at 
the early age of twenty-eight, lacking one day. the eloquent and 
noble Randol|)h. loved by all. mourned by all. not only in his own 
company and Itegiment. but by the whole community where he had 
li\ed ''ud labored. Who shall say that his "Crown of (;ior\" \\as 
not marie brighter by the lightning Hashes of battle at Hartsville that 
guhled his wav to the eternal world? 

FIRST LIKITKNANT I'HILANDFR TALBOT. Age L'tJ; born In 
Poringe County. Ohio; enlisted In istil. but the company was not 
aecepteil. Enlisted In Company B. August G. 1S«»2; was appointed 
Fifth Sergeant and was in the Kentucky campaign and battle of 
Hartsville; promoted First Sergeant. D<'cen>ber In. 1S«;2; was in the 
Tullahoma and Chlckamauga campaigns; at KIk River and Davis 
Cross Roads. In the battb- of Chickanutuga. September !'.• and 20. 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 393 

1863, fighting on the famous "Horse Shoe" ridge until dark of Sep- 
tember 20th. Was in the battles of Lookout Mountain and Mission 
Ridge, and in the grand charge up the heights was wounded by a 
piece of shell at the same moment as Captain Ross: was obliged to 
go to hospital, but recovered in time to march with his company on 
the Atlanta campaign, and was at Buzzard Roost and in the battles 
around Resaca, but becoming disabled from former wound, was sent 
back to Chattanooga. Again joined his company at Atlanta and was 
in the pursuit of Hood until near Rome, Ga., when he was taken sick 
and troubled by the old wound; was sent to Chattanooga, and by 
order of General Steedman put in command of a company of con- 
valescents, and sent to guard Bridgeport. Ala. In the meantime had 
been promoted First Lieutenant, date of commission August 24. 1864. 
He subsequently rejoined the Regiment in North Carolina, and was 
mustered out June G, 18(J5, after honorable, faithful and zealous 
services in the various positions he had filled. After the war, he was 
a deputy clerk in the County Court of La Salle County for some time, 
Is now a merchant in South Ottawa. 

SERGEANT JOSEPH D. PORTER. Aged 32; Iwrn in Ripley, 
Brown County, Ohio, a brother of General Porter; enlisted August 11, 
1862; appointed Fourth Sergeant; was in the Kentucky and Tennessee 
campaigns; participated in the battle of Hartsville, and early in 
the action was severely wounded and told to go to the rear. He 
replied. '"Not while this work lasts." Soon after the brave Sergeant 
was shot again through the forehead, expired in his brother's arms 
and joined the "bivouac of the dead." "In the low green tent — whose 
curtain never outward turns;" a noble example of American patriot- 
ism, bravery and sacrifice. 

SERGEANT CROMWELL WOODWARD. Enlisted August 8, 
1862, and was appointed Second Sergeant; was in the march through 
Kentucky after Bragg, and early gave an example of his "grit" at 
Shelbyville, where some rebel slaveholders attempted to drag the 
negro cook of Company A out of the ranks. He broke his gun, but 
saved the darkey. At Hartsville, Sergeant Woodward was among the 
bravest of the brave, firing rapidly himself and encouraging others, 
when the fatal bullet ended his life on the field of honor. 

SERGEANT ALBERT C. BASSETT. Enlisted August 9, 1862; 
appointed Corporal. Served with his company in the Kentucky and 
Tennessee campaigns and was in the battle of Hartsville. Promoted 
Sergeant; was in the Tullahoma and Chickamauga campaigns; at 
Davis Cross Roads and Chickamauga; in the battles of Lookout 
Mountain and Mission Ridge. In the Atlanta campaign, Sergeant 
Bassett was at Buzzard Roost, Resaca. New Hope Church, Kenesaw 
Mountain, and Peach Tree Creek. In the latter he was wounded, but 
continued with his company and commanded it August 7, 1864, at 
Utoy Creek. There, while bravely cheering on his men, he fell shot 
through the head, and as all believed, by the hands of the same rebel 
sharpshooter who killed Fitzsimmons, Craig, and Graves, on the 
same day and nearly the same spot. In taking command that morn- 
ing, he had relieved Lieutenant Linsley of Company F, who just then 
received his I'esignation papers. Sergeant Bassett was a gallant 
soldier and his loss felt deeplv by the whole Regiment. 

SERGEANT ASA DUNHAM. Age 43; born in Ohio; farmer; 
enlisted from Tonica August 11, 1862; appointed Third Sergeant; 
was taken sick and unable to be with the Regiment much of the 



3M THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOt'RTH 

lime. DlwhurRoU for tllKabilily. December 3, 1863. at Chattanoogu. 
I8 a retlrvil farmer Jn Kiitluiul. 

SKHCJHANT WILLIAM M. t'HAMUKUS. Knllsted from Tonka. 
AiiRUHt s. ISO:.'. a|i|>oiiitiM) (*oriH»rHl; wuk at Hartsvllle. and in all the 
baidfK and ranipalKns following ttial battle; was wounded at Peach 
Tre«' t'r«M-k; was proniot»'d S«'rf:«*ant; mustered out May 27. ISfifi. 

SKHCKANT ANliUKW I'. KOSS. Knllsted from Tonica. AurubI 
6. ISGL'; appointed Corporal; wan HriKadt* I'oHtinastt-r In the Kentucky 
and IVnufKM**- caniiuilgn; promoted SerK«'ant; sent home Hick; died In 
hoKpital at MacllHon, Ind.. Novenibt-r L'L*. lS«i3. 

SKUlIKANT HKKMAN L. KINNKY. Age 32; born in New York; 
enllhted from Tonlca. August !*. 1SG2; was in the battle of Harts- 
vlllt>; wounded Hlightly: in the TuUahoma an<l Chickamauga cam- 
paigns; at Klk River, DaviH C'ro«« HoadK. and C'hickamauga. Was 
in the Atlanta campaign at Huzuird Roost. Resaca. New Hope 
Church. Kenewiw Mountain. Teach Tree and I'toy Creeks, Jones- 
boro. Was in the pursuit of Hood, on the march to the sea and 
through the Carolinas; at lientfujville. rromote<l First Sergeant for 
meritorious services. Mustered out June tl, ISO.'i. 

SKR(;KANT CHAULKS MKNZ. Knlisted from Tonica. August 
11. isri2; api>ointe«l Corporal; was in the Kentucky campaign and 
on picket duty when the battle of Hartsville opened. He helped 
to check the rebel advance until line of battle was formed; soon 
after was promoted Sergeant. Was in the Tullahoma campaign 
and at Klk Itiver. during which he contracted chronic rheumatism. 
Mustered out to date .June •>. lK»i5. 

SKRCKANT (JRANT J. ROSS. Enlisted from Rden, February 
27. lsri4; was in the Atlani:i and Carolina campaigns. Transferred 
to Forty-sixth Illinois Infantry. 

CORPORAL .IKSSK \\ . RRYANT. Knlisted August 11. 1862; 
appointed Corporal. Discharged for disabilitv December 9. 1863. 

CORI'ORAL NATHANIKL RICHEY. Age 2o; born In Eden. 
Iji Salle County. 111.; farmer; enlisted August 11. 1862; appointed 
CoriK)ral; marched with the Regiment to Howling Green. Ky. On 
the march from there to Tompkinsville, he was taken with typhoid 
pneumonia and left In that town to die. Was paroled by the rebels 
after the Regiment left, and finally recovering so that he could 
walk, found his way to our lines and subsequent l" to Camp Douglas, 
where he was discharged for disability. April 2S. 1S63. Lives at 
Redlands. Cal. Is a merchant and banker. 

CORPORAL SENECA S. (JALUP. Age - ; born In New York; 
teacher; enlisted August H. ISt'.L". from Tonica; appointed Corporal; 
was In the battle of Hartsville. and on the Tullahoma and Cliicka- 
mauga campaigns; was In the battles of Chickamauga. Lookout 
Mountain and Mission Ridge; on the Atlanta campaign, was at 
Ruzzard Rf>ost. Resaca. New Hope Church, the battles around K«'ne- 
uaw Mountain; Peach Tree Creek; the siege of Atlanta and the 
engagements at I'toy Creek. Tcnik jtart In the march to the sea; the 
campaign of the Carolinas, and the battle of Hentonville. In the 
latter wi;b wverely wounded and sent to hosi>ital. Discharged for 
wounds at Madison. Ind., May 26. lS6."i. Lives in (Jalva, Kan. 

C()RPOR.\L FARirS E. PHELI»S. Enlisted from Putnam 
County. August 11, 1862; promoted Corporal: was in the battle of 
Hartsville; In the actions of Elk River an<l Davis Cross Roads; at 
Chickamauga. IxKikout Mountain and Mission Ridge, Was at Ruz- 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 395 

zard Roost, Resaca, New Hope Church, Kenesaw Mountain and 
Peach Tree Creek, where he was taken prisoner. Mustered out 
June 6, 1865. 

CORPORAL WILLIAM SEELY. Enlisted August 8, 1862; ap- 
pointed Corporal; was in the battle of Hartsville. Transferred to 
V .R. C. September 4. 1864. 

CORPORAL ROBERT M. WARNOCK. Enlisted August 11, 1862; 
was in the battle of Hartsville; promoted Corporal; in the Tullahoma 
and Chickamauga campaigns; in the battle of Chickamauga and 
missing there, known to have been severely wounded and was un- 
doubtedlv killed. 

CORPORAL HENRY WINTERSCHEIDT. Age 18; born in Prus- 
sia: farmer; enlisted from Putnam County, August 7, 1862; was in 
the battle of Hartsville; in the Tullahoma and Chickamauga cam- 
paigns; in the battle of Davis Cross Roads, Chickamauga. Look- 
out Mountain and Mission Ridge. Took part in the Atlanta cam- 
paign, and was at Buzzard Roost, Reseca, Kenesaw Mountain 
and Peach Tree Creek; was wounded in the left thigh in the latter 
battle and sent to hospital at Nashville. Rejoined the Regiment 
two months later; promoted Corporal; was in the pursuit of Hood, 
the march to Savannah and through the Carolinas; at Bentonville. 
Mustered out .lune 6, 186.5. Lives at Baker, Kan., and is a farmer. 
See "Incidents." 

CORPORAL EDWARD WOOLSONCROFT. Enlisted August 11, 
1862; was at Hartsville; promoted Corporal; took part in the Tulla- 
homa and Chickamauga campaigns; was in the battles of Chicka- 
mauga, Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge; in the Atlanta cam- 
paign was at Buzzard Roost, Resaca, Kenesaw Moimtain. Killed 
July 20, 1864, in the battle of Peach Tree Creek, and a brave and 
faithful soldier was lost to his country. 

CORPORAL FRANCIS M. HALL. Age at enlistment, 25; was 
born in Maine; farmer; enlisted August 11, 1862; was in the battle of 
Hartsville; in the Tullahoma campaign, Chickamauga campaign; 
and in the battles of Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain and Mission 
Ridge; appointed Corporal May 13, 1864. Took part in the Atlanta 
campaign: was at Resaca, New Hope Church the battles around 
Kenesaw Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, the siege of Atlanta, and 
the various engagements there, and at Utoy Creek and Jonesboro. 
Was then furloughed home and unable to rejoin the Regiment, was 
detailed as clerk at Louisville. Discharged May 28, 1865. Is a 
merchant at East Lvnn, 111. 

BENJAMIN W. ANGELL. Age 19; born in Vermilion, La Salle 
County; farmer; enlisted August 11, 1862; was in the battle of Harts- 
ville; in the Tullahoma and Chickamauga campaigns; was at Elk 
River, Davis Cross Roads, the battle of Chickamauga; sick in hos- 
pital; was in the Atlanta campaign at Buzzard Roost, and in the 
battles around Resaca; taken sick and sent to Nashville; discharged 
for disability July 21, 1864. Is a farmer in Lodemia, Livingston 
County. 111. 

WILLIAM J. BARTON. Enlisted August 11, 1862: was a team- 
ster most of the time and always ready for duty. Mustered out 
June 6, 1865. Lives at Walnut, Junietta County, Pa. 

CHARLES A. BRADISH. Age 21; born in Hennepin, 111.; 
farmer; enlisted August 9, 1862; was in the battle of Hartsville; in 
the Tullahoma and Chickamauga campaigns; in the battles of 



JM THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

Chlckainaiigii, I.xxikout Moiiiituin uud MiKsiun HidKt'. Was wounded 
In tht> hand at llartHville. and in the tthuuldiM- at Chickamaugu. 
Mii8t<T«*d out June G, 1866. Lives near Uanttom, 1^ Salle County, and 
i8 a farmer. 

SIDNEY W. lU'RUESS. Age 23; born In iM Salle County. Ill,; 
farmer, eiiliHied AuKUHl «*. iStJl'; was at Harlsville; in tlu' Tulla- 
hunia and ChickamauKa camiMiignH; in the battles uf Chickaniauga, 
IxMikttut .Mountain. .MiKHion Ridge; was in the Atlanta eamitaign at 
liiizzard RooHt. Re»»ata. New Hoi>e Church, the battU-K around Kene- 
haw .Mountain and that of IVaih Tree Creek; wounded in the latter 
battle; mustered out Se|)tember 1, 18G5, at Ix)uiBVille. Lives in 
Toniea. Is a farmer and engine<'r. 

liARD.NKR L. CHASE. Enlisted August 8, 1862; was in the 
battle of HartKville and wounded in the foot. Discharged for dis- 
ability. April lis. 1SG:{. 

WILLIA.M CHA.MHERS. Enlisted August 8. 1862; was in the 
battle of llart.sville. I)ih<'harKed for disability. 1863. 

JOSEPH .M. CHANCE. Enlisted August 4. 1S62; was in the 
battle of Hartsville: in the Tiillahoma and Chickamauga campaigns; 
in the battle of Chickamauga. was mortally wounded on the 20th, 
borne from the field by Comrades West and Hasselt on an improvised 
stretcher to Rossville, thence to Chattanooga, where the heroic 
soldier <lled October 13. 1863. 

WILLIA.M H. CLARK. Age 40; born In New York; blacksmith, 
and followed his trade while in service; enlisted August 11. 1862. 
Discharged November 19. 1863. for disability. Lives in Mound City, 
Kan. 

SAMIEL 1'. CLARK. Enlisted August 11. 1862; was in the 
Kentucky campaigns after Bragg, and in Tennessee; was at Harts- 
ville. where he was mortally wounded and died in January. 1863. 

JOSEPH A. CLARK. Piiilisted August 8. 1862. Transferred to 
V. R. C. 

(HLBERT R. CONARROE. Age 22; born in Fort Madison. Iowa; 
farmer: enlisted Aiigust 11. 1862; was in the battle of Hartsville. and 
with the rest taken prisoner, when the rebels took him for one of 
their deserters, (see narrative). Mr. Conarroe was in the Tullahoma 
and Chickamauga campaigns; at Elk River ami Davis Cross Roads, 
the batiles of Chickamauga. Lookout .Mountain and Mission Ridge. 
During the siege of Chattanooga he asked permission of Colonel 
Hajieman. to be detailed as driver in the i)r()vision trains to 
Hrldgeport. The Colonel said, "No. you are too good a mark to shoot 
at." Took imrt in the Atlanta campaign, at Buzzard Roost. Res;ica, 
New Hope Church, the battles of the Regiment around Kenesaw 
Mountain, and that of Beach Tree Creek, where he was wounded 
July 2<i, 1864. in the left side anil left leg. and was obliged to leave 
for a short time. .Not being al)le to rejoin the Regiment, on arrival 
at Nashville, he was put In one of the convalescent conipanles to fight 
Hooil and was in the battle of Nashville. He was also in the pursuit 
after Hood and in the action of Decatur. Ala., when* he and others 
crossed the Tennessee under fire of the n-bel batteries. In a note 
to the writer he says: "I tell you. »-omrade. I did some winking and 
blinking on that occasion." Conarroe was enabled finally to rejoin 
his beloved Regiment, hardly one of whose battles he had missed, 
near Washington. Was mustered out June G, 1865. Lives In 
Middletown, Ohio. Is a farmer. 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 397 

FRANCIS M. COOK. Enlisted August 11. 1862; was in the battle 
of Hartsville; the TuUahoma campaign at Elk River; the battles of 
Davis Cross Roads, Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain and Mission 
Ridge. In the Atlanta campaign at Buzzard Roost, Resaca, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Peach Tree and Utoy Creeks, Jonesboro. In the pursuit 
of Hood, on the march to the sea and through the Carolinas to 
Bentonville. Mustered out June 6, 1865. 

ALFRED CURTIS. Enlisted August 7. 1862; was in the battle of 
Hartsville; in the Tullahoma and Chickamauga campaigns; the 
Atlanta campaign; on the march to the sea and through the 
Carolinas. Mustered out June 6, 1865. 

PETER DAHL. Enlisted from Putnam County August 11, 1862. 
Discharged for disability March 2, 1863. 

PATRICK DELANEY. Enlisted August 7, 1862. He was a brave 
soldier and in a number of battles, but his full record can not be 
had. Last heard of in Texas. Mustered out June 6, 1865. 

JOHN DICKSON. Age 25; born in Denmark; farmer; enlisted 
August 11, 1862; was in the battle of Hartsville; taken sick and 
transferred to V. R. C. February 11, 1864. Mustered out September 2, 
1865. Lives at Reading, Lyon County, Kansas. Is a farmer. 

JOHN A. EVARTS. Enlisted August 11, 1862; was at Hartsville. 
Discharged for disability in 1863. 

FLORENCE A. GARRISON. Enlisted August 11, 1862; was in the 
battle of Hartsville. Died at Gallatin. Tenn., January 2, 1863. 

JAMES GARRISON. Age 27; born in Wyoming County. Pa.; 
enlisted August 9, 1862, from Farm Ridge; was in the battle of Harts- 
ville and severely wounded in the wrist; discharged for wound in 
1863. Moved to California and died there May 23, 1894. He was a good 
man and brave soldier. 

HENRY C. GRAVES. Enlisted August 9, 1862; was in the battle 
of Hartsville and wounded. Discharged for disability April 28, 1863. 
OLIVER E. GRIEST. Enlisted August 11, 1862; was at Harts- 
ville; in the Tullahoma and Chickamauga campaigns, in the battles 
of Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge. Took part 
in the Atlanta campaign up to and including Resaca, where he was 
wounded May 14, 1864, in the left arm and had it amputated; 
discharged for wound, March 8. 1865. Lives in Kansas. 

AUGUST GRONBECK. Enlisted August 11, 1862; died in hospital 
at Cincinnati, of disease, December 3, 1862. 

ADELBERT S. HANNUM. Enlisted from Putnam County 
August 11, 1862; was in the battle of Hartsville; in the Chickamauga 
campaign; in the battles of Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain and 
Mission Ridge. Killed in the latter in the grand charge, November 25, 
1863, while bravely climbing up to glory. 

JUSTIN S. HALL. Age 22; born in Maine; farmer; enlisted 
August 7, 1862; was in the battle of Hartsville; taken sick and 
discharged March 15, 1863. at Camp Douglas for disability. Was 
brigade Q. M's. clerk at Hartsville. Lives at Urbana, 111. Is a 
farmer. 

WILLIAM S. HALL. Age 19; born in Maine; farmer; enlisted 
August 11, 1862; was at Hartsville; in the Tullahoma arid Chicka- 
mauga campaigns, and in the battle of Chickamauga. Had been a 
musician, but threw away his drum at Chickamauga, telling his 
commander that he wanted something more effective than a snare 
drum; thereafter he carried a musket. Took part in the battles of 



tM THE ONE HLNDRED AND FOURTH 

l^oukotit Mountain und MlKsiun RidKe; was at Buzzard Roost. Resaca. 
Kfiifiuiw Mountain. iVarh Trt^* Creek, the siege of Atlanta. L'toy 
t':<.k, Joneslioro; In the iiursult of Hood, the marcli to the sea, the 
. liMi-alKn of the Carolinas. the battle of Heiitonville. Always with 
hih (oniimny aiul regiment. Mustered out June G, 18t>5. Lives in 
t'hJiago. Is a iHXjkkeeper. holding a position of trust in same firm 
for many years. 

I'KTKR HANSON. Knilsted August 11. IStiJ; was with the 
Regiment as far as Rowling (;reen, Ky. Died there of disease in 
January. lst>3. 

FRANCIS HINCKLKY. Enlisted Atigusl 11. 1862; was In the 
battle of Hartsvllle. Discharged for diRability. April 2S. 1SG3. 

EDWARD V. Hl'LlNti. Enlisted August S. 18G2: was at Harts- 
vllle; in the Tullahoma and Chl<-kamauga campaigns; was wounded 
at Chi< kainaiiga. Mustered out June r.'. l.st;ri. Not alive. 

EDWARD IHTCHINSON. Age 20; born in Ui Salle County; 
was In the Kentucky campaign and battle of Hartsvllle; In the 
Tullahoma and Chl<kamauga campaigns, at Elk River, Davis Cross 
Koads. the battles of Chickamauga. Ix>okout Mountain and Mission 
Rblge. In the Atlanta campaign at Huzzard Roost. Resaca. New- 
Hope Church. Kenesaw Mountain. I'each Tree and L'toy Creeks, 
Jom-sboro. Was In the ])urKuit of Hood, on the march" to the sea and 
through the Carollnas, to Bentonville. Was never absent. I>»fl sick 
In Washington. Mustered out July 25, 1805. Lives at Williamstown. 
Iowa. Is a farmer. 

WARREN HITCHINSON. Enlisted July C. 1862; was at Harts- 
vllle and In the Tullahoma and Chickamauga campaigns; at Elk 
River and Davis Cross Roads. Killed In the battle of Chickamau^. 
September 20. 1SG3. .md body never re<-o\ered. 

CLARK HITCHINSON. Enlisted August G. 1S62; was in the 
Kentticky camjjaign and battle of Hartsvllle; at Elk River. Davis 
Cross Roads and the battle of Chickamauga. Taken sick and 
discharged November 7. 18G3; dlKability. Died a few years after 
the war. 

Jl'LirS JOHNSON. Enlisted August 7. 18C2; was In the battle 
of Hartsvllle. Discharged in January. 1SG.3. for disability. 

JACOB JOHNSON. Age .'{o; born In Denmark; farmer; enlisted 
August 11, 1HG2; was In the battle of Hartsvllle and In the Tullahoma 
and Chickamauga campaigns; was wounded in the battl(> of 
Chickamauga and taken i)ri8oner; sent to Richmond; was In prison 
there three months; in Danville, five months; In Andersonville, 
ten months. Released by close of the war and mustered out, same 
to date May 24. 1SG.'>. Lives at Hennepin. III. Is a farmer. 

ENOCH C. KELLER. Enlisted August S. 1SG2: was In the battle 
of Hartsvllle; on «letached duty. Mustered out June 2. ISG.S. 

MATTHIAS KESSLER. Enlisted Atigust !». 1SG2; was In the 
battle of Hartsvllle; in the Tullahoma campaign at Elk River. In 
the battles of Davis Cross Roads. Chickamauga. I>ookout .Motintain 
and Mission Ridge. After that detailed to assist as cook and present 
in all the campaigns and battles, an efUclent and brave soldier. 
Mustered out June G. ISG.'i. 

JOHN MOONSON. Enlisted Aiigust 11, 1SG2; was In the battle of 
Hnrthville; transfi'rred to V. R. C. February 11. 1S64. 

JOHN M. MELLON. Enlisted August 9, 1862; was in the battle 
of Hartsvllle; in the Tullahoma <anjpalgn. Was wounded In leg ai 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 399 

Brentwood, Tenn., by bushwhackers while on picket. Took part 
in the Chickamauga campaign; was in the battles of Davis Cross 
Roads, Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge; in the 
Atlanta campaign at Buzzard Roost, Resaca, Kenesaw, Peach Tree 
Creek, Utoy Creek and Jonesboro. Was on the march to the sea and 
through South Carolina; captured February 26, 1865, at Stroud's Mill, 
S. C, and sent to Richmond; exchanged; mustered out June 6, 1865. 

DAVID McCAMPBELL. Enlisted August 11, 1862; promoted 
Fife Major; was taking care of the wounded in the field hospital at 
Crawfish Springs at the time of the battle of Chickamauga, made a 
prisoner and sent to Andersonville. where he died, July 10, 1864; 
number of grave, 3,100. In him the Regiment lost a good man. 

NICHOLAS MCCORMICK. Enlisted August 7, 1862; was at Harts- 
ville; in the Tullahoma campaign; at Elk River; in the battles of 
Davis Cross Roads, Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain and Mission 
Ridge. Was in the Atlanta campaign at Buzzard Roost, Resaca, 
Kenesaw Mountain, the siege of Atlanta, in the pursuit of Hood, 
the march to the sea and northward. Was with Captain Bill Ross 
at Stroud's Mill, S. C, and in the fight was severely wounded in the 
wrist, but determined to escape, swam Fishing Creek with one arm, 
and with John E. Merritt of Company H, succeeded in rejoining the 
Regiment after rumiing the gantlet of the rebel cavalry. "Nick" 
was permanently disabled by the wound. Absent, wounded, at 
muster out of Regiment. Lives in Utica, 111. 

JOHN McDORMAN. Enlisted August 7, 1862; was at Hartsville; 
in the Tullahoma campaign; at Elk River; in the Chickamauga 
campaign, at Davis Cross Roads, and the battle of Chickamauga; 
w^ounded in the latter. Absent, wounded, at muster out of 
Regiment. 

JAMES R. Mccormick. Enlisted August 10, 1862; detailed as 
teamster: mustered out June 6, 1865. 

ANDREW MORGANSON. Enlisted August 7, 1862; was in the 
battle of Hartsville; in the Tullahoma and Chickamauga campaigns; 
at Elk River, Davis Cross Roads, the battles of Chickamauga, 
Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge. In the Atlanta campaign, 
that of the Carolinas and Bentonville. Mustered out June 6, 1865. 

DOMINICK MONS. Enlisted August 9, 1862; was at Hartsville, 
in the Tullahoma campaign; at Elk River, Davis Cross Roads; in 
the battle of Chickamauga; wounded in the latter. In the Atlanta 
and Carolina campaigns. Mustered out June 6, 1865. Lives at 
Hasper, Iowa. 

JAMES McNALLY. Enlisted August 11, 1862; was at Hartsville 
and wounded. Deserted April 10. 1863. 

LOUIS W. NORRIS. Enlisted August 7, 1862; was in the battle of 
Hartsville; in the Tullahoma and Chickamauga campaigns; at Elk 
River, Davis Cross Roads, and the battle of Chickamauga. At 
Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge. Killed in railroad accident 
November 1, 1864. 

CHARLES W. NORTON. Enlisted August 11, 1862; died of dis- 
ease at Columbus, Ky.. January 9, 1863. 

MONS OLSEN. Age 23; born in Denmark; farmer; enlisted 
August 4, 1862; at Tonica; was in the battle of Hartsville; in the 
Tullahoma campaign; in the Chickamauga campaign; in the action 
at Davis Cross Roads, September 11, 1863; in the battles of Lookout 
Mountain, Mission Ridge and Chickamauga. In the Atlanta campaign 



400 THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

ai BuzzanI Roost. Kt>Kuca. New Hope Churt-h. the battles around 
Keneiuiu Moiiiituin: IVach Tree Creek; In the latter baitle woundoil 
In thf U'ti Hld«', but continued with the HfRlnient; In the manli to 
the sea. the cainimigu of the C'arollnaK. and the battle of Bentoiiville, 
where he wan sevt-rely wounded twice In the rl^ht hip and riglU 
knetv AbK<-nt wounded at muster out of Regiment. Lives near 
Peru. III. Ik a farmer. 

STKl'MEN H. PATTKRSON. Age 21; born In Pennsylvania; 
farmer; was In the battb* of Hartsvllle; the Tullahoma campaign, 
tht* action at Davis Cross Roads, the battles of Clilckamauga, l>ookoul 
Mountain and Mission Ridge. Was In tlie Atlanta campaign at 
Buzzard Roost, the battles around Resaca, New Hope Church, 
Kenesaw Mountain. Peach Tree Cr<*ek. the siege of Atlanta, I'toy 
Cr»H'k. JoiH'sburo; in the pursuit of liood; the march to the sea: the 
campaign of the Carolinas; and the l>attle of Bentonvllle. Always 
with th«' Regiment. Mustered out June G, 18Gj. Lives at Cornell, 
III. Is a farmer. 

C;rSTAV PKTKRSON. Enlisted Augus't 11, lSh'2: was at Harlt^- 
vtlle; In the Tullahoma campaign; at I)a\ls Ooss Roads; the baitlesof 
Chlckamaug}!. lA)okout Mountain and Mission Ridge. In the Atlanta 
campaign at Resaca, Kenesaw, Peach Tree Creek; wounded in the 
hea<l In the latter battle. Was In the march to the sea and through 
the Carolinas; at Hentonvllle. Mustered out June 6, 18G5. 

WILLIAM PAIL. Enlisted August 11, 18G2; was at Hartsvllle. 
Discharged for disiibility April 2S, 1863. 

ANDREW PETER. Enlisted August 11, 1802. Discharged for 
disability April H. ISiVA. 

EDWARD PHILLIPS. Age 17; born In Ui Salle Co»inly; farmer; 
enlistJ'd .\ugust 11. 1SC2; was at Hartsvllle; the battles of Davis Cross 
Roads, Chickamauga. Lookout .Mountain. Mission Ridge. Took part 
In the Atlanta campaign at Buzzard Roost. Resaca. Kenesjiw, Peach 
TrM* Creek, the siege of Atlanta, I'toy Creek, Jonesboro; in the 
pursuit of Hood, the march to the sea, the campaign of the 
Carolinas. Bentonville. Musten-fl out June G, 1865. Died December 27. 
18H3. from dis«'ase contracted in service. 

JOHN REDER. Enlisted A»igu8t 11. 1SC2; was in the Kentucky 
campaign after Bragg, and in the battle of Hartsvllle. December 7. 
1m;2, wh«-re he was mortally wounded and died in February. 1863, al 
Gallatin. Tenn. 

WILLIAM T. REDMAN. Enlisted August 11. 1862; deserted Jan- 
uary 10. 1M)3. 

RICHARD .M. RHEIH.ART. Enlisted August 8, 1862: was in tin 
battle of Hartsvllle; in the Tullahoma and Chickamauga campaigns; 
in the action at Davis Cross Roads: the battles of Chickanutugit, 
IxKikout Mountain an<l Mission Ridge. In the Atlanta campaign 
at Resa«a, N«'W H«>p<' (Miunh. Kenesaw, Peach Tree Creek, the siege 
of Atlanta. Itoy Cp'<'k; In th«' pursuit of Hood, the nuirch to the 
si-a. and through the Carolinas. Killed at Bentonville. N. C.. March 
19. IhG.'i, aftiT going through all the foregoing. The only one of the 
Regiment killed there. 

ADRIAN (L ROBINSON. Age 23; l>orn in Maine; farmer; 
••nllstfd August 11. 1K(;2; was in the battle of Hartsvllle; In the 
Tullahoma and Chickamauga campaigns: In the action at Elk River 
and Davis Cross Roads; was d<*talled as teamster, and his health 
l>n*aklng down was llnally sint to l/oulsvlltf. where he was dlscharg >d 
Jiin<- h. lhG.'j. Llv«'H in Tonira, III. 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 401 

AUGUSTUS ROBINSON. Age 21; farmer: enlisted August 9, 1862; 
was transferred to V. R. C; took part in the battle of Nashville. 
Discharged in J«ne, 1865. 

HENRY U. ROBISON. Enlisted August 6, 1862; was at Harts- 
ville; in the Chickamauga campaign; in the battles of Davis Cross 
Roads, Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge; in the 
Atlanta campaign at Buzzard Roost, Resaca, Kenesaw and Peach 
Tree Creek; wounded in the latter severely in three places in the 
face. Mustered out June 6, 1865. 

CHRISTL4N SCHILLING. Enlisted August 11, 1862; was in the 
battle of Hartsville; afterward detailed as cook and present in all tlie 
campaigns. Efficient in the Atlanta campaign, many times crawling 
on his hands and knees to the skirmish line, pushing the kettles 
ahead of him in order to get coffee to the men. They never forgot 
it. Mustered out June 6, 1865. 

NICHOLAS SHAWBACK. Age 24; born in Germany; enlisted 
August 11, 1862, from Lowell; was at Hartsville; in the Tullahoma 
and Chickamauga campaigns; in the action at Davis Cross Roads; 
in the battles of Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge; 
in the Atlanta campaign at Buzzard Roost, Resaca, New Hope 
Church, the battles around Kenesaw, Peach Tree Creek; wounded 
and taken prisoner in the latter battle; exchanged September 20, 
1864; was in the pursuit of Hood, on the march to the sea and through 
the Carolinas to Bentonville. Mustered out June 6, 1865. Died Feb- 
ruary 4, 1892. Was a member of Randolph Post, G. A. R., at Tonica. 

STEPHEN J. SHELTON. Enlisted August 11, 1862; was in the 
battle of Hartsville; in the Tullahoma and Chickamauga campaigns; 
in the action at Davis Cross Roads; the battles of Chickamauga, 
Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge. Mortally wounded in the 
latter in the grand assault on the enemy's works. Died in Nashville, 
June. 1864. 

NEWTON M. SHELTON. Enlisted August 9, 1864; was in the 
battle of Hartsville and wounded, leg amputated; discharged in 
consequence. 

DAVID J. STANFORD. Age 25; born in Florence, Oneida 
County, N. Y.; farmer; enlisted August 11. 1862; was in the battle of 
Hartsville: in the Tullahoma and Chickamauga campaigns; in the 
actions of Elk River, Davis Cross Roads; and the battle of 
Chickamauga: wounded in the ankle at Hartsville; discharged De- 
cember 4, 1863, for disability. Lives at Chatsworth, 111. Is an engi- 
neer and surveyor. 

LUCIEN STANFORD. Enlisted August 9, 1862; was in the 
Kentucky campaign and the battle of Hartsville, where he was 
mortally wounded: died February 26, 1863. His arm had been ampu- 
tated while in a rebel hospital. 

GEORGE STEIDINGER. Enlisted August 11, 1862; was in the 
Kentucky campaign and the battle of Hartsville, where he was 
killed. December 7, 1862. 

CHARLES W. TULLIS. Enlisted August 6, 1862; transferred to 
V. C. R. 

JOHN C. VAIL. Enlisted August 7, 1862; was in the Kentucky 
campaign and mortally wounded at Hartsville. Died December 9, 
1862. 

ELISHA WALKER. Enlisted August 9, 1862; discharged for 
disability, September 1, 1864. 



4dJ THE ONE Hl'NDHED AND FOl'RTH 

JOHN E. WAI.WOKTH. Enlisted August 11, 1862; discharged 
for disability. J»nuuiy. lhG3. 

HA.MIEL W. WAUNOCK. Enlisted August 11. 1862; discharged 
for dliuililllty. November li«. 1863. 

HOUEHT WEST. Age 30; l>orn In England; farmer; was at 
HurtNvltle; In the Tullahonia and Chlckamaugu campaigns; In the 
actionH of Klk Ulxer. I»avls CroKs KoadH; the battl**s of Chickamauga, 
IxiokoiK Mountain and MIkhIou HIdge. In the Atlanta campaign at 
I(ii2;utrd itooKt. the battlcH around H<*»uica. Kenewiw Mountain. IVach 
Tr«'e Crt'ek; the siege of .-Mlanta. I'toy Creek, where on AugUHt 7. 1N»J4. 
he was severely wounded in the right side and hip by a musket ball. 
Discharged February 5, 1865, for wounds. Lives at Gllman, 111. Is a 
farnjer. 

JOSEPH (!. WHEAT. Enlisted as drummer August 9. 18»iJ; was 
In the Kt-ntucky camiialgn ami battle of Hartsville. In the Tullahoma 
and Chit-kamauga campaigns, and while attending to the wounded 
at (.Miickamauga in th«' field hospital at Crawfish Springs, was taken 
prisoner with McCampbell. and sent to the rebel prison hells. Wheat 
esca|M'd an<l rejoining the Regiment June 2.'*, IstJl. he beat the long 
roll once more, threw ilown his drum and took a musket. Was 
thereafter with his company at Kcncsaw. I'each Tn'c and I'toy 
Creeks. Jonesboro; In the ])ursult of Hood, on the march to the sea 
and through the Carollnas to Bentonvllle. Mustered out June 0, 1865. 
Lives somewhere west. 

HOWAHD H. WHITE. Enlisted April 11. 1862; was In the 
Kentucky and Tennessee campaigns; killed at Hartsville DecemlKr 
7. 18r.2. 

JOSHCA WILSON. Enlisted August 11. 1862; was at Hartsville; 
In the Tullahoma campaign; In the action of Davis Cross Roads, the 
battles of Chickamauga. lx)okout Mountain and Mission Ridge; 
woun<led In the latter battle. Mustered out June f«. 18t»r>. 

THERON WOOLLEY. Age 1;.'.; born In Duchess County. N. Y.; 
farmer; enlisted from Tonlca August 9. isr(2; was In the battle of 
Hartsville and slightly woun<le(i In the shoulder: In the Tullahoma 
campaign; was taken sick and missed Chickamauga and Mission 
Ridge; was In the Atlanta campaign at Buzzard Roost. Resaca, New- 
Hope Church, Kenesaw Moui.taln. Peach Tree and I'toy Creeks, 
Jonesboro; In the pursuit of Hood, on the march to the sea, and 
through the Carollnas, to I^entonville. Mustered out June 6. 186.".. 
Lives In Chicago. 

JOHN P. WOf)LSONCROFT. Enlisted August 11. 1862; he was in 
the Kentucky campaign an<l battle of Hartsville; In the Tullahoma 
and Chickamauga campaigns at Elk River. Davis Cross Roads and 
the battle of Chickamauga. In the Atlanta campaign at Buzzard 
Roost. Resiica. New Hope Church. Kenesaw .Mountain. Peach Tree 
and Ctoy Creeks; In the Oeorgia and Carolina campaigns. .\ brave 
Holdler and an upright man. Mustered out June 6, 1865. 

RECRIITS. 

BALSER ASCHERMAN. Age 19; born In Illinois; farmer; 
enlisted November 2r.. lKt;.1; took part In the .\tlanta campaign at 
Buzzard Roost. ReHaca, Kenesaw .Mountain. Peach Tree Creek, ami 
the siege of .Mhuiia: was in the march to the sea. and the campaign 
through the Carollnas. Was transferred at Washington to the 
Thirty-fourth IlllnolH Infantrx. 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 403 

WILLIAM BABCOCK. Enlisted February 29, 1864. Transferred 
to Thirty-fourth Illinois Infantry. 

EDWARD BARMORE. Enlisted from Peru February 29, 18G4. 
Transferred to Thirty-fourth Illinois Infantry. Lives in Waukegan, 
111. 

SAMUEL D. BAXENDALE. Enlisted from Peru February 29, 
1864; was in the Atlanta campaign at Buzzard Roost, Resaca, New 
Hope Church, Kenesaw Mountain, Peach Tree and Utoy Creeks, 
Jonesboro. In the pursuit of Hood, on the march to the sea, and 
through the Carolinas to Bentonville, where he was wounded March 
19, 1865. Transferred to Thirty-fourth Illinois Infantry. 

CHARLES W. CHAMBERS. Enlisted from Tonica, February 
29, 1864. Was accidentally wounded at Graysville, Ga. Transferred 
to Thirty-fourth Illinois Infantry. 

DAVID D. DECK. Age 16; born in Dauphin County, Pennsyl- 
vania; ran away from school to enlist, February 29, 1864; was in the 
Atlanta campaign at Buzzard Roost, Resaca, New Hope Church, Kene- 
saw, Peach Tree Creek, the siege of Atlanta, Utoy Creek; in the 
pursuit of Hood, the march to the sea, the campaign of the Caro- 
linas, and the battle of Bentonville. Transferred to Thirty-fourth 
Illinois Infantry. Discharged July 20, 1865. Lives at Hennepin, 111. 
Is a farmer. 

EDWIN EVERETT. Enlisted February 29, 1865. Transferred 
to Thirty-fourth Illinois Infantry. 

WILLIAM McNAULL. Enlisted March 3, 1865. Transferred to 
Thirty-fourth Illinois Infantry. 

NELSON F. NOXON. Enlisted February 29, 1864. Died at Vin- 
Ings' Station, Ga., July 30, 1864. 

GEORGE M. RISDEN. Enlisted February 25, 1865. Died at 
Chattanooga, May 25, 1865. 

JOSEPH B. SULLIVAN. Enlisted February 25, 1865. Trans- 
ferred to Thirty-fourth Illinois Infantry. 

MOSES L. TULLIS. Enlisted January 20, 1865. Transferred 
to Thirty-fourth Illinois Infantry. 

STATISTICS OF COMPANY B. 

Total enlistment Ill 

Killed and mortally woui;ded 17 

Wounded 30 

Resigned for disability 1 

Resigned for promotion 1 

Discharged for wounds 5 

Discharged for disability 21 

Died of disease 7 

Died in prison 1 

Accidentally killed 1 

Accidentally wounded 1 

Deserted 2 

Mustered out June 6. 1865 27 

Mustered out at other dates 7 

Transferred to other regiments 11 

Transferred to V. R. C 6 

Absent, wounded, at M. O 3 

Known to be living (December, 1894) 34 



riiApii:i: xx\i. 



Company C— How und Where Organlxed— Rosier and lilogra- 
phles— SlatltillcH. 



SKKTCH OF COM 1 'ANY <' 

Tin- \\t»rk of raising iiicii for this ininpaiiv l»c;:aii 
Aii;;ust \n\i, ISJJI*, in I lie tciwus t>f Mi'iulota, Kailville, 
Tiov <;iovr an<l Mfiidcn. lU tlu' Ultli of Aii^iisi a 
siin'K-iriii iiiiiiiIm-i- had fiilistrd to form a roiiqcuiv. 
Aiiionj; I lie ariive ones in ilic iiioVfiiuMit wen* S. M. 
llfslet, .M. \\". Tcwksliurv ami I ). ('. Kvii«*arsou. It 
will JM* siHMi iliai iiu (litliriiity whatever was experi- 
elicrd ill ^xeltili;: liiell ti> elilisl. Tile wave of entliilsi- 

asiii ami patriotism had swept over that part of J.a 
Sjille roiiiity like a whirlwind, ami more tUau eiumjjh 
to till the ranks offered themselves to their country. 
Six days after enlistment Ite^an the rompany was 
<ti-;iani/.ed hy tin- cjertioii of Samuel .M. Ileslet as Cap- 
tain, Malrom \\ . i'ewkslMiry as I'irst Lieutenant and 
l>avid ( '. Kynearson as Second Lieiiienani. 

('Iiaih's K. Blown was aitpoinicd I'irst Scriieant, 
and Sannicl 15. ( Jiuver, WiHiMiii I hiiiujil, I )avid Hunker 
and Samuel Lynn Ser^jeaiits. .Mai(piis L. Hram h, 
<}eor;;e K. Lan;,diliii. Liiellcn \\ . \\iiislt»w. Nelson A. 
<Jraves, K«d»erl .McSmiih. iieuii:.- W . A very, Thomas K. 
.Mtlntyre and .l<>liii W . riiillis wci*- Mp|n>inied < "oi-- 
p'uals. 

The ioiii|(any lia\iu;: rrpuri«'d at (Miawa ln'came 
a |»art of theihic Ihindird and l'\mrlli and went into 
<'anip to <liill and awail maichin^^ «trdeis. These came 
soMii and romjtany (' inaichrd with hrolher comrades 
to th<* (Miin h'ivcr. frnm winner he^an its active mil- 
itary career as a part of the ^n-aml armies of tln' riiinn 







Lieut. M. W. Tewksbury, Co. C. Coro. J. C. Deegan, Co. G. 
E. L. Stevens, Co. C. Sergt. W. Harrold, Co. C. 

Capt. S. M. Heslet. Co. C. Corp. H. Wlnterschiedt, Co.B. 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 405 

which swept from Loiiisvilh^ to the sea and from th^e 
throni;li the rebel Confederacy to Kaleij^h, only laying 
down its arms at the close of the war. The history of 
the compan}' became thns a part of the history of the 
Regiment and was marked from first to last with 
death, wounds and snlTering by its members, in the 
cause of the Union, of right and justice. Tlie com])any 
was in the Kentucky campaign after Bragg; marched 
to Bowling Green; then to Ilartsville, Tenn., where, on 
December 7th, 1802, it first learned the taste of rebel 
lead and gave its first offering id" blood and life for the 
National cause. On that bloody held eiglit of its mem- 
bers, Berkstresser, Hastings, iSauressig, \'an Law, Wil- 
son, Brennan, Zarr and Foot were killed or mortally 
wounded. Twelve were wounded, some severely, Cor- 
poral Bullis losing both eyes, a fate that seems worse 
than death, and so young, too! John A. Livers lost a 
good arm. Captain Ileslet, wounded in both thighs, 
resigned March 11th, 1803, and Lieutenant Tewksbnry 
was commissioned Captain. In the Tullahoma cam- 
paign, after the engagements at Elk River, tiie com- 
pany went into camp at Decherd, Tenn. There Captain 
Tewksbury resigned on account of ill-health, and the 
brave Rynearson, who had been wounded at Ilartsville, 
became Captain. Sergeant Brown, who had been pro- 
moted, was commissioned First Lieutenant. Promo- 
tions of non-commissioned officers followed. Thus 
newly equipped Company C followed the path of glory 
with the Regiment to the bloody field of Chickamauga. 
Squire L. W. Clark was killed and four men wounded. 
The company took part in the battles of Lookout Moun- 
tain and Mission Ridge. Isaac A. Foot was killed and 
Sergeant Lynn wounded severely. In the Atlanta 
campaign, the company and his country might well 
mourn when Ryuearsou fell at Peach Tree Creek. Fol- 
lowing the fortunes of the Regiment, ever in the front, 
prompt in duty, brave in battle, Company C men who 
now survive, can dwell with proud recollection on the 
record of living and dead, in the world's greatest strug- 
gle for Government and human freedom. 



«<W THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

ROSTER OF THE COMPANY. 
CAI»TA1N SAMUEL M. HESLET. Age 36; born In V'ayene 
Uou,m- T.n«HvtvHnl«: teacher. Knll»ied Aug.,81 « ISO^: ^ "« ' " ., f; 
K^n uVk andTcnnc^Me. ca.npalKUH. and In Ihe battle of H""^**- »"^' 
IH'I-Zu^r 7 1S02. where he ably and bravely fO"""»»f ^, !^'^„^°"!; 
L. »v was wouniled severely In both IhlghH by ^*° »>'»"«• ^ n 
wbU-h he «llll earrlen; resigned on accounl of wounds. March 11. 
MiAi I iv.'H In Mondota 111.; retln-il from bvislnesB. 

CAl^MN MAUH3M NV. TKWKSIilUY. Age 27; born In New 

March 11 IStiH In the Tullahoma campaign and the actions arouncl 

Slnna and Elk Ulver. Resigned at l>;f--'- Jj7,i/,"'>is ^l' 
1SG3. Was an able ofllccr and his loss regrelfd. Died Jul) o, 188.. 

'" 'uaFTxIn' DAVID C. RYNE4RSON. Enlisted from Troy Grove 

^x s^;^-:^ts:nt;reirr^ -• ?-£ S 

^yonu^ram h S ^^' 1 «•.: • on the resignation of Captain Tewks- 
wroori at in the battles of Lookout Mountain and M sslon 
RUlie ?.. \U>inta .ampaipn. Captain Uynearson was always 

r iree creeK capialn Rvnearson was a brave and 

^°,";X,..'':mcer.''l>.°,.rre^r.>?d U,- a., an.Movj.., ,,y J;!^^™"^^ 
Alwavs cool and collected In the hour of battle, he was regaraeu 

nn.l Chl<kamuaga campaigns at ^;' »^ /J'^^^,'^ ■/'",';',, j j,,,,. :^o 1SG3. 

EF:>S;S?S;Hrra;='"r-'rs.s 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VCJLI'NTEERS. 407 

Bunker was sent to hospital from Resaca, and finally discharged for 
wounds, as First Sergeant, June 14, 1865. Lives in Lawrence, Kan., 
and is superintendent of the wagon making department in the In- 
dian school there. 

SERGEANT SAMUEL B. GROVER. Enlisted from Earlville, 
August 13, 1862; appointed Sergeant; was in the battle of Harts- 
ville. Died at home, .January 8, 1863. 

SERGEANT WILLIAM HARROLD. Age 24; born in England; 
shoemaker; enlisted August 13, 1862; appointed Sergeant; was in 
the battle of Hartsville; in the TuUahoma and Chickamauga cam- 
paigns; in the battle of Chickamauga, and wounded there. Took 
part in the battles of Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge; was in 
the Atlanta campaign at Buzzard Roost, Resaca, Kenesaw, Peach 
Tree Creek, the siege of Atlanta, Utoy Creek, and .Jonesboro. Was 
wounded the second time near Atlanta, August 3, 1864. Was in 
Nashville at the time of the battle there and acting Quartermaster 
of a battalion of convalescents. Rejoined the Regiment in North 
Carolina and was wounded near Raleigh, April 10, 1865, for the third 
time, by a torpedo planted in the road by the rebels, and was taken 
to Richmond in an ambulance. Mustered out at Washington, June 
6, >865. Lives at Edinburg. III. Is a police magistrate of that town. 

SERGEANT SAMUEL LYNN. Age 26; born in Fayette County, 
Pennsylvania; farmer; enlisted August 11, 1862, from Earlville; ap- 
pointed Sergeant; was in the battle of Hartsville; in the Chicka- 
mauga campaign and battles of Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain 
and Mission Ridge. In the latter was severely wounded, and dis- 
charged for wounds, February 23, 1864. Lives in Earlville. Is an 
insurance agent and coal dealer. 

SERGEANT STEPHEN A. SIGNOR. Enlisted from Earlville, 
August 15, 1862; was in the Kentucky campaign and battle of Harts- 
ville; in the Tullahoma and Chickamauga campaigns; at Elk River, 
Davis Cross Roads, Chickamauga. Was at Lookout Mountain and 
Mission Ridge; in the Atlanta campaign and its batfles; on the 
march to the sea and through the Carolinas to Bentonville. Mus- 
tered out as First Sergeant June 6, 1865. 

SERGEANT HIRAM BECK. Age 31; born in Pennsylvania; 
carpenter; enlisted from Mendota, August 13, 1862; was in the Ken- 
tucky campaign and battle of Hartsville; in the Tullahoma and 
Chickamauga campaigns; at Elk River, Davis Cross Roads, and the 
battle of Chickamauga. Was wounded in the left arm at Harts- 
ville. Was in nearly all the other battles of the Regiment. Pro- 
moted Sergeant for meritorious services. Mustered out June 6, 1865. 
Lives at Narka, Kan. Is Justice of the Peace. 

SERGEANT GEORGE W. Avery. Enlisted August 13, 1862; ap- 
pointed Corporal; was in the Kentucky campaign. Promoted Ser- 
geant for meritorious services. Mustered out June 6, 1865. Lives in 
Nebraska. 

CORPORAL LUELLEN W. WINSLOW. Enlisted August 13.1862, 
from Earlville; appointed Corporal; was in the battle of Hartsville; 
wounded in the hand; discharged for wound December 24, 1862. Re- 
enlisted in the 100-dav service; now lives in Earlville, 111. 

CORPORAL NELSON A. GRAVES. Enlisted from Mendota, 
August 13. 1862; appointed Corporal; was in the battle of Hartsville; 
discharged August 22, 1863, for disability. 

CORPORAL ROBERT McSMITH. Enlisted from Troy Grove, 



4aS THK ONE Hl'NDRED AND FOURTH 

AuKUKt 11. IKC:.': upi>olntP<l Corporal; was In the Kentucky cam- 
puiKH- TranHffrrtMl to V. U. C. November 2'S. 1SG3. Lives at Clrau- 
vllle. 111. 

C'OUIH)HAL MAKQl'IS L. BRANCH. EnlUted from Mendoia. 
AuKUMt 13. ISGl': ap|>ulute<| Cori>oral; discharged for diiiablllty, Ociu- 
Ut 1M. ls«;j. 

CORI'OUAL t:i:OHt:E E. LAIC.HLIN. Enlisted from Troy 
Crove, AuKUHt II. 1862; appointed Corporal; discharged for disability 
March 7. 18C3. 

C()RI»<)KAL THOMAS E. McINTYRK. Enlisted from Earlvllle. 
August 13. ls«;i:; was with the Regiment as far as Tumpkinsvillc. 
Ky.; taken si<-k ami left there. Hied December S. 1SG2. 

CORPORAL JOHN \V. HILLIS. Age 21; born In New York; 
farmer; enlisted froni Troy (;ro\e, August 11. lsr.2; was In the battle 
of HartsvilU- and there lost both eyes. Discharged January 14. ISW. 
for wuunds. Llv«'s at Iowa Falls, la. Dr. Freeman, who attended 
him on the field, says that the brave soldier requested him to "see 
to others who were worse off." 

CORPORAL JA.MES LOCIAN. Enlisted from Earlvllle. August 
14. 18C2; was at Hartsvllle; In the battles of Chlckanumga. !x)okout 
Mountain and Mission Rl<lge; appointe<l Corporal; was In the- At- 
lanta campaign, at Buzzard Roost. Resaca. Kenesaw Mountain. 
Kllleil there June 17. lSt;4. A brave soldier fell. 

CORPORAL EDWARD .MINSON. Enlisted August 13. 1862; 
was at llartsville; promoted Coiporal; In the TuUahoma and Chlcka- 
mauga campaigns; In the battles of Chlckamauga. Lookout .Moun- 
tain and Mission Ridge. Took part In the Atlanta cam|>algn at 
Buzziirtl Roost. Re.'yica. Kenesaw Mountain. Peach Tree Creek. In 
the latter Corporal .Munson was killed. He had the name of being 
the best drilled soldier In the company and was on the eve of being 
commissioned in the colored troops when he met his death at Peach 
Tree Creek. 

CORPORAL DEMARQIIS L. .MITCHELL. Age 20; born in 
Augusta. Me. First served In Twenty-third Illinois Volunteers, and 
was captured at l^xinglon. .Mo.: enlisted from .Merhb-n. .\ugust 2«t. 
l.s»;2: was In the battle of Hartsvllie and took part in the Tullahoma 
an<l Chlckamauga campaigns; at Elk River, Davis Cross Roads, the 
battles of Chlckamauga. Lookout .Mountain and .Mission Ridge. In 
the .-\tlanta campaign was pn-sent at Buzzard Roost. Resaca. New 
Ho|M» Chunh. Kenesaw Mountain. Peach Tree Creek. Was wounded 
In the h«'a<l in the latter battle and sent to Chattanooga. Mean- 
time. Sherman had started for the sea and Corporal .Mitchell In the 
spring of ISfifj, was onlered to Join the Regiment, which he did at 
(ioldsboro. When the Atlanta campaign opened he was recom- 
mended for a commission In the Inlted States Colored Troops and 
when near Kenetuiw was ordered to Washington, but did not accept. 
Mustered out June •;. lSt;.'i. Lives at Columbus. Kan. Is lK»puty 
Sheriff of Cherokee County. 

CORPORAL JA.MES (J. ItALPH. Enlisted August 9. 1862. 
from .Mendota; was at Hartsvilje. in the battles of Chlckamauga. 
I^Mikout .Mountain and .Mission Ridge, .\ppolnted (^)rporal: took 
part In the Atlanta campaign: was at Resaca. Kenesaw .Mountain 
and I'each Thh- Creek, Wounded In the latter battle. In the right 
nrm. Abs4-ni wounded at muster out of Regiment. Lives at 
Aiironi. III. 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 409 

CHARLES P. AVERY. Enlisted from Earlville, August 13, 1862; 
was in the Kentucky ('ami)aign. Mustered out .June t), 1865. 

LEVI BROWN. Age 10; born in Pennsylvania; blacksmith; was 
in the Kentucky campaign and battle of Hartsville. Taken sick and 
discharged for disability, August 1, 1863; wounded slightly at Harts- 
ville. Lives in Waterloo, la., at the age of 72. 

SAMUEL BANKS. Age 17; born in Pennsylvania. Enlisted 
August 11, 1862; was in the battle of Hartsville and slightly wounded 
there. Took part in the battles of Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain 
and Mission Ridge. During the siege of Chattanooga, drove team to 
Stevenson, Ala., and was present when Wheeler's cavalry attacked 
the supply train in the Sequatchie Valley. He escaped with his 
team; was in the Atlanta campaign and at Resaca, Kenesaw Moun- 
tain, Peach Tree and Utoy Creeks. Mustered out August 17, 1865. 
Lives in Beloit, Kan. Stone mason contractor. 

HENRY D. BANKS. Enlisted from Troy Grove, August 13, 
1862; he was in the Kentucky campaign and battle of Hartsville; in 
the Tullahoma and Chickamauga campaigns; at Elk River, Davis 
Cross Roads, Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge, 
and in part of the Atlanta campaign. Mustered out June 6, 1865. 

JONATHAN BANKS. Age IS; born in Pennsylvania; farmer; 
enlisted from Troy Grove, August 11, 1862; was in the battles of 
Hartsville and Mission Ridge. Mustered out June 6, 1865. Lives at 
Troy Grove, 111. Is an engineer. 

DAVID C. BALLARD. Enlisted from Earlville, August 13, 1862; 
was in the Kentucky campaign and at Hartsville. Was company 
cook during the service. Mustered out June 6, 1865. 

SOLOMON W. BUNKER. Enlisted from Mendota, August 13, 
1862; he was in the Kentucky campaign and battle of Hartsville; 
in the Tullahoma and Chickamauga campaigns; at Elk River, Davis 
Cross Roads and the battle of Chickamauga, where he was wounded 
in his right hand. He was the oldest man in the company, but clear 
grit all through. Mustered out June 6, 1865. 

DAVID BERKSTRESSER. Enlisted from Mendota, August 14, 
1862; was in the Kentucky campaign and battle of Hartsville, where 
he was killed December 7, 1862. 

CLARENCE BRENNAN. Enlisted from Troy Grove, August 11, 
1862; was in the Kentucky campaign and battle of Hartsville, where 
he was mortally wounded, and died at Gallatin, Tenn., December 
20, 1862. 

SQUIRE L. W^ CLARK. Enlisted from Dimmick, August 11, 
1862; was in the battle of Hartsville; in the Tullahoma and Chicka- 
mauga campaigns, and the battle of Chickamauga, where he was 
killed September 20. 1863. 

ALMON L. COOK. Age 20; born in Maine; blacksmith: enlisted 
from Mendota. August 13, 1862; was in the battles of Hartsville, 
Davis Cross Roads, Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain and Mission 
Ridge; in the Atlanta campaign, at Buzzard Roost. Resaca, New 
Hope Church, the battles around Kenesaw, Peach Tree Creek, the 
siege of Atlanta, Utoy Creek, Jonesboro; the pursuit of Hood; the 
march to the sea; the campaign of the Carolinas and Bentonville. 
Was wounded in the foot at Savannah, Ga. Mustered out June 6, 
1865. Lives in Barnston, Neb. Is Postmaster. 

LEMUEL L. CADY. Age 19; born in Tioga County. Pa.; 
farmer; enlisted from Earlville, August 13, 1862; was in the Ken- 



410 THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

turky campaiKU and battle of Hartsville. In part of the Tnllahonm 
caniputKn. Tmn»ferred to I. C, November 25, 18G3. Died at 
WlllianiK. la.. April 15, \Si>\. 

CKOKtJK C'ADY. KuliHted from EarlvlUe. August 13. 1862. 
MuHtered out June C, lhG5. 

SAMUEL 11. IWKH. KuliHted from Mendota. August 14, 1862; 
was in ttie battle of Hartsville; died at Camp Chase, Ohio, January 
17. IhGS. 

WlNTMUOl* E. COLLINS. Enlisted August 15, 1862; was In the 
Kentucky fumiMign. Discharged for disability January -1, 1S63. 

JOHN A. C(H>K. Enlisted August 15. 1S62; was in the battle of 
Hartsville; in the Tullahoma and ChickaniauKU campaigns; in the 
battles of Chickamauga. lx>okout .Mountain and .Mission Hidge. In 
the .\tlanta campaign, at Duzzard Roost. Uesaca. Kenesaw Mountain. 
In front of the latter. June 17. 1S04. he was mortally wounded, sent 
to Nashville, and died July 19. 1K64. 

ROBERT C. DOANE. Age 22; born In New York; farmer; en- 
listed .August 13. iStiL'. from Earlville; was wounded In the battle of 
Hartsville. Took part in the battles of lx)okout Mountain and .Mis- 
sion Ridge, was at Huz^ard Roost. Discharged for disability, January 
14. 1864. Lives at I'laindeld. 111. 

SAMIEL J. DOANE. Enlisted August 13. 1862, from ISarlvllle; 
was In the battle of Hartsville; in the Chlckama\iga campaign; the 
battles of Davis Cross Roads. Chickamauga. I^ookout .Mountain and 
Mission Ridge. Was in the .Vtlanta campaign, at Buzzard Roost, 
Resaca. New Hoik» Church, the battles around Kenesaw, Teach Tree 
Creek; the sb-ge of Atlanta. I'toy Creek, where on August 7, 1864. 
he was severely wounded and absent wounded at muster out of 
Regiment. 

JOHN \V. DAVIS. Enli.sted from Earlville. August 20, 1862; was 
at Hartsville, Davis Cross Roads, the battles of Chlckama\iga. Ix>ok- 
out Mountain and .Mission Ridge. In the .Atlanta campaign, at Buz- 
zard Roost. Resaca. Kenesaw Mountain, Beach Tree Creek, the siege 
of .Atlanta, and I'toy Creek, where on August 7. 1S64. he was wounded 
in the shoulder. .Mustered out June 7, 1S65. 

SA.MCEL W. EDWARDS. Enlisted from Troy Grove. August 
11. 1862; was a member of the Regimental Band, and on its dishaml- 
ment was detailed and in the Brigade Band during the war. Absent 
sick at muster out of Ueginieni. Is said to resid ■ in Kansas. 

WILLI A.M EDWARDS. Enlisted from Troy C.rove. August 14. 
1862; member of Regimental and Brigade Bands. Absent sick at 
muster out of Regiment. Lives somewhere in Kansas. 

FREDERICK FOOT. Enllsied from Freedom, August 14. 1862; 
he was in the Kentucky campaign and battle of Hartsville, where 
he was mortally wounded. Died February lo. lSfi3. 

ISAAC A. FOOT. Enlisted from Earlville. .August 14, 1862; was 
at Hartsville, In the action of Davis Cross Roads, the battles of 
Chlckanuiuga. l.,ookout .Mountain and .Mission HidRe. In the latter 
he was killed In the aswiult. November 25. 1863. 

FREDERICK L. CLOVER. Enlisted August 14. 1862; mustered 
ojit June 6, 1S65. 

HA.MILTON GOLDEN. Enlisted August 20, 1862. Died at C.al- 
latln, Tenn.. January 7. 1863. 

DUANE .M. HARRIS. Enlisted from Eagle. August 15. 1S62. 
Died at liowllng (Jreen, Ky., Nt)vember 21, 1862. 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 411 

THOMAS HASTINGS. Enlisted from Mendota, August 13, 1862; 
■was in the Kentucky campaign. Killed in the battle of Hartsvilie, 
December 7, 1862. 

FREDERICK C. HESS. Age 24; born in Germany; farmer; en- 
listed from Troy Grove, August 9, 1862; he was in the Chickamauga 
campaign at Davis Cross Roads and the battle of Chickamauga. 
Was in the battles of Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge; in the 
pursuit of Hood, on the march to the sea and through the Carolinas 
to Bentonville. Mustered out June 6, 1865. Is a farmer at Grundy 
Center, la. 

ALBERT HARRIS. Age 24; born in New York; farmer; en- 
listed August 22, 1862; was in the Chickamauga campaign at Davis 
Cross Roads; the battles of Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain 
and Mission Ridge; Kenesaw Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, Utoy 
Creek, Jonesboro; in the pursuit of Hood; on the march to the sea; 
the Carolina campaign and Bentonville; slightly wounded in the 
latter battle. Mustered out June 6, 1865. Lives at Emington, III. 
Is a retired farmer. 

JAMES R. HOFFMAN. Enlisted from Troy Grove, August 11, 
1862; was in the Kentucky campaign. Transferred to I. C, November 
25, 1863. 

HERMAN HOFFMAN. Enlisted from Earlville, August 11, 1862; 
was in the Kentucky campaign. Discharged March 7, 1865; disability. 

JOSIAH HARDING. Enlisted from Earlville, August 15, 1862; 
was in the Kentucky campaign. Discharged for disability Decem- 
ber ll; 1863. 

JOHN A. IVES. Enlisted from Troy Grove, August 13, 1862; 
was in the Kentucky campaign. Discharged August 26, 1863; dis- 
ability. 

BENJAMIN JACK. Enlisted from Earlville, August 12, 1862. 
Discharged October 2, 1862; disability. 

JAMES M. JACK. Enlisted from Mendota, August 12, 1862; 
deserted March 15, 1863. 

CHARLES H. JEWETT. Enlisted from Earlville, August 13, 
1862; was wounded seriously in the battle of Hartsvilie, and dis- 
charged for wounds. May 24, 1863. 

JAMES A. KERSEY. Enlisted from Troy Grove, August 13, 
1862; wounded at Hartsvilie and discharged for wounds, December 
24, 1862. 

ROMAN KNAPP. Enlisted from Troy Grove, August 11, 1862; 
discharged for disability, January 5, 1863. 

JAMES KNOX. Enlisted from Mendota, August 15, 1862. Mus- 
tered out June 6, 1865. 

JOSEPH LEWIS. Enlisted from Troy Grove, August 11, 1862; 
became Bugler; was at Hartsvilie, Davis Cross Roads, Chickamauga, 
Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge. On the Atlanta campaign; 
in the pursuit of Hood, the march to the sea and the campaign of the 
Carolinas. No man was better known, nor so well known, in the 
Regiment, as "Joe." When he blew his bugle all knew the sound 
and that it meant business. Mustered out June 6, 1865. Lives at Troy 
Grove. 

JAMES H. LOUCKS. Enlisted from Mendota, August 13, 1862; 
deserted before muster in. 

ADDIS LINN. Enlisted from Dimmick, August, 11, 1862; was 



411' THE ONE HITNDRED AND FOURTH 

ill the bailie of Harisviile; died at Camp I^w Wallace. Ohio. Decem- 
ber -'3. 18C1'. 

EDWAKl) P. I. YON. Age 24; born In New York; farmer; en- 
llHled AiiKUHt 11. \S(i'2. from Mendoiu; wan iu the battle of HarlsviUe; 
in the baitleK of CMilrkumauga. Lookout Mountain and Mission Hidgc. 
Iu the Atlanta campaiKii at Ituzuird KooKt. KcBaca, Kenes<iw Muun- 
lain. IVarh Tree Crtn-k. the HieRe of Atlanta, L'toy Creek. JoneHboro; 
In the pursuit of Hood, the march to the sea, the camitaiKn of the 
CarolinuH. Hentonville. Mustered out June ti, 1865. Lives at Wil- 
llaniK. la. Is a retired farmer. 

CLEMENT LIELLEN. Enlisted from Mendota, August 11. 
18G2; was In the Kentucky campaign. Discharged for disability, 
March 7. 1863. 

JOHN A. LIVERS. Age LM; clerk; enlisted August 11. lSt!2; In 
the Kentucky campaign and the battle of Hartsville. where he was 
Berlously wountled. causing loss of the left arm. Discharged for 
wound. January 27. IStl.X. Lives at lonla. Kan. Retired farmer. 

(;E<)RC.K C. MOKFATT. Age :?2; born in New York; farmer; 
enlisted from Mendota. August '.«. ls»»2; marched with the Regiment 
to Rowling (Ireeii, Ky., taken sick with lung trouble, and discharged 
January 20, \H*V.i. Lives at .Vrmstrong. Neb. Is a farmer. 

THt)MAS H. MAHKLKY. Enlisted from Earhille. August 14. 
1862; was at HartHville. Davis Cross Roads, the battles of Chicka- 
mauga. lx>okout Mountain an<l Mission Ridge. In the Atlanta cam- 
paign; the campaign of the Caroiinas. Was In the battle of Ben- 
ton vllle. where he was wounded March 19. ISG.'i. Absent wounded at 
muster out of Regiment. 

JAMES C. MDOWELL. F:nll8ted from Troy Grove. August 11. 
1862; was In the Kentu<ky campaign and battle of Hartsville; at 
Jon»'sboro. on the march to the sea and through the Caroiinas to 
Bentonvilie. Mustered out June 6, 1S6.'.. Lives near Mendota. 111. 

JERRY M. I'ORTERKIKLI). Enlisted from Mendota, August 
11. 1862; was in the Kentuckv campaign. Discharged Julv 2". ls»'>3; 
disability. 

JAMES W. I'OMEROY. Enlisted from Mendota. August 11. 
1862; was In the Kentucky canii>aign and battle of Hartsville; In the 
Tullahoma and Chickamauga campaigns; at Elk River, Davis Cross 
Roado, an<l Chi<-kamauga. In the Atlanta campaign at Huzzard 
Roost. Resaca. New Hojie Church. Kenesaw Mountain and Peach 
Tree Creek, where he was wounded and never seen again; supposed 
kille.l. 

ISAAC POLLENS. Enlisted August 13. 1862: nothing further 
known. 

JAMES N. POOL. Enlisted from Earlvllle. August 13. 1862; was 
In the Kentucky campaign ami battlc^of Hartsville. Died In Chicago, 
March 24. 1863. 

WASHlNtJTON (J. PARKER. Enlisted from Mendota. August 
11, 1862; was at Hartsville; In the battles of Chickamauga. lx)okout 
Mountain an<l Mission Ridge. Took part in the .Mlanta campaign 
at HuzzanI Roost, l{esa<a. Kenesaw .Motintain and P«'ach Tree Creek. 
Killed In tli«- lati.r baitb'. July 20, 1864. He was noted for having the 
brightest gun in th<' company. 

HENRY PHLNEY. Enlisted from Mendota. August If). 1862; 
denerted D<'(i'mber 2.'». 1862. 

JACOH PHILLIPS. Age 17; l>orn In Stark County. Ohio; farmer; 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 413 

enlisted from Troy Grove, August 15, 1862; was in the Kentucky 
campaign and the battle of Hartsville. Was in a part of the Tulla- 
homa campaign; taken sick and discharged for disability, September 
17, 1863. Lives at Clay Center, Kan. 

WILLIAM PETERS. Enlisted from Troy Grove, August 15, 1862; 
was in the Kentucky campaign. Mustered out June 6, 1865. 

JOHN B. RALPH. Enlisted from Mendota, August 13, 1862; 
was in the Kentucky campaign. Transferred to V. R. C, January 
27, 1864. 

GEORGE RANSBERGER. Enlisted from Troy Gvbve, August 
20, 1862. Mustered out June 6, 1865. Lives at Troy Grove, 111. 

JOHN G. REEDER. Age 21; born in La Sallc^ County; farmer; 
enlisted from Troy Grove, August 15, 1862; was in the Kentucky cam- 
paign and the battle of Hartsville; in the action of Davis Cross 
Roads, and the battle of Chickamauga. Was wounded in the last 
named battle in the right side. Transferred to V. R. C, March 15, 
1865. Lives at Marshalltown, la.; contractor. 

AMBROSE RISDON. Enlisted from Mendota, August 13, 1862; 
was in the Kentucky campaign. Discharged for disability, January 
2, 1863. 

WILLIAM H. RHODES. Enlisted from Mendota, August 13, 
1862; was in the Kentucky campaign. Discharged for disability, 
July 20, 1863. 

EDGAR L. STEVENS. Age 19; born in Seneca County, N. 
Y.; farmer; enlisted August 13, 1862, from Earlville. Marched with 
the Regiment in the Kentucky campaign to Tompkinsville, Ky., 
and was left there very sick; recovered after several months and 
escaped to our lines; rejoined the Regiment at Camp Douglas; was 
in the Tullahoma and Chickamauga campaigns; the actions at Davis 
Cross Roads, the battles of Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain and 
Mission Ridge. In the Atlanta campaign at Buzzard Roost, Resaca. 
the battles around Kenesaw Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, the siege 
of Atlanta, Utoy Creek, Jonesboro. Was furloughed home; returned 
to Nashville, took part in the battle of Nashville and the action at 
Decatur; after that guarded railroads until sent in spring of 1865, 
with others, to North Carolina; rejoined the Regiment at Goldsboro. 
Mustered out June 6, 1865. Lives at Woolstock, la. Is a minisier of 
the Gospel in the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

PETER J. SAURESSIG. Enlisted August 14, 1862, from Mendota; 
was in the Kentucky campaign. Killed at Hartsville, Tenn., Decem- 
ber 7, 1862. 

DALLAS SMILEY. Enlisted August 14, 1862. Deserted January 
1, 1863. 

ALEXANDER A. SHERLOCK. Enlisted from Earlville, Au- 
gust 15, 1862. Transferred to V. R. C, January 27, 1864. 

OSCAR SAYLES. Enlisted from Earlville. August 14, 1862; 
was in the battle of Hartsville and severly wounded there. Re- 
covered and rejoined the Regiment; in the Chickamauga campaign. 
Died at Chattanooga, October 26, 1863. 

WILLIAM VAN LAW. Enlisted from Mendota. August 13, 1862; 
was in the Kentucky campaign and in the battle of Hartsville, where 
he was mortally wounded and died the same day, December 7, 1862. 

JAMES E. WILKINS. Enlisted from Troy Grove, August 13, 
1862; was teamster and served faithfully during the entire term. 
Mustered out June 6, 1865. Lives at Troy Grove, 111. 



414 THE ONE HUNDRF:D AND FOURTH 

WILLIAM S. WINSI.OW. Eull8le«l from Karlville, August 13. 
1862; wnM in iho battif of HfirtDVlllo. In the Tullationia rampaign 
h«* wax wouniltMl In the left haml at KIk Itlver. Took part in tho 
battlcH of t'hIrkamuuKa, l^>ukout Mountain and MiHsion Itidgp. Was 
In the Atlanta canipiiiKn and ittt ImttloH; on tlu* march to the sea 
and northwar<lB. Mustered out June «>, 1KG5. Live* at Karlville, III. 

tIKOKC.K WHITK. KnIiHted from Karlville. AugUHt 13. lt>62; 
dittoharged for disiibilitv October 2. 1S«;'_'. 

JAMKS M. WILSON. Knlisted from Karlville, August 12. 18G2: 
waj* in the Kentucky campaign and the battle of Harlavllle, where 
he wa« killed December 7, 1S02. 

CHATNCKY-J. WIXOM. Age 23; l)orn at Troy Grove. I^ Salle 
Count V farmer: enlihted AuguKt 12, 1SG2; wan in the battle of 
HartHville; In the battleg of C'hlckamauga. lookout Mountain and 
Mltwlon Hldge. Wounde<l near Hrldgeport, Ala., while with wagon 
train. Trannferred to Invalid Corps, January 3o. 1864. Lives at Clay 
Center. Kan. 

FRANCIS ZARH. Knlisted from Elarlvllle. August 15, 1S62; 
wan in the march through Kentucky and Tennessee. Killed at Harts- 
ville. D«'cember 7, 1SG2. 

RKCRl'ITS. 

WILLIAM T. Bl'LLIS. Age 23; born In New York; enlisted 
D«Hember 14, 18C3, at Dixon. Was In the Atlanta campaign at 
Buzzard Roose. the battles around Resaca. Kenesaw Mountain. In 
the Imttle of Nashville. Transferred to Thirty-fourth Illinois In- 
fant rv. Lives in Valentine. Neb. Is Cltv Marshal. 

ARRAM D. CLARK. Knlisted April' H». 1S03; was In the Tulla- 
homa and Chickamauga campaigns. Was wo>inded and taken 
prisoner at the battle of Chickamauga, September 20. 1863; escaped 
afterwards and came Into our lines. Discharged for wounds April 
21, 1864. 

JOHN L. WARNKR. Knlisted August 27, 1S64; he was at Jones- 
boro. In the ])ursult of Hood, on the march to the sea and through 
the Carollnas to Bentonvllle. Mustered out June 6. 1865. Lives at 
Streator. III. 

STATISTICS OF COMPANY C. 

Total enlistment 98 

Killed and mortally wounded 16 

Wounded 28 

Resigned for wounds 1 

I >isi liarged for wounds 8 

R.slgn.Ml for disability 1 

Dis<harged for disability 18 

Died of d Isease 8 

De!M*rted 4 

Mustered out June 6. 1805 1'6 

.Mustered out at other dates 2 

Transferred to V. R. C 4 

Transferred to I. C 3 

Transferred to Thirty-fourth Illinois Infantry 1 

.M)Hent. woun«led, at M. 3 

.Vbsent. Hick, at M. 2 

I'nknown 1 

Known to Im» living (December. 1894) 35 




Capt. Thos. Clark. Co D. 
Sergt. H. E. Price, Co. D. 
Capt. W. H Collins. Co. D. 



Corp. 0. Slagle, Co. D. 
Sergt Geo. Marsh. Co. D. 
Sergt. M. Kirkpatrick. Co. D 



CHAPTER XXVII. 



Company D— How and Where Organized— Roster and Biogra- 
phies — Statistics. 



SKETCH OF COMPANY D. 

When in the summer of 1862 the prochimat ion of 
President Lincoln was issued eallinj^ for (;(I(),()(HI more 
men, and La Salle County determined to raise another 
re<iiment, William H. Collins, then 'a prominent resi- 
dent of \j:\ Salle, be<j;an recruiting for what heeanie 
Company D. The ranks Avere tilled in a short time, or 
between the 5th and 15tli of August, with some of the 
best material in the count}', the townships south of 
the Illinois River furnishing a large percentage. The 
organization was then effected. William 11. Collins, 
who had seen service in the Tenth Illinois Infantry, 
Avas elected Captain, William E. Brush First Lieuten- 
ant, James Snedaker Second Lieutenant. The follow- 
ing were announced as Sergeants: Thomas Clark, 
Zenas R. Jones, William P. Miller, William Rassin- 
dale. Henry Upton, John 11. Shepherd, Thomas C. 
Steven, John T. Post, William C. Brown, Sherman 
Leland, Luther A. Wilson, Henry Morgan and Cyrus 
H. Makeever were appointed Corporals. Thus e(iui])ped 
Avitli officers the company reported at Ottawa and went 
into camp as part of the One Hundred and Fourth, 
receiving the designation of "D." After a few days 
spent at Camp Wallace the Regiment was ordered to 
Louisville and the company thereafter participated in 
all the fortunes of the cominand, marching through 
Kentucky and Tennessee to Hartsville, where, on De- 
cember 7th, 1862, aipart of it was called upon to defend 
the flag and offer up valuable lives and blood in the 
cause of country. Going into the battle with about 
forty men, the rest being on detached duty. Company 
D lost in killed Corporal Thomas G. Steven, Abram IT. 



416 Till. < 'M- 111 .\i'i;i.i' .\.\i> F<tUHTII 

Austin :in«l «losf|ili L. Sapp. Tni \\«t«' woniMlfd. 'I'lic 
iililf Liaiul iimlt-r tin* i<uiiiuainl <»! Sfijifaiii Zeiias K. 
JoufS fovfiHMl itself Willi ^l«»iv. In tlit* famous a«l 
vann* to Tnllahonia in .Inuf, '•»:{, tin' coinjKiny, uimIci- 
raptain r«illins, aWdiMl a;:ain to its li^ilniii;: rc» ui<l liy 
thf «-a|»tun* t»f I In* n-ln-l stockadt* at l!lk Kivci-, l»y Scr- 
;;t*aiit (5»*or^f Marsh ami his \oliint«M'rs from tin* (•••iii- 
panv. ri'ior t«» this Licntcnant l>rush ha<l <litM| aM<l 
LifUtmant Sn»'»lakcr ha*l iMsl^nctj. St-r^irants <Maik 
an<l Jones had Im*«mi pronioird Limtcnants. At Chick- 
iinian^a rmnpany 1) fonj:ht with l»rav«*i-v equal to any. 
All eiiuinerat ion of its sn-N ires t hrij-aftei- won hi iiuhuh* 
«*very hatth'fichi in wliith ilif Kf;;inn'nt foujiht from 
< "hai tanou;;a io Atlanta, to tin* sea and Urnit»n\ ill**; 
in all of wliirh tin* ronipany dist in^uisln-d itself and 
^ave its sluire of Idoud and iixcs. When inustt*red out 
at W'ashin^'^ton in '<!."» the shattered ranks told the sttuy 
of its arhirNcnieiits and st'ivices hy the ahseine of ihtis«- 
wlm had fallen l»y tin* way or lay « rippli-d and diseased 
in ii"ii lii'iii homes. 

ROSTER OF THE COMPANY. 

CAI'TAl.N WII.I.IAM H. COI.Ll.N'S. Age 31; born at Collins- 
vllie. 111.; Journalist; i-nlisted in AugtiHt. 18tJ2, at La Salle, and l>e- 
camo actively engaged in raising men for a company. On its or- 
ganization he was elected Captain. In theelection for Regimental ofli- 
cers. wa« elected Lieutenant-Colonel, hut Colonel Moore ri'fused to ac- 
quIeKce in the choi«-e, so Captain Collins went out with his company 
to the front. I'nder him Com|;any 1) became well drilled and dis- 
ciplined, and jirepared for the future hard services it encountered 
on many battlefields, always with honor to it.self and olticers. Cap- 
lain Collins led his compftny in the Kentiicky and Tennessee cani- 
paignK to Hartsville. While there he was detailed with twenty- 
flve of hi8 men to guard a supply train to Gallatin and was thus 
unable to participate in the battle of Hartsville. He commanded 
on the Tuliahoma campaign, and in the affair at Elk River. Took 
part in the Chickamauga campaign; in the action of Davis Cross 
Roads, September 11, lsr,;{; In the battles of Chickamauga, I^ookout 
Mountain and Mission liidge. When (leneral Palmer became com 
manrler of the Fourteenth .\rmy Corps. Captain C<dlins was detatled 
to command the entire Ambulanci> Cor|>s. and remjilm-d in that 
l>OHition through the Atlanta campaign. He resigned November 11, 
1XG4, and was appointed Provost Marshal of the Twelfth District 
of IllinoiH. resignation to take effect D<'iember .11, lSt>r>. After the 
war. Captain Collins engugetl successfully in Ixisiness in Quincy. 
III., but <-ould not avoid taking an occasional hand in |>olitics; was 
elected to the 1.^'gislature. As a public speaker and orator. Captain 
CoIIInN was rtble and impresHlve, a fact well remembered by the 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 417 

Regiment during tlie war, and by his friends and political opponents 
since. Is now enjoying the twilight of his days in peace and com- 
fort at Quincy, but does not cease to take an interest in public 
affairs, and stands very high in the esteem of his fellow citizens. 

CAPTAIN THOMAS CLARK. Age 24; born near Quebec, 
Canada. Was in the three months' service in 18GI; came to La Salle 
and engaged in the manufacture of carriages. Enlisted August 
4, 1862; was appointed First Sergeant; took part in the Kentucky 
campaign and the battle of Hartsville. Promoted Second Lieutenant,. 
December 31, 18(32; First Lieuteneant, April 13, 18C3. Participated in 
the Tullahoma and Chickamauga campaigns; was at Elk River, 
Davis Cross Roads, the battles of Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain 
and Mission Ridge. In the Atlanta campaign. Lieutenant Clark, ia 
command of his Company, was present at Buzzard Roost, of Rocky 
Face, the battles around Resaca, New Hope Church; the battles 
around Kenesaw Mountain and Peach Tree Creek. In the latter 
battle. Lieutenant Clark was severely wounded in the thigh and 
permanently disabled. Was commissioned Captain, November 10, 
1864, but not mustered. Discharged for wounds. May 15, 1865. Cap- 
tain Clark was a brave soldier and capable officei-, and highly re- 
garded by all. After the war, he lived at La Salle and Ottawa; was 
Deputy Sheriff two terms under R. C. Stevens; Sheriff, one term. 
Captain Clark died January 23, 1883, his death being hastened by 
his army service. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT WILLIAM E. BRUSH. Enlisted in Au- 
gust, 1862; elected First Lieutenant; was with his company in the 
Kentucky campaign; at the time of the Hartsville battle, was sick in 
the hospital. Taken sick in Camp Douglas, and died in Chicago, 
April 13, 1863. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT .JOHN T. POST. Age 35; born in Yates 
County, N. Y.; farmer; enlisted August 15, 1862, from Grand Rapids. 
Was appointed Third Corporal; became by promotion, Third and First 
Sergeant, and was commissioned First Lieutenant, November 10, 
1864, but not mustered. Was in the Kentucky campaign and battle 
of Hartsville; the Tullahoma and Chickamauga campaigns; was in 
the action of Davis Cross Roads, the battles of Chickamauga, Look- 
out Mountain and Mission Ridge. In the Atlanta campaign at Buz- 
zard Roost, Resaca, New Hope Church, Kenesaw Mountain, Peach 
Tree Creek. Wounded in the latter battle. Was also at Bentonville. 
Mustered out June 6, 1865. Lives at Alhambra, Cal. Retired from 
business. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT JAMES SNEDAKER. Enlisted in 
August, 1862; elected Second Lieutenant; commissioned August 27; 
resigned December 31, 1862. Died some years ago. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT ZENAS R. JONES. Age 31; born in 
Ohio; minister in the Methodist Episcopal Church; enlisted from 
Grand Rapids, August 4, 1862; appointed Sergeant; was in the Ken- 
tucky campaign and commanded his company at the battle of 
Hartsville, all the commissioned officers being sick or absent. Com- 
missioned Second Lieutenant April 13, 1863; resigned January 9, 
1864. Lives at Smithdale, 111. In the grain business. 

FIRST SERGEANT GEORGE MARSH, JR. Age 25; born in 
Brookfield, La Salle County, 111.; enlisted as private, August 12,. 
1862; was in the Kentucky campaign; promoted Sergeant for meritori- 
ous services; he was in the Tullahoma campaign and at Elk River, 



4I« THE ONE Hl'NDRED AND FOURTH 

Tonn.. commnnded the "forlorn hope" of ten volunteers sent to cap- 
ture the H'Im'I Htucknde there. This whs gallantly done under a fire 
of rebel artillery and sharpshooters and the command received the 
p«>nionnl thanks of (;eneral lieatty on the field. He participated in 
the critical action of l)avis Crush Roads, and was in the great battles 
of l'hl<-kaniaiiKa. IxMikoul Muuiiiain and Mission Kidt^t*: was severely 
vkoumb'd at Chlckaniauga on Septenilwr :i<»ih, luii recovered in time 
to p.irlici|>ale In the battles mentioned on November IM and 2.'), lSii3. 
In the Atlanta campaign he was present at Huzzard Koost, of Hocky 
Face, and in the battles of May 13 and 14, lStJ4. at Resaca. Was 
severely wounded on the latter ilate and discharged September Tl, 
IMS'*, on account of wounds. Since the war has lived in Washington, 
D. C and has had a position in the War Department continuously. 
He is an authority much consulted by high ofiicials. See note in this 
volume. 

SKRC.KANT WILLIAM I'. MILLKR. Knlisted from Urookfield, 
August 12. ls»;4; transferred to 'riiirty-fourtli Illinois Infantry. 

SKRCKANT WILLIAM ltASSIM')A LK. Knlisted from La Salle. 
August 4. l.s»;2; reduced to the ranks at his own request; was at 
Hartsvllle discharged for disability. April 21. isoa. Died some 
years ago. 

SERC.KANT HENRY IPTON. Horn in Batavia. N. Y.; farmer; 
enlistett from Urookfield. August 11. 1S»»2; was in the Kentucky 
campaign: sick in hospital at Hartsville; discharged February 2U, 
1K«;.'{. for promotion to a Lieutenancy in the One Hundred and 
Twenty-first New York Infantry. Was severely wounded in the 
battle of Chancellorsvilie. and died from the effect July 25*, 1S87. 
A remarkable mathen)aticiaii and brave soldier. 

SKR(;KANT HFNRY K. I'RICF:. Age 2.'.; born in Chillicothe. 
Ohio, and came to Illinois when young. Enlisted from Fall River. Au- 
gust 12. l>>t;2; he was in the Kentucky campaign and the battle of 
Hartsvllle. where he was wounded by a buckshot in the right thigh. 
While he and R. J. Gage lay wounded on the field in the snow, a 
young Confederate officer approaching said pleasantly: "Hoys. I 
am sorry for you." Henry replied: "If you are sorry for us get some 
water." The ofllcer said: "I will." And going to a brook filled his 
cedar canteen and brought it to them. He then took a blanket from 
an unhurt soldier and spread it over th«Mn. On his recovery. Price 
rejMjrted at Camp Douglas and was appointed Sergeant for merito- 
rious conduct and bravery. (Joing witli the Regiment to the front in 
April, he was stricken with fever while at Hi-entwood. Tenn.. and 
for four months his life hung in the balance. At last he recovered 
and again joined the One Hundred and Fourth. October 12. 1S6:{. at 
Chattanooga, in time to take jiart in the battles of Lookout Moun- 
tain and Mission itidge. The noble spirit of the man is shown in a 
letter he wrote home .Novemlx'r 3. lSt;:{. "If 1 live to serve out my 
time, money would not buy my right to say that I hail serveil my 
country honorably, and if 1 do not live, the right belongs to our 
family. I <an honesJiy say, I have never yet been sorry 1 enlisted." 
In the Atlanta campaign. Sergeant Price was present at Ituzzard 
Roost of Rocky Fa«-e, the battles around Rewica. ^'ew Hope Church 
an«l Kenesaw .Mountain. At the latter place he was so sevendy 
brulwd by a spent ball on July 2, 1K(>4. as to be obliged to go to 
hospital at Chattanooga. Iiut on the liMh. he was again with the 
Regiment, all unconscious thitt on the morrow his spirit would Join 







B. Schaub, Co. D. 

Corp. C. H. Makeever, Co. D. 

Grover C. Clark, Co. D. 



R. J. Gage, Co. D. 
Corp. J. J. Ford, Co. D. 
R. S. Smalley, Co. D. 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 419 

the immortal host of heroes and patriots who had died for their 
country. On July 20, 18(14, he wrote in his diary these last words: 
"At 3 o'clock a. m., moved again and crossed creek. Advancing in 
line of battle under fire. Halted and built breastworks until or- 
dered to quit." A little later he fell in the fierce attack at Peach 
Tree Creek, his right thigh and right arm being shattered by bullets. 
In an hour his sufferings were ended, as also those of many others 
on that bloody field. Colonel Hapeman says: •He was a brave and 
gallant soldier." Captain Collins wrote: "We all loved Henry, he 
was a model soldier, superior in natural talents and acquirements 
to many field officers." The loss fell with great weight on his 
parents, who mourned another son. Lieutenant William D. Price, 
killed in the battle of the Big Hatchie, Miss. 

SERGEANT WILLIAM H. H. HUTTON. Age 24; first enlisted 
in Company L. Twentieth Illinois Infantry, June 17, 1861; fought in 
the battle of :<'redericktown. Mo., October 21, 1861; was also in the 
battles of 1 ort Henry, Fort Donelson, Shiloh, and the siege of 
Corinth. Discharged August 28, 1862. Enlisted in Company D, 
September 2, 1862. Took part in the Tullahoma campaign; was 
in the action of Davis Cross Roads, the battles of Chickamauga, 
Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge. In the latter was Color 
Sergeant and while bearing the flag up the ridge was wounded and 
relieved by Lemuel F. Holland. Discharged March, 1865, by order of 
Secretary of War, and appointed Hospital Steward in United States 
Army. Is now a Surgeon in the United States Marine Hospital 
Service, and has attained high position as such, holding the rank of 
Ueutenant-Colonel. 

SERGEANT MURRAY KIRKPATRICK. Age 37; born in Ohio. 
Enlisted from Eagle, August 5, 1862; took part in the Kentucky cam- 
paign; in the Tullahoma campaign; was one of the ten volunteers 
who captured the stockade at Elk River; in the Chickamauga cam- 
paign; at the action of Davis Cross Roads, the battles of Chicka- 
mauga, Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge; promoted Corporal and 
Sergeant for meritorious services. In the Atlanta campaign was at 
Buzzard Roost — of Rocky Face, Resaca, New Hope Church, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, the siege of Atlanta, Utoy Creek, and 
Jonesboro. Was in the pursuit of Hood; on the march to the sea; 
through the Carolinas, and at Bentonville. Murray, it will be seen, 
was always around and ready for business. He was an expert 
marksman and brave soldier. Mustered out June 6, 1865. Died at his 
home, Swanington, Ind., July 30, 1894. 

SERGEANT LEMUEL F. HOLLAND. Age 20; born in Green 
County, Ohio; engineer; enlisted August 4, 1862; was in the battle 
of Hartsville. and in the Tullahoma campaign; one of the ten volun- 
teers to storm the rebel stockade at Elk River; took part in the 
Chickamauga campaign and in the action of Davis Cross Roads, 
the battles of Chickamauga. Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge. 
In the latter, when Sergeant Hutton fell wounded. Corporal Holland 
seized the flag and carried it triumphantly to the top of the ridge, the 
boys rallying around it and singing: "Rally Round the Flag." For 
meritorious services was promoted Sergeant. Took part in the 
Atlanta campaign, at Buzzard Roost, of Rocky Face; the battles 
around Resaca, Kenesaw Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, the siege 
of Atlanta, Utoy Creek, Jonesboro. In the pursuit of Hood, on the 
march to the sea and through the Carolinas; at Bentonville. The 



«» THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH 

record Ik a long one and epeiiks for lt»elf of the eminent services of 
SerKeani liulland in the cautM* of the I'uiou. .Mustered out June 6, 
1865. Mvex at Itenient. 111. 

SKUtJKANT SUKUMAN LELAND. Age 19. born In Onle County. 
III.: a Kon of lion. Kdwin S. Iceland, of Ottawa, who was a warm 
and true friend of the One Hundred and Fourth. KnIiKted Au^UBt 
7. isril'; law Hludent: appointed ("orporail; «letailed as rierk to the 
A<IJutant. a (Kisition he hel<l during his entire term of service, to the 
satisfaction of all; was alwa\s with the UeKiment except on occasion 
of sickness or detail elsewhere. His valuable Journal has added 
Kn-atly to the history of the ftei;inient. Mustered out as SerReant, 
June 6, 1865. Lives at Ottawa. In the abstract and insurance busi- 
ness. 

UOKPOltAI, JOH.V H. SHKI'HKRI) Kniisie.l AiiBUst 9. 18«2. 
from \m Salle: apjiointed Corporal: was in the Kentucky campaign. 
I)ischarK«'d and promoted April li<i. lst;;{. to a Lieutenancy in the 
Ninth K«'ntucky Infantry. Subse<|uently became Captain. Was 
wounded in the service. After the war practiced law at Ottawa and 
was Count V Treasurer one term. Died some veins apo. 

CORPORAL THO.MAS C.. STKVKN. Enlisted from Allen Au^ist 
13. istii:; appointed Corporal: was In the Kentucky campai|;n. and 
killed at Hartsville. Tenn.. December 7. IStJIi; he was a brave soldier 
and Rood man. 

CORPORAL WILLIA.M C. HROWN. Knlisted from Ottawa Au- 
gust 4. but rejected for dlMibilitv. 

CORPORAL LITHKR A. WILSON. Age 2G; clerk; enlisted 
.\ugust 111. isi'.l,'. from Iji Salle; appointed Corporal; was detailed 
In Commiss^iry Department at Louisville and not with R«'Kinieut 
very long. I>ischai;ged and promoted Li<Mitenant in Battery D. First 
Tennessee Light Artillery, in .\ugust. 1S04. Was In the battle of 
.Nashville. Lives at Furley, Kan. Is a farmer. 

CORPORAL HKNRY .MORGAN. Enlisted from .Marseilles Au- 
gust 'i. lst;2. r)icharKed for disabilitv Februarv .">. ISG.'l. 

CORPORAL CYRIS H. .M AKEEVER. Age 21 : railroad employee; 
enlisted from .Marseilles. Aunusl 4, IstlL': appointed Corporal; was in 
the march Ihrough Kentuck> and in the battle of Hartsville. Dis- 
charged for di.saliility at .\ashville. August 2S, lXtJ.'{. Had also serveil 
In Tenth Illinois. Lives at .Marsi-illes. 111. 

CORPORAL THO.MAS HIRNHA.M. Enlisted from Waltham. 
August .".. lsf.2. Was in the battle of Hartsville; promoted Corporal; 
was in the Tullahoma an<i Chickamauga campaigns; at Elk River 
an<l the action of Davis Cross Roads, the battles of Chickamauga, 
lx>okout .Mountain and .Mission Ridge. Took part in the .Atlanta 
campaign at Huzzard Roost, of Rocky Face. Resaca. New Hoik' 
Church. KeiH'saw .Mountain. Peach Tree Creek. In the latter Cor- 
(Kiral Murnham was killed. July L'u. lKti<|. 

CORPORAL JOHN J. FORD Age IS; born in Dayton. Im Salle 
County; farmer: enlisted from Eden. August 12. lsti2; was in the 
Kentu<ky and Tennessee campajgns. the battle of Hartsville. and 
the Tullahonui campaign; promoted Corporal for meritorious services. 
Was in the Chickamauga campaign; at the action of Davis Cross 
Roads and the battle of Chickamauga. Was at Ixiokout ^lountain 
and .Mission Ridge. In the .Mlanta campaign at lluzrjird Roost, of 
Rocky Face, Resaca. Kenewiw Mountain, Peach Tr«'e Creek, the 
Mlege of Atlanta, I'toy Creek, Jonesboro, was on the march to the- 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 421 

sea; in the campaign of tlie Carolinas; at Bentonville. Mustered out 
June 6, 1865. Lives at Streator, 111. Is a merchant. 

CORPORAL OSCAR SLAGLE. Age 18; born in Fulton County, 
Ohio; farmer; enlisted from Manlius, August 4, 1K02; was in the 
Tullahoma and Chickamauga campaigns; at the action of Davis 
Cross Roads, the battles of Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain and 
Mis&ion Ridge. Was wounded at Chickamauga. Promoted Corporal 
for meritorious services. In the Atlanta campaign was at Buzzard 
Hoof t, the battles around Resaca and Kenesaw Mountain, Peach Tree 
Creek, the siege of Atlanta, Utoj' Creek, Jonesboro. Was in the pur- 
STiit of Hood, on the march to the sea and through the Carolinas. 
Was not olT duty ten days during his entire service. Known as Com- 
l)any D "devil." Mustered out June 6, 1865. Now lives at Kempton, 
III. Is Justice of the Peace. See "Incidents." 

CORPORAL JOHN SHAPLAND. Enlisted from Allen August 7, 
1862. He took part in the Kentucky and Tullahoma campaigns, and 
at Elk River was one of the ten volunteers who stormed and carried 
the rebel stockade. Being taken sick at Decherd, he was not in the 
Chickamauga campaign, but recovering at length, rejoined the Regi- 
ment at Chattanooga in time to march on the Atlanta campaign, and 
was in all its battles up to and including Peach Tree Creek, where he 
was severely wounded, necessitating his discharge March 1, 1865. 
Shapland was always to be relied upon in times of danger. He 
resides at Benedict, York Countv, Nebraska. 

CORPORAL LEWIS K. HUTTON. Age 22; born in Ohio; farmer; 
enlisted from Brookfield, August 7, 1862; was at Hartsville; in the 
Tullahoma campaign; in the action of Davis Cross Roads, the battles 
of Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge. In the 
Atlanta campaign was at Buzzard Roost, Resaca, New Hope Church, 
Kenesaw Mountain and Peach Tree Creek. In the latter battle re- 
ceived two gunshot wounds, one in the head, one in the right leg. 
Promoted Corporal for meritoiious services. Was transferred to 
V. R. C. Discharged July 18, 1865. Lives at Paxton, Neb. Is in real 
estate business. 

ALONZO RATHBURN. Enlisted August 4, 1862; musician. 
Mustered out May .30, 1865. Lives in Pelican Rapids, Minn., but re- 
peated letters fail to wake him up. 

OTHO HOBART. Enlisted from Marseilles, August 12, 1862; 
w^as with the Regiment in all its campaigns and battles up to Peach 
Tree Creek, where he was killed, July 20, 1864. 

JAMES C. HUTTON. Enlisted August 7, 1862; was wagoner. 
Mustered out June 6, 1865. 

ABRAM H. AUSTIN. Age 18; born in New York. Enlisted from 
Grand Rapids, August 11, 18G2; was in the Kentucky campaign. 
Killed in the battle of Hartsville, December 7, 1862. He was much 
esteemed. Captain Collins said: "He was one of the best, if not 
the best soldier in the company." 

HIRAM ANDERSON. Enlisted from Grand Rapids, August 14, 
1862; was at Hartsville; in the Tullahoma and Chickamauga cam- 
paigns; the action of Davis Cross Roads; the battles of Chickamauga, 
Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge. Was at Buzzard Roost, of 
Rocky Face, Resaca, Kenesaw Mountain and Peach Tree Creek. Was 
mortally wounded in the latter battle and died at Vinings' Station, 
Ga., August 2, 1864. 

HENRY B. ANDERSON. Enlisted from Grand Rapids, August 



it: Tiii. <'.M. Ill M>lll-.l> AND FiU'KTU 

IJ. l^bJ. Miih 111 till' Kt'iiiurky rmnpaiKii ami wuk wuiiiuUmI at HaiiK- 
villo; waii in ihe bultli*K of (Miirkaiiiatiga. I^uikotit Mountain and 
MiKKiun HiilK'- TianHffrrfd to V. U. T . ()i tolMT 7. lsti4. 

KOHKUT S. UKKNT. A^v IM; born in Hinnepi". HI : farmer ; 
t>ulii>t('<l AuK>ist 11'. 1SG2. WttK in tin* KtMilucky canipaiKn ami 
itevt-rt'ly wuundi'd ut HarttivllU*. Took part in tlu* CMiickaniatica 
cuin|>ulKn UK far att Stevoniiun. Ala., wlicri'. iMdiiK taken hick, lie 
wait K4Mit to NaHliville. Wiia also troubled with hiB wound. Was 
coinniituiiuned FIrBl Lieutenant in the Seventy-Beeon«l Colored 
TroopB. AuKUBt :<. ISO-I. but did not niUKter on ati-ount of wound. 
Colonel S. A. Porter, then coninumder of all the colored troops in 
MiBBlKtiippi. aiKO offered him thi* (lOKition of Adjutant on hiB Ktaff. but 
he waK unable to accept, and was dlschar^i-d a( SpriiiKtield. 111., to 
date from June •:, ls);.'i. hiveB in .MarBeilleK. III., and iB connected 
with the Kiain and lumber biisineBB. See "IncidentB." 

THK()IH)UH P. liUOWN. Knllsted from l.:i Salle. AugUBt 9. 
1SG2; was in the Kentucky campaiKii and the battle of llartKville; 
wounded there s«»\erely and dlHcharKed for wounds April 10. 1SG3. 

JOHN K. lUTK. Knlisted from Hrookllel.l. AuKUst V2. 1SG2; 
waB in the Kentucky camiiaiKii and severely wounded in the battle 
of HartBville. in three places, his left haiitl beiiiK nearly shot ofT. hiB 
rlRlit pierced by a ball, while another went throuKh his neck. lie 
Burviveil. but was discharged for woumls. .luiie li.'i. ISGII. 

JOSICPII H.VKKU. AKe I'ti. born in l'eniis\ Ivania; fainier; en- 
listed from Craiid Rapids. Aunust li;. istJL'; was at Hartsville, 
I.<ookout .Mountain and .Mission Itidge; in the Atlanta campaign at 
Itoiky Face. Kesjica. Kenesaw. Peach Tree and I'toy t"reeks; in the 
pursuit of Hood; on the march to the sea and through the Carolinas. 
Mustered out June tl. 1S«;."). Is a farmer near Ottawa. 

JAMIOS F. HKA.MMI.K. Age 2:5. born in Ohio; farmer; enlisted 
from Mrookfield. .August 12. 1SG2. .Marched to Frankfort. Ky.. with 
the Ke^imeiit. Taken with heart disease; dlBcharged for disability 
.May 11. lst;:{. Is a farmer at N«'W .Market, la. 

ALFXANDKH HKAMHIJO. Arc 20; born in Ohio; farmer; en- 
listed from P.iooklleld, .Xiinust 12, lSt;2; was in the battle of Harts- 
ville; in the Atlanta campaign J»t Huzzard Roost, of Rocky Face. 
Resa<a. Kenewiw Mountain. Peach Tree Creek. sieR«' of .Atlanta, 
rtoy Creek. Was wounded at the latter place. August 12, ls»»4. .Mus- 
tered out June 12. 1SG5. Lives at (joodland. Ind. ICngaged in farm 

IllR. 

CYHIS H. ni'TK. Knlisted from Hrookneld. August .'.. lsr.2; 
farmer; was in the battle oT Hartsville aiul with his company until 
taken sick with typhoid fever, hied at home. January 24, \M3. 

CARKINKR HAKHR. Knlisted from U» Salle. August Vi. ls»i2; 
was at Hartsville. Discharged for disability, July ill. ]Si,:\. 

JOHN W. CAR.MO.NY. Age 21; born in hnliana; farmer; en- 
listed from Itiiice. August 7. 1S(I2; was in the Kentucky <-ampaign. and 
in the battle of Hartsville, was wounded in live .olaces by !l\e balls; 
was striK-k in the left shoulder by two balls; one of which has never 
lHM»n extracted; also had three ribs broken; the other wounds are U>bb 
serious; lay in hospital nine months. Discharged for wounds. Au- 
gust 22. IKr*.!. Lives in Kndicott. Neb. Is a merchant and stock 
dealer, and evidently pretty lively yet. 

JOHN it CROCKKR. Knlist<-d from Itrookfleld, August 1.'.. lsr.2; 
was In the Keniuiky campaign and with the Regiment until mus- 
tered out, June «i, IKGr*. 



REGIMENT II.LINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 423 

HENRY M. CLARK. Enlisted from Brookfleld, August 12, 1862. 
Was in the Kentucky campaign and battle of Hartsville. Dis- 
charged for disability, March 2, 1S()4. 

WILLLA.M B. COYLE. Enlisted from La Salle, August 12, 1862; 
was in the battle of Hartsville, the action of Davis Cross Roads; the 
battles of Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge. In 
the Atlanta campaign was at Buzzard Roost, of Rocky Face, Resaca, 
New Hope Church and Kenesaw Mountain. Killed at Peach Tree 
Creek, July 20, 1864. 

DAVID A. CARRIER. Enlisted from La Salle, August 12, 1862; 
discharged December 9, 1863, for disability. 

.lOHN DEWEY. Enlisted from Grand Rapids, August 12, 1862; 
was in the Kentucky campaign. Discharged August 30, 1863, on ac- 
count of accidental wounds. 

ALBERT H. EBERSOL. Enlisted from Farm Ridge, August 14, 
1862; was in the Kentucky campaign. Transferred to V. R. C, 
March 15. 1864. Lives in Chicago. 

JOHN ESPY. Enlisted from La Salle, August 4, 1862; was at 
Hartsville and in the Tullahoma campaign; died at Cowan, Tenn., 
December 4, 1863. 

WILLIAM R. EYSTER. Enlisted from Ottawa. August 11, 
1862: was in the Tullahoma campaign. In the action of Davis Cross 
Roads, September 11, 1863, was missing and no doubt killed. The 
writer remembers his going off that morning towards the enemy, he 
never returned. Eyster was fond of daring adventures and the last 
cost him his life; he was a fine marksman and scout. 

JOHN FENN. Enlisted from Grand Rapids. August 5, 1862; was 
at Hartsville; in the Tullahoma campaign; the action of Davis Cross 
Roads; at Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge. In 
the Atlanta campaign, was present at Rocky Face and Resaca. Killed 
at the latter place in the battle of the 14th of Mav, 1864. 

WILLIAM A. FIGHT. Enlisted from Brookfleld, August 13, 
1862; was in the Kentucky campaign and battle of Hartsville. In the 
Tullahoma campaign, and at Elk River, one of the ten volunteers 
that captured the rebel stockade. Was at Davis Cross Roads and 
the battle of Chickamauga. Taken sick, died at Nashville, March 
12, 1864. He did not belie his name, 

JOHN FORCHT. Age 20; born in Ohio; farmer; enlisted from 
Tonica, August 12, 1862; was at Hartsville; in the Tullahoma cam- 
paign; in the Chickamai^ga campaign; at Davis Cross Roads, the 
battles of Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge. Was 
present in the Atlanta campaign at Buzzard Roost, of Rocky Face, 
Resaca, the battles around Kenesaw Mountain and Peach Tree Creek. 
Taken with "night blindness." he wa^ then detailed to hospital 
service in the remaining campaigns, until mustered out June 6, 
1865. Lives at Granville, 111. Is a farmer. 

JOHN W. GINGERICH. Enlisted from Eden, August 14, 1862; 
deserted from Camp Chase, January 15, 1863. 

NORMAN GRANT. Enlisted from Ottawa, August 12, 1862; was 
at Hartsville; in the Tullahoma and Chickamauga campaigns; was 
at Davis Cross Roads, the battles of Chickamauga. Lookout Moun- 
tain and Mission Ridge. In the Atlanta campaign was present at 
Rocky Face, the battles around Resaca, New Hope Church, Kenesaw 
Mountain and Peach Tree Creek. Was killed in the latter battle 
July 20, 1864. 



i:i THE ONE HU NDRED AND FOURTH 

MARSHALL M. «ALIX)WAY. Enllstod from Faill River. AuRust 
12. lst;i'. Ht HartKvJIU' aiflPr thf battle he estaiMMl capture by lyiiiK 
down wKli the wouikUmI and doln^ Kunie vlgoroiiK gmaning until our 
foreeu arrived. TcH»k i)art in the Tuilalioina caiuiiaiKn. Was al 
DnvlH CroKH Roads, tin- I)aitle8 of (MilclianiauKa. l^Kjkout Mountain 
und Mihsion UitlKe. On ti>«» Atlanta ranu'alKn was prewnt at Rotky 
Fare. RcMua. the baiileri around New Hoik- fhunh and KeneKaw 
Mountain. Vtuvh Tree t'reek. the sieRo of Atlanta; in the pursuit of 
Hood, on tlie inareh to the wa. the t-ainpaiK» of the C'arolinaK; lieu- 
tonvllle. Mustered out June G. IKG.'.. Lives in ('hieaRO. 

RICHARD J. CAtJK. Age 20; born in New Hampshire; farmer; 
enlist«>d from Hrookfleld. AuRUst 12. 1S«2; was in the Kentucky eain- 
palKn; wounde«l In the breast at Hartsvllle. Was in the Tullahoma 
(-ani|uiiKr>. and one of the ten who stormed tlw r»'l>el stoekade at 
KIk River. Was at Davis Cross Roads and the battle of Chleka- 
mauca. wliert- he was eaptuu'd while assisting a wounded Lieii- 
tenant (Hishopt of Hrltlne's Mattery. Was sent to Ri<-hn>ond and 
conllnecl in the Pemberton buihIinR. opposite Libby; was paroled 
Marrh 12. IStU. an«l sent north. Rejoined the Replment In-fore Kene- 
saw .Mountain. Was severely wounded in the battle of I'each Tree 
Creek. July 20, IStH. in three places, and crippled for life. Sent to 
hospital at rear and finally dls«-harRed on account of wounds. 
February 5. ISH't. Is a farmer, and lives near Marseilles. III. 

C.ICORC.E L. CILMKRT. Knlisted from La Salle. AurusL 14. 1862; 
deserted October 2»'.. l^t;L^ As h«' was liut fourteen years cdcl when he 
enlisted, we can hardly hold him responsible. The .\djutant (Jeneral's 
rejKirt does not explain this and it is to be regretted. 

ALKXANDHK .M. IHHLN. Age 24; l)orn in Hrow n County. Ohio; 
M-as in the Kentucky canipaiRn and the battle of Hartsville; al I.,ook- 
out Mountain and .Mission Ridge. Took part in the Atlanta cam- 
paign; was at iSu'/zard Roost, Resiica. Kenesjiw Mountain. Peach 
Tree Cr»»ek. the siege of Atlanta. I'toy Creek and Jonesboro; in the 
purHUit of Hood, on the march to the sea. in the Carolina campaign, 
and at l;entonville. Always on hand. Mustered out June ^\, ISC'i. 
Lives at Senec a. 111. 

RIFCS K. C. Hl'RIN. Knlisted from Allen. August 12. 1S62; 
marched through Kentucky to Howling (Ireen; left there sic-k. and 
died November 14. 1SG2. His was the second or third death in the 
Regiment. 

AYRKS HALL, Knlisted from C.rand Rapids. August 12. 1862; 
■was in the Kentucky campaign; in the Tullahoma c-ampaign; at 
Chickamauga; in the Atlanta cam|)aign and battles; on the march 
to the sea anci through the Carolinas. Mustered out June i\. lSt;."i. 

I'KMHROOKK S. HCTTON. Knlisted from Crand Rapids. Au- 
gust 12. lsf.2; farmer; was in the march through Kentucky to Harts- 
vllle. At the time of that battle-, on detail at Callatin. Took jiarl in 
the Tullahoma campaign; present at Davis Cross Roads. Killed in 
the battle c»f Chickamauga. Septemlter 20. ls»i;{. 

CKORCK L. HortJHTON Knlisted from Hrookfleld. Aiigust 12. 
IKfii'; was in the- Kentucky campaign; on cletall at the time of the 
ba'tle of Hartsville; in the Tullahoma c-ampaign; at KIk River. Was 
In the Chickamauga campaign, at Davis Cross Roads and Chicka- 
mauga. In the Atlanta campaign and that of the Carolinas. Mus- 
lerecl ou* Jtine »'.. IM'..' Ills present address Is unknown. 

ROHKFtT HARK. Knlisted from Mrookneld, August 12, lKt;2; 



REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 425 

was in the battle of Hartsville; the Tullahoma campaign, and one of 
the •'forlorn hope" at Elk River. Was at Davis Cross Roads, 
Chickamuga, Lookont Mountain and Mission Ridge. In the Atlanta 
campaign at Buzzard Roost. Resaca, Kenesaw Mountain. Peach Tree 
and Utoy Creeks, Jonesboro; in the pursuit of Hood, on the march 
to the sea, and through the Carolinas; Bentonville. Mustered out 
June 6. 1865. 

WILLIAM H. JONES. Age 18; born in Ohio; mason; enlisted 
from Brookfield August 7, 1862; was in the Kentucky campaign and 
the mai-ch to Hai-tsville; on detail at time of battle; was at Lookout 
Mountain and Mission Ridge; in the Atlanta campaign was present 
at Buzzard Roost — of Rocky Face, Resaca, Kenesaw Mountain, Peach 
Tree Creek, the siege of Atlanta, Utoy Creek, where August 14, 1864, 
he was wounded in and lost the sight of his left eye. Was on the 
march to the sea and through the Carolinas. Mustered out June C, 
1865. Lives at San Jose, Cal. 

SAMUEL A. LYONS. Age 22; born in Pennsylvania; enlisted 
from Brookfield August 14. 1862; was at Hartsville, Davis Cross 
Roads, Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge. In the 
Atlanta campaign was present at Buzzard Roost, Resaca, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Peach Tree and Utoy Creeks. Sent back sick to Nashville 
and was in that battle. Absent at muster out of regiment. Lives at 
Piano. 111. 

MARCUS J. LANE. Enlisted from Allen August 13, 1862; was 
in the Kentucky campaign to Hartsville; on detail at time of battle. 
In the Chickamauga campaign; at Davis Cross Roads; the battles 
of Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge. In the 
Atlanta campaign at Buzzard Roost — of Rocky Face, Resaca, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, Utoy Creek, the pursuit of Hood, the 
march to the sea, and through the Carolinas; Bentonville, wounded 
In the latter battle. Mustered out May 26, 1865. Lives at Ransom, 
111. Is a farmer. 

ALEXANDER H. LANE. Enlisted from Allen August 13, 1862; 
was in the Kentucky campaign and marched to Hartsville; at time 
of battle on detail. In the Tullahoma and Chickamauga campaigns. 
Was at Elk River: the action of Davis Cross Roads; the battles of 
Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge. In the Atlanta 
campaign was present at Rocky Face, Resaca, Kenesaw Mountain, 
Peach Tree Creek, Utoy Creek; at the latter place was mortally 
wounded Augus^ 7, 1864. Died October 4, 1864. 

JOSEPH W. LAING. Enlisted from La Salle August 5, 1862; 
was in the Kentucky campaign and the battle of Hartsville. In the 
Tullahoma, Chickamauga, Atlanta and Carolina campaigns. 
Mustered out June 6, 1865. 

THOMAS S. LAW. Enlisted from Grand Rapids August 12, 
1862; transferred to V. R. C. March 15, 1865. 

MELVIN P. MILLER. Enlisted from Brookfield August 12, 1862. 
Mustered out June 6, 1865. Lives at Gaylord, Kan. 

GEORGE MOORE. Age 32; born in New York; farmer; enlisted 
from Brookfield August 5, 1862; was at Hartsville, Davis Cross 
Roads, Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge. Was 
at Nashville on detached duty and discharged there June 9, 1865. 
Lives at Ayr, Neb. Is a farmer, contractor and builder. 

CHARLES O. MARCELLUS. Age 23; born in New York; 
farmer; enlisted from Brookfield August 7, 1862; discharged March 



iX THE ONE HUNDRED AND FtH'KTH 

13. \h^. for dlBabimy. Re-^nUsted April 5. 18G5. and transferred 
lo Thiriy-fourih IlliuoiH Infantry. LIveH at Stoikville. Neb. U a 
farnwr. 

WII.LIAM P. NKNVt'OMU. Enlisled from Walihani AuKiisl U. 
1KG2. MarihtMl on tlu* Kentucky and TennesHee fanipalBns to 
llarlMvilIc On detail at Ciallatin durinK battle. \\a» in the 
Ttillahonia campalKn; pnwnl at artlon of Davis Cross Roads; the 
IxittU'M of ChickaniaiiKa, Uuikout Mountain and MisKlon RidK*'- In 
the Atlanta cainiuiiKn at liuzzard Roost. Resiita. Kenesaw Mountain. 
Was wounded in front of latter June 22. 1S(J4. Absent, sick, at 
muster ovii of ReRinient. 

JOSKI'H R. PLOWMAN. Afie L'4 . born In Pennsylvania, farmer; 
enliKted from Dimmiik AuRust H. ISOl!. Transferred to V. R. C. 
January :.'.'•. IMH. Mustered out at Detroit. Mich.. July 5. 1805. Lives 
at PondiM-. Ml. 

t'llARLKS (i. I'HILLIPS. A«f 123; born in Canada; farmer: 
enlisird August 12. ISGU. from Ottawa. Was in the Tullahoma and 
Chickamau(,a campaigns : at the battles of Chickamauna. l.^>okout 
Mountain an«i .Mission Ridtje. In the Atlanta campaiRii was present 
at liuzzard Roost — of Rocky Face. Resaca. Kenesiiw Mountain. Peach 
Tre<« Creek, the siege of Atlanta. I'toy Creek. Jonesboro. After the 
fall of Atlanta went to Nashville for mules. Afterward detailed ai» 
scout at division headcjuarters. Was on the march to the sea and 
through So\ilh Carolina. Captured with Captain Ross at Stroud's 
Mill. S. C.. February JtJ. IStJ.'i. Mustered out May 24, ISG'j. at Spring- 
field. Lives at White City. Kan. In real estate and insurance 
business. See "Notes." elsewhere. 

LIFKF: H. POWKRS. Knllsted from Ottawa August 11, ISiili; 
was In the Kentucky campaign and wounded in the head at 
Hartsville. where he fought bravely. Was in the Tullahoma and 
Chickamauga campaigns; at KIk River. Davis Cross Roads and the 
battle of ChickamaugM. Transferred to V. R. C. January 30. ISi'A. 

JOHN T. POWKRS. Age IC; enlisted from nrookiield August 
11, isr.::; was in the K« ntucky campaign and marche<l to Hartsville. 
but was on ileiail at Callatin at time of battle. Was in the Tullahoma 
campaign and one of th«' ten volunteers to cjij)ture the stockade at 
KIk River. Was in the action of Davis Cross Roads; in the battles 
of Chickamauga. Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge. In the 
Atlanta campaign was present at Rocky Face. Re